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V. 13 

The Council of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian 
AND ARCHiEOLOGiCAL SOCIETY, and the Editor of their Transactions, 
desire that it should be understood that they are not responsible for 
any statements or opinions expressed in their Transactions : the 
Authors of the several papers being alone responsible for the same. 

(InmbtvlBnh anb Watmnlanb Jlntiiittarian anh 


Patrons : 

The Right Hon. the Lord Muncastbr, F.S.A., Lord Lieutenant of Cumber- 
The Right Hon. the Lord Hothfikld, I^ord Lieutenant of Westmorland. 

President S^ Editor: 
The Worshipful Chancellor Ferguson, m.a., ll.m., f.s.a. 

Vice-Presidents : 

W. B. Arnison, Esq. 

E. B. W. Balme, Esq. 

The Right Rev. the Bishop of 

Barrow-i n-Furness. 
The Right Rbv. the Lord Bishop 

of Carlisle. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

The Earl of Carlisle. 


AMES Cropper, Esq. 

F. Crosthwaitb, Esq., F.S.A. 
__. F. CuRWEN, Esq. 
Robt. Ferguson, Esq. F.S.A. 
C.J. Ferguson, Esq., F.S.A. 
G. J. Johnson, Esq. 


W. O. Roper, Esq. 
H. P. Senhousb, Esq. 

Elected Members of Council : 

Rer. R. Bower, M.A., Carlisle. 
H. Barnes, Esq., M.D., Carlisle. 
Rev. W. S. Calverlev, F.S.A., Aspatria 
H. S. Cowper, Esq., F.S.A., Hawks- 
J. F.Haswell, Esq.,M.D., Penrith. 
T. H. Hodgson, Esq., Newby Grange 

Rev.Canon Mathews, M.A., Appleby 
E. T. Tyson, Esq., Maryport. 
George Watson, Esq., Penrith. 
Rev. H. Whitehead, M.A., Lanercost. 
Robert J. Whitwell, Esq., Kendal. 
Rev. James Wilson, M.A., Dalston. 

James G. Gandy, Esq., Heaves. | Frank Wilson, Esq., Kendal. 

Treasurer : 
W. D. Crewdson, Esq., Helme Lodge, Kendal. 

Secretary : 
T. Wilson, Esq., Aynam Lodge, Kendal. 





I. Bowes: Two days' Excursion along the 
Roman Road, Re-Cross, Maiden Castle, 
Brough Castle and Camp - - July 4, 1893. 

Appleby, Camps at Redland, and Kirkby 
Thore, St. Ninian's Church, Brougham 
Castle and Camp, Plumpton - - July 5, 1893. 

2. Arnside: Blease Hall, Castlesteads, Preston 

Hall, Heversham Church - - Sep. 25, 1893. 

Burton Church, Borwick Hall, Warton 
Church, Beetham Hall and Church - Sep. 26, 1893. 

3. Lake Side Hotel: Cark Hall, Cartmel 
Church, Hampsfell Hall, Cartmell Fell 
Church - - - - - June 13, 1894. 

Colton Church, Knapperthaw, British 
Settlements on Heathwaite Fell, Kirkby 
Hall and Church - - - June 14, 1894. 

4. Douglas: Sail from Ramsden Dock, Barrow Sep. 24, 1894. 
Castletown, Rushen Abbey, Malew, Arbory Sep. 25, 1894. 
Kirk Braddan, Tynwald Hill, Peel Castle, 

Kirk Michael - . - . Sep. 26, 1864. 

Kirk Onchan, Sulby Glen, Ramsey, Kirk 

Maughold .... Sep. 27, 1894. 

Leave Douglas Pier for Ramsden Dock - Sep. 28, 1894. 



In Memoriam. The Rev, Thomas Lees, M.A., 

F.S.A., Vicar of Wrcay . . . i 

I. The Common Seal of the Borough of Appleby. 

By W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. 5 

II. Queen Katherine Parr and Sudeley Castle. By 

Fred. Brooksbank Garnett, C.B. - - 9 

III. Benefactors to the Library, Appleby Grammar 
School. By R. E. Leach, M.A., F.G.S., 
Headmaster - 20 

IV. Gleaston Castle. By H. S. Cowper, F.S.A. • 37 

Excursions and Proceedings. • - 50 

V. Notes on John Penny, Bishop of Carlisle, 1505-20. 
Part I.— -By the Rev. James Wilson, M.A. 
Part XL— By J. Holme Nicholson, M.A. - 59 
VI. Burton Church. By J. Chalmers 64 

VII. Cumberland and Westmorland under the Tudors, 
being Extracts from the Register of the Privy 
Council in the reigns of Hcnr>' Vltl. and 
Edward VI. By T. H. Hodgson - 69 

VIII. On some Obsolete and Semi-Obsolete Appliances. 

By H. Swainson Cowper, F.S.A. - - 86 

IX. The Early Registers of the Parish of Westward. 

By the Rev. James Wilson, M.A. • 103 

X. Pre-Norman Cross-Shaft at Heversham. By the 

Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A. - - 118 

XI. Westmorland Parish Registers. By the Rev. 

Henry Whitehead, M.A., Vicar of Lanercost 125 
XII. Brasses in the Diocese of Carlisle. By the Rev. 
R. Bower, M.A., Vicar of St. Cuthbert's, 
Carlisle ---.-. i^^ 

XIII. Some Signatures of Carlisle Notaries. By the 

Rev. James Wilson, M.A. • - . - 152 

XIV. On a Bronze Vessel of Roman Date found at 

Clifton, near Penrith. By the President - 164 



XV. A Fourth Century Tombstone from Carlisle. By 

F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A. - -165 

XVI. A Survey of the City of Carlisle in 1684-5, from 
the Collection of Lord Dartmouth. By the 
President - - 172 

XVII. Church Bells in Leath Ward, No. III. By the 

Rev. H. Whitehead ■ - - - 194 

XVIII. The Denton Manuscripts. By the President - 218 
XIX. On Two Roman Inscriptions recently found at 

Carlisle. By F. Haverfield, F.S.A. - - 224 

XX. Extracts from the Records of the Privy Council 
relating to Cumberland and Westmorland in 
the Reign of Queen Mary. By T. H. Hodgson 227 
XXI. A Grave Cover of Tiles at Carlisle. By the 

President - • - - - 251 

XXII. A Grasmere Farmer's Sale Schedule in 1710. By 

H. S. Cowper, F.S.A. - - - -253 

XXIII. The Homes of the Kirkbys of Kirkby Ireleth. By 

H. S. Cowper, F.S.A. • - - - 269 

XXIV. Wall Paintings at Kirkby Hall. By H. S. Cowper, 

F.S.A. . - ■ - - - 287 

Excursions and Proceedings - - - 291 

XXV. Church Bells in Leath Ward, No. 4. By the 

Rev. H. Whitehead - - - - 310 

XXVI. On Touching for the King's Evil. By Henry 

Barnes, M.D., F.R.S.E. - - -343 

XXVII. The Victims of the Tudor Disestablishment in 
Cumberland and Westmorland during the 
reigns of Edward VI. and Mary. By the 
Rev. James Wilson, M.A. - - 364 

XXVIII. On a Tumulus at Old Parks, Kirkoswald: with 
some Remarks on One at Aspatria, and also 
on Cup, Ring, and other Rock Markings in 
Cumberland and Westmorland. By the Pre- 
sident, Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A. - - 389 
XXIX. On some additional Seals of the Bishops of Car- 
lisle. By Mrs. Henry Ware - - - 400 
XXX. Bone Spear or Harpoon Head from Terra del 
Fuego, found on peat near Crosby-on-Eden. 
By T. H. Hodgson - . - - 402 
XXXI, Some Manx Names in Cumbria. By W, G. Col- 
lingwood, M.A., with Notes by Mr. Eirikr 
Magniisson ..... ^03 





XXXII. Toast Dogs, Piying Pans, and Peats. By J. H. 

Martindale .... 
XXXIII. The Button Effigies, now in Great Salkeld Church 

yard, formerly in Penrith Church. By George 

Watson, Penrith 
Note on the Inscribed Door Head at Crakeplace 

Hall, in the County of Cumberland. By J 

Holme Nicholson, M.A. 
Colton Church. By the Rev. A. A. Williams, 

the Vicar .... 
On a Milestone of Carausius and other recent 

Roman Finds. By the President and F 

Haverfield, F.S.A. 
XXXVII. A Pedigree of the descendants of John Waugh 

D.D., Bishop of Carlisle, showing their con 

nection with the family of Tullie of Carlisle 

By Henry Wagner, F.S.A., with an Introduc 

tion by the President - 
The Roman Fort on Hardknott known as Hard 

knott Castle. By the Rev. W. S. Calveriey 


Report of the Cumberland Excavation Committee 

1894. By F. Haverfield, F.S.A. 
List of Members 











Vicar of Wrf.ay. 

3n ^emotfam. 

T>Y the sudden death of the Rev. Thomas Lees, 
^ M.A., FJS.A,, vicar of Wreay, near Carlisle, the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Arch- 
aeological Society has again not only been deprived of 
one of its most esteemed Vice-Presidents, but has 
again also lost the services of one of the most valued 
contributors to the pages of its Transactions. 

Thomas Lees was bom at Almondbury, near Hud- 
dersfield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, in the 
year 1829 : on the mother's side he was descended 
from Dr. Nowell, dean of St. Paul's and the reputed 
author of the Church Catechism. He was educated 
at the Grammar School of Almondbury, and at 
Emmanuel, Cambridge, where he graduated as i8th 
senior optime in 1852 ; he took the degree of B.A. 
in that year, proceeding to M.A. in 1855. He was 
admitted to the diaconate in 1854, ^^^ ^^^ ordained 
priest in the following year by the Bishop of Carlisle 
[Dr. Percy] . In the former year he became curate 
of Kirkbythore in Westmorland, which charge he 
held for a year, when he was appointed curate to 
Canon Percy at the important parish of Greystoke in 
Cumberland : there he remained until 1865, when, 
on the nomination of Canon Percy, he accepted the 
Dean and Chapter living of Wreay, where he spent 
the rest of his life. By his death the Church has lost 
a faithful servant, and a large circle of friends one of 

■ 11 ■ , ■■ I III I . , ■■■ 

•!"''•••. c ' • • "• 
2 In memoriam. 

the most beloved of men. Being of a retiring dis- 
position, humble minded, and sensitive in the extreme, 
he naturally shunned the bustle and worry of public 
life, confining his attention mainly to the duties of 
his own parish. But Thomas Lees was known to the 
outside world more as a scholar and man of letters 
than a man of affairs. He was an early member of 
the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and 
Archaeological Society, having been elected, in company 
with his old friend the late W. Jackson, F.S.A., at its 
second meeting in 1866, the year in which the Society 
was founded. In i873,he,Mr.Jackson,and the present 
President of the Society, were elected on its Council, 
and from that time the waning fortunes of the Society 
took a new turn, fresh vitality was infused into it, 
the regular publication of Transactions commenced. 
Mr. Lees was a warm supporter of the Society and 
always a prominent figure at its meetings. To its 
Transactions he contributed the following papers : — 
Extracts from the Registers of Greystoke Church 
during the reigns of Elizabeth and the Stuart Kings : 
An attempt to trace the Translation of St. Cuthbert 
through Cumberland and Westmorland : Ancient 
glass and woodwork at St. Anthony's Chapel, Cart- 
mell Fell : Bolton Church : Probable Use of certain 
Stones found in the Ruins of Furness and Calder : 
A Monk of Furness: St. Ninian's Church, Brougham : 
An attempt to explain the Sculptures over the South 
and West Doors of Long Marton Church : S. Kenti- 
gern and his Dedications in Cumberland: S. Herbert 
of Derwentwater : Cresset Stone at Furness Abbey, 
a Correction : Shears combined with clerical emblems 
on grave stones : The Rey Cross on Stainmore : S. 
Catherine's Chapel, Eskdale: and The Parish Church 
of S. Andrew's, Greystoke (also published separately). 


Mr. Liees was elected a Vice-President of the Society 
in 1892. In 1885 he was elected a Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries of London. He was also a 
member of the Royal Archaeological Institute, to 
whose Journal he was a contributor, of the Surtees 
Society, and of the English Dialect Society, for 
which he edited ' A Glossary of the Dialect of Al- 
mondbury and Huddersiield.' He was an able 
ecclesiastical antiquary, his knowledge of the arrange- 
ment, ritual, and custom of the Church being wide, 
varied, and accurate. Always a voracious reader, 
and endowed with a tenacious memory, he accumu- 
lated vast stores of information on all sorts of subjects 
connected with history, dialect, folk-lore, and geneal- 
ogy, which he was ever ready to communicate to his 
friends and brother antiquaries. But his dislike of 
of writing, combined with his rare modesty, restricted 
his contributions to literature. 

Mr. Lees had been a widower for upwards of two 
years. He is survived by a son and daughter, the 
former being settled in America. Another son met 
his death on his seventeenth birthday by falling over 
the rocks at St. Bees, about twelve years since. 



Art, L — The Common Seal of the Borough of Appleby. 

By W. H. St. John Hope, M.A, 
Read at Appleby, July 4/A, 1893. 

QO little is known about medieval seals, chiefly in con- 
sequence of the difficulty of access to any collection 
or series of examples available for systematic study, that 
it is often a matter of surprise, even to antiquaries, to find 
in some out-of-the-way place an exceptionally fine example 
of the skill and ingenuity of our forefathers in the art of 
designing and engraving seals. 

To a Londoner the town of Appleby may be regarded 
as a somewhat out-of-the-way-place, but to the members 
of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and 
Archaeological Society it is an important centre of many 
noteworthy antiquarian remains. 

It may however be news even to the members of the 
Society that among the civic insignia of the borough of 
Appleby there is an exceptionally fine and interesting 
common seal, entitled to a high place among the note- 
worthy municipal seals of this country. 

Following the almost universal custom of municipal 
seals, the Appleby seal is circular in form. It is also, as 
is not unusual in early examples, formed of two matrices, 
a seal and a counterseal, both of the same size. The 
principal use of a counterseal was to make more difficult 
the fraudulent removal of a seal to another document ; a 
process not so easy, if not almost impossible, to effect 
when the cords or parchment tags by which the seal was 
appended passed between a double impression. Whereas 
it was not very hard in a singly impressed seal to tamper 
with the wax at the back and liberate the cords or tags. 

The Appleby matrices are of latten and measure 2^ 
inches in diameter. 





Each has been furnished with four loops round the 
circumference to ensure the two halves of the seal fitting 
accurately one over the other, but two of those on the 
upper matrix have been broken oCF. 

The seal or obverse bears for device a heater-shaped 
shield of the royal arms of England, guU% three ** leopards " 
(or lions passant gardant) in pale or, suspended from a 
seven-branched apple tree. 

The marginal legend is 


and terminates with an apple, in allusion to the name of 

The counterseal or reverse has a representation of the 
martyrdom of St. Lawrence, the patron saint of Appleby, 
who is shewn stripped to the waist and bound on a long 
gridiron with fire under. Two tormentors in loose tunics, 
one wearing a conical hat, stand at either end, and are 
armed with short forks. Above the saint*s feet is an 
angel issuing from the clouds and apparently holding a 
censer, receiving the soul in a napkin. In the background 
is also a large banner with the lions of England, beside 
which hangs an apple. Under the banner are three stars 
in a row. The legend is : 

i.e. Here lies Laurence placed upon the gridiron. 

It will be noticed that the engraver has taken care to 
fill up all the unavoidable blank spaces on both halves of 
the seal, and for this reason the apple and stars are 
introduced upon the obverse. 

It is popularly supposed that both the shield and the 
banner bear the town's arms, gules, three lions passant 



gardani crowned or, but on the seal the lions are not 
crowned and are unquestionably those of the royal arms 
as borne from about 1197 to 1340. 

This very fine and interesting seal is of the early part 
of the 13th century, and is probably contemporary with 
the charter of John or Henry III. 

It is to be hoped now that the seal is no longer used 
that it will nevertheless continue to be carefully preserved. 


Art. II. — Queen Katherifte Parr and Sudeley Castle^ by 

Fred. Brooksbank Gaknett, C.B. 
Read at Appleby, \th July, 1893. 

HAVING recently had the privilege of visiting Sudeley 
Castle, through the kind courtesy of Mrs. Dent, to 
whom this ancient historical residence now belongs, it 
has occurred to me, that some particulars of the connection 
of Queen Katherine Parr with Sudeley, from the time of 
her marriage to Sir Thomas Seymour, Knt., Lord 
Seymour of Sudeley, and High Admiral of England, 
until her death in 1548, might be an acceptable contri- 
bution to the Transactions of this Society, and serve as a 
supplement to the paper on "The Parrs of Kendal 
Castle," by Sir George Duckett, Bart., which is printed 
in the second volume of these Transactions, p. 186. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to furnish a biography 
of Queen Katherine Parr, for whose memoirs, reference 
may be made to Nicholson's Annals of Kendal, Atkinson's 
Worthies of Westmorland, Strickland's Lives of the 
Queens of England, and the article on Katherine Parr by 
James Gairdner, in Vol. IX of the Dictionary of National 
Biography. My intention rather is to place on record the 
circumstances of the closing days of the Queen's life, and 
of her interment and the discovery of her remains at 

The Castle of Kendal where Katherine Parr was born 
in 1513, was dismantled and in great part destroyed 
within the short period of 60 years from that date, and 
has now remained in ruins for more than three centuries. 
So far as I am aware there is no monument of Queen 
Katherine Parr, either in the ' Parr ' Chapel at Kendal 
Parish Church, or elsewhere in Westmorland : but it may 
be interesting to note that there are still to be seen in the 



windows of the house in Wildman Street, Kendal, known 
as the Castle Dairy," several quarrels of stained glass, 
two of which bear the date 1567, with the mottoes 
" Omnia Vanitas " and " Viendra le jour " above and 
below the monogram, A.G.; — two more with the 'Stanley' 
cognizance of the eagle and bantling, in the branches of 
an oak tree ; and one with a fleur de lys surmounted by 
a crown. In an upper apartment of the same house, 
having an arched ceiling with carved oak groins, there is 
a massive corbel with heads of gryphons, and on bosses 
there are various shields with the Arms of Parr, Fitzhugh, 
De Ros, Deincourt, and Strickland, and one which has 
been described as '' apparently three rabbits, two and 
one," but which I venture to suggest may rather repre- 
sent three gryphons, two and one, being the arms of the 
" Garnet " family, from whom the property has descended 
to its present owner, Mr. Garnett Braithwaite, through 
a double connection, arising from the marriages of two 
great grand daughters of Anthony Garnet, "the Ro3'alist," 
of Kendal, to ancestors of Mr. Garnett Braithwaite ; — 
viz., Sarah Garnet mar. to John Braithwaite, at Hugill, 
1755, and Susanna Garnet married to George Braithwaite, 
at Burneside, 1742. The same arms are still borne by 
representatives of the family of Anthony Garnet, whose 
initials appear in the windows as above stated, and also 
on a fine old oak bedstead, ^nd an aumbry, yet remain- 
ing in the chamber referred to.* This ancient property 
therefore, with its heirlooms, to which may be added the 
illuminated missal found therein, which was undoubtedly 
the property of Anthony Garnet, whose name is inscribed 
on several of its leaves and which is now deposited in 
the Museum at Kendal, affords a direct and unbroken 
link with the period when Kendal Castle stood in all its 

* These arms are used by the writer of this paper as being descendedlfrom the 
same femily. 



glory, and when it is not too much to assume that " The 
Dairy " was frequently visited by Katherine Parr. 

After the death of the King it appears that Katherine 
resided sometimes at Chelsea, and sometimes at Hans- 
worth near Hounslow, having under her charge the 
Princess, afterwards Queen, Elizabeth and the Lady Jane 
Grey ; but she was married to Seymour soon after the 
late King's death in 1547, about the time when Seymour 
received from the King, his nephew, a grant of Sudeley 
Castle. The Queen's letter accepting Seymour's offer of 
marriage, once in the Strawberry Hill Collection, was 
purchased by the late John C. Dent, Esq., and is now 
amongst the relics at Sudeley. Seymour soon set to work 
repairing the castle, which had previously been going to 
ruin, and he completed a suite of apartments especially 
for the private use of the Queen, in which she resided in 
conrtly state attended by a large retinue of ladies and a 
numerous household. 

On the 30th August, 1548, Katherine Parr gave birth to 
a daughter at Sudeley, and expired from puerperal fever 
on the seventh day after. Her remains were deposited 
with great ceremony, and according to Protestant rites, 
in the chapel of the Castle. The description of her 
obsequies, extracted from a MS. at Herald's College, 
entitled " a Boke of Buryalls of truly noble persons," is 
given in Sir George Duckett's Paper. The Latin Epitaph 
written by the Queen's chaplain. Dr. Parkhurst, after- 
wards Bishop of Norwich, believed to have been inscribed 
on her tomb, is published with an English translation in 
Atkinson's worthies of Westmorland, and Dent's Annals 
of Sudeley and Winchcombe. The original monument 
appears to have perished, with the exception of a small 
fragment found in the wall near the Queen's grave of 
which a sketch is subjoined. 

The Lord of Sudeley did not long survive his wife, for 
in January, 1549, he was committed to the Tower, and a 



the first to open the tomb of Katherine Parr, and of whose 
proceedings the following account was supplied to Notes 
and Queries by Mrs. Julia R. Bockett, daughter to Mr. 
Brooks of Reading, who was present at the opening, and 
of which an extract is given in Nicholson's *' Annals of 

•* In the summer of the year 1782, the earth in which Qu. K. P. 
lay inter*d, was removed and at the depth of about two feet (or very 
little more) her leaden coffin or chest was found quite whole, and on 
the lid of it, when well cleaned, there appeared a very bad though 
legible inscription of which the underwritten is a close copy : * 

«• Vlt^ and last wife of King Henry the VIII* 1548 '» 
'* Mr. John Lucas (who occupied the land of Lord Rivers, whereon 
the ruins of the chapel stand) had the curiosity to rip up the top of 
the coffin, expecting to discover within it only the bones of the 
decked, but to his great surprize found the whole body wrapped in 6 
or 7 seer cloths of linen, entire and uncorrupted, although it had lain 
there upwards of 230 years. His unwarrantable curiosity led him 
also to make an incision through the seer cloths which covered one 
of the arms of the corps, the flesh of which at that time was white 
and moist. I was very much displeased at the forwardness of Lucas, 
who of his own head opened the coffin. It would have been quite 
sufficient to have found it ; and then to have made a report of it to 
Lord Rivers or myself. In the summer of the year following 1783, 
his Lordship*s business made it necessary for me and my son to be 
at Sudeley Castle, and on being told what had been done the year 
before by Lucas, I directed the earth to be once more remov*d to 
satisfy my own curiosity ; and I found Lucas's account of the coffin 
and corps to be just as he had represented them ; with this 
difference, that the body was then grown quite fetid, and the flesh 
where the incision had been made was brown, and in a state of 
putrefaction ; in consequence of the air having been let in upon it. 
The stench of the corps made my son quite sick, whilst he copied 
the inscription which is on the lead of the coffin ; he went thro' it, 
however, with great exactness. I afterwards decided that a stone 
slab should be placed over the grave to prevent any future and 
improper inspection, &c.'* 

* Note this was afterwards proved to be anything but a dose copy. See page 18. 



If the directions for placing a stone slab over the grave 
at this time were carried out, such slab had disappeared 
when the grave was sought for in late years. From the 
further examination made in 1817, upon the last occasion 
of the coffin being looked at, it became apparent that the 
inscription as given in the foregoing letter and quoted in 
Nicholson's Annals of Kendal was not accurate. 

The coffin was opened in 1784 and 1786 (as described 
by Mr. Nash to the Soc. of Antiq., June 14th, 1787) and 
again in 1792, on which occasion it is said the tenant 
occupying the castle permitted a party of drunken men to 
dig a fresh grave for the coffin. {Town and Country 
Magazine^ September 1792, and Hall's " Graves of our 
Fathers "). 

Lead CoF/jM op Qi/EEN KaTHERINE PaRJU ^T Sirt>CLY 

The last occasion of opening the tomb was in 1817 
when the then rector of Sudeley, the Revd. John Lates, 
who had undertaken the repair of the chapel, determined 
to^search for the remains of Queen Catherine Parr, jn 
which he was assisted by Mr. Edmund T. Browne, the 
Winchcombe antiquary, who in a letter to Mr. Hogg gives 
the following account of its discovery on 18 July, 1817. 

He says " after considerable search, and aided by the 
recollection of Mrs. Cox, the coffin was found bottom 
upwards in a walled grave, where it had been deposited 



by the order of Mr. Lucas. It was then removed to the 
Chandos vault, and after being cleaned we anxiously 
looked for the inscription. To our great disappointment 
none however could be discovered, and we proceeded to 
examine the body; but the coffin having been so frequently 
opened, we found nothing but the bare skeleton, except a 
few pieces of sere cloth, which were still under the skull, 
and a dark-coloured mass, which proved to contain, when 
washed, a small quantity of hair which exactly corres- 
ponded with some I already had. The roots of the ivy 
which you may remember grew in such profusion on the 
walls of the chapel, had penetrated into the coffin, and 
completely filled the greater part of it. 

" I then suggested to Mr. Lates that as the inscription 
could not be found, for the benefit of future antiquarians, 
it would be well before the vault should be again closed, 
to engrave upon it another inscription from that given by 
Dr. Nash. Mr. Lates then entrusted the work to me, 
and placed in my hands the piece of lead which had 
covered the breast. As it was of a very uneven surface, 
I was about to hammer it even, to facilitate the engraving, 
when to my great delight and surprize, I discovered the 
words ' Thomas Lord * and * Sewdley,* with some others, 
which left no doubt that we had discovered the original 
inscription, and which in the course of a few hours' clean- 
ing, was so free from incrustation, that the inscription 
was perfectly visible — from it I took a number of im- 
pressions in soft thin paper, one of which I have now the 
pleasure of begging you to accept. By it, the inaccuracy 
of the one given by Dr. Nash will be self evident. 

" We then had the diflFerent pieces of lead, which from 
time to time had been cut from the coffin, firmly nailed 
together, so as to present the original form of the coffin, 
and it was placed on two large flat stones by the side of 
that of Lord Chandos. Dr. Nash said " the Queen must 
have been low of stature, as the lead which enclosed her 


J , ,* " • 

In the Chapel of SuDRLEy Castle. 


corpse but five feet four inches in length." I measured the 
coffin accurately, and found the dimensions as follows : — 
Length 5ft. loin., width in broadest part ift. 4in., depth 
at the head and ditto in the middle sHn." 

The castle with 60 acres of land was purchased at 
auction in 1810 from George, Lord Rivers, by Richard 
Granville, Marquis of Buckingham, who took the surname 
of Brydges Chandos, in addition to Temple Nugent 
Granville, by royal license in 1799, and was advanced to 
the dignity of Duke of Buckingham and Chandos and 
Marquis of Chandos in 1822. 

When John and William Dent purchased the castle 
from the Duke of Buckingham in 1837, it had then 
recently been occupied as a public house. The Dents 
proceeded forthwith to carry out the extensive restoration 
of the ancient remains and the construction of new build- 
ings where necessary for the purposes of habitation. 

The ancient chapel, which had been desecrated by the 
Puritans, was thoroughly renovated under the direction of 
Sir John Gilbert Scott, and a handsome decorated altar- 
tomb, surmounted by a gothic canopy, was erected on the 
north side of the Sacrarium to the memory of Queen 
Katherine Parr, whose effigy was rendered as correctly as 
it could be from the portraits which are extant, and in the 
ornamentation of the tomb there is a reproduction of the 
pattern carved on the fragment of the original tomb. 

On a pillar next to the west end of the tomb a plate is 
now affixed upon which there is an engraved facsimile of 
the inscription upon the leaden case or coffin in which 
remains of Q. Katherine Parr were found, and of which, 
through the kindness of Mrs. Dent, I have obtained a 
rubbing, and am able therefore to append an accurate 
copy of the inscription reduced by photography. The 
actual space covered by the original is about isin. by 7in. 

Amongst the precious relics of Queen Catherine Parr 
in the collection at Sudeley Castle, may be -mentioned 



the miniature portrait by Holbein, formerly preserved at 
Strawberry Hill, and three locks of her auburn hair. 


Kfttnyn Wife toiwnQ 
)r\my \\^fV\l\ AxuL. 




Another object of interest is a book which belonged to 
the Queen- called " Devotional Tracts," fully described 



by its late possessor. Dr. B. Charlton, in a communication 
to Notes and Queries, dated Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Aug. 
i8tb, 1850. There is also the seal of Katherine Parr 
(Archaeologia, vol. v., p. 232) and the " Parr " jug from 
the Strawberry Hill collection, which bears upon its lid 
the arms of the Queen's uncle, Lord Parr, of Horton, from 
whom it came to his daughter Maud, who married Sir 
Ralph Lane. 

It only remains for me in conclusion to express my 
sincere obligations to Mrs. Dent for the facilities afforded 
me on my inquiries, and for her permission so kindly 
given to make use of the valuable information on the 
subject contained in her sumptuous ** Annals of Winch- 
combe and Sudeley," of which I have gratefully availed 
myself in the compilation of these notes relating to the 
last days and in memory of the fair Westmorland Dame 
who became the first Protestant Queen of England. 


Art. III. — Benefactors to the Library^ Appleby Grammar 
School. By R. E. Leach, M.A., F.G.S., Headmaster. 
Read at Appleby, July ^th, 1893. 

11/ HEN this Society visited Appleby in the year 1885, ^t 
valuable paper on Appleby School was read by the late 
Rev. J. Heelis, who dealt so thoroughly with his subject 
that nothing remains for me to add with regard to the 
general history of the school.* I shall therefore confine 
myself to a few words on the list of benefactors to the 
school library. This library was commenced at an early 
date, for there is a list of books left by Mr. Bainbridge, in 
possession of which Mr. Edmundson entered in 1656, 
and in 1670 a gift of books, valued at ;^ioo, was made by 
Dr. Barlow, Provost of Queen's College, Oxford ; but it 
was not until 1724 that we find many names of subscribers 
recorded. In an old manuscript book, which I found in 
the school library, occurs the following sentence : "Ac- 
count of money received for the use Appleby School by 
me, Ri : Yates, since Feby. 20th, 1724 ; all received by 
the boys before that period being squandered by the head 
scholars."t Some curious entries are to be found in this 
book, as for instance : Mayor's speech money, is. 6d. ; 
wedding money, 12s. 6d. ; Katy Deane's wed. with Mr. 
Greathead, 2s. 6d. ; four sixpenny weddings, 2s." and 
Mr. Yates records in 1743, May 12th, " My own wedding 
with Nancy Hartley, £1 is." We find, too, the names 
of many pupils who subscribed to the augmentation of 
the library on leaving school, the usual subscription being 
los. 6d. This manuscript book has been of great service 

* Printed in these Transactions, vol. VIII., p. 404. 
t Richard Yates was headmaster from 1723 to 178 1. 



in enabling me to decipher the old parchment rolls bearing 
the names of benefactors to the school library, which 
were formerly hung up in the school, and are of great 
interest owing to the well-known names inscribed thereon. 
Lawrence Washington, the eldest son of Augustine and 
stepbrother of the famous George Washington was at 
Appleby School, and subscribed los. 6d. upon leaving in 
1732. His brother Augustine was certainly at Appleby 
ill the year 1741 and subscribed los. 6d., which is, I 
think, sufficient proof that he was a pupil at the school, 
but unfortunately the parchment roll has been mutilated 
at the place where his name should occur. It has been 
thought that Augustine Washington presented Middle- 
ton's Life of Cicero to the library, but this was the gift of 
William Dent. There are other entries shewing the 
connection between some of the friends of the Washingtons 
and Appleby School. Thus: "John Brunskill, eldest 
son of John Brunskill, vicar of St. Margaretta, Caroline 
County, River Virginia, upon going to Pembroke Hall, 
gave J guinee," and in 1753 John Skinker, 3rd son of 
Major Samuel Skinker, of River Virginia, on being called 
home, gave J guinee. The following entry, " Oct. 22, 1770, 
Mr. James Castley, of Queen's Coll., Oxford, who in 1764 
obtained Lady Betty Hastings' Exhibition by lot for ist 
time, sent ^i is.," shews that the election to these 
famous Exhibitions was conducted in a different manner 
from that of the present day. I regret that, owing to the 
deplorable condition of the Rolls, it has been impossible 
to decipher as much as could be wished, but enough 
remains to shew how largely the pupils of Appleby have 
been recruited from well-known Cumberland and West- 
morland families. 

1739- s. d. 

Dec. 3. — Wastel Briscoe, 6th son of John Briscoe, Esq., of 
Crofton, in Cumberland, upon his leaving the school, 
gave ten shillings and sixpence ... ... ... 10 6 

Dec. 4. 


Dec. 4. — ^John Hutton [and] son of [John Hutton,] Esq., of 
Sowerby, in Cumberland, upon his leaving the school, 
gave i a guinea .. ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Dec. 4. — William Thompson, son of Mr. I 

Thompson, of [Brough under Stainmore, upon his] leav- 
ing the school, gave ^ a guinea ... ... ... 10 6 


Sep. 21. — Prank Harrison, eldest son of . . . Harrison, 
Ei^q., Comon Council Man of Appleby, upon his going to 
Queen's College, Oxon,, gave ^ a guinea ... ... 10 6 

Oct. 12. — Preston Christopherson, [eldest] son of Mr. John 
Christopherson, [gave upon his leaving school going 
to St. John's] Coll., Cambridge ... ... ... 10 6 

Dec. 4. — Richard Machel, eldest son of Lancelot Machel, 
Esq., of Crackenthorpe Hall, in Westmorland, upon his 
going to Queen's Coll., Oxon., gave i a gui. ... ... 10 6 


Dec. 4. — Lawrence Washington, eldest son of Augustine 
Washington, of [River] .... upon his leaving the 
school, gave i a gui. ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Dec. 23.— Thomas Yates, 3rd son of Thos. Yates, D.D., late 
Rector of Charleton on Otmere, in Oxfordshire, who left 
the school [Dec. 2] 3rd, 1732 [upon his leaving gave | a 
guinea ... ... ... ... ... ... to 6 


[Aug. 28.J — [Richd.] Baynes, eldest son of Sr. Richard 
Baynes, Attorney-at-Law, of Cockermouth, in Cumber- 
land, who left the school to ... 10 6 

[Jan. I.] — Christor. Harrison, eldest son of Nicholas Har- 
rison, gent., of Appleby, upon his going to take the 
[free scholar] shipp, gave i a crown ... ... ... [2 6] 

[Joseph Studholm] son of , of [HirkbyJ , 

in Cumberland, upon his leaving the school, gave [5 
shillings] ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 o 

[John] Christian, eldest son of John Christian, [ • • • ] 
in Cumberland, upon his leaving the school, gave } a 
guinea ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

[James] Wharton, 2 son of [James] Wharton, of Sand- 
forth, in Westmorland, on his going to take the free 
[scholarshipp of] the school, gave i a crown ... ... f2|6 

[James Bird] , eldest son of Mr. William Bird, Rector of 
[Craik, in Scotland ?] upon his going to Queen's Coll., 
Oxon. [gave ^ a guinea] ... ... ... ... 10 6 



John Craik, 2 son of Adam Craik, Esq., of Oldinghara, 
Galloway, Scotland, upon his leaving school and going 
to [Queen's] Coll., Oxon. gave i a gut. ... ... lo 6 


Philip Fletcher, eldest son of [Phillip] Fletcher, Esq., of 

in Cumberland, upon his leaving school, 

gave ... ... ... ... ... ... lo 6 

John Kirkby, youngest son of [Willm.] Kirkhy, Esq., of 

Cartand, Lancashire, [upon his leaving 

school gave | a guinea] ... ... ... ... lo 6 

Aug. 2. — William Parkin, eldest son of [Mr. John] Parkin, 
of [Appleby] , [upon his going off to teach the (new ?) 
at gave a crown ... ... ... 5 o 

Dec. 16. — ^Alfred [Lawson] , 3 son of [William Law] son, 
Esq., of the Customs, at [Tynemoulh] , who left school 
[Dec. 16, 1734, and went] to St. John's Coll. [Camb., 
gave i a gui.] ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 


Jan. 18. — Stephen Bellas, son of Mr. [Richd.] Bellas, of 
Long Marton, near Appleby, upon his going off to teach 
a school at [Barnard Park, near Barnard Castle,] gave 
i a crown ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 6 

Apr. 8. — Geo.^Stephenson, [eldest] son of John Stephenson, 
ofBongate [Hill], near Appleby, [upon his leaving the 
school gave i a gui.] ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Nov. — Robert Holme, 3 son of Holme, of 

[Holme ?J Hill, in Cumberland, [gent.] , upon his [leaving 

the school when] he left gave j^ a gui. ... ... 10 6 


James Parkin, second son of Parkin, of 

Appleby, [upon his leaving school] gave a crown ... 5 o 
Joseph William [son] , eldest son of Mr. Joseph] William- 
son, of Allonby [in Cumberland] upon 

going to Queen's Coll., [Oxon, gave i a guinea] ... 10 6 

John Jackson, [3rd] son of [Willm.] Jackson, of New- 
biggin, in Westmorland, upon his going to [teach a] 
school, gave ... ... ... ... ... 5 o 


Apr. 7. — ^Thos. Carleton, [6th] son of [Sr.] John Carleton, 
[D.D.] , Rector of St. Mary's [Colepitt Hill ?] upon his 
leaving school [and] going to [Q. Coll., Oxon,] gave 
^ a guinea ... ... ... •>• ... xo ^ 

[Thos. Wybergh, junr.j , eldest son of Thos. Wybergh, 



of [Appleby] upon [his going] apprentice to a merchant 

in Liverpool, gave ... ... ... 5 o 

[John Sanderson] only son of Henry [Sanderson] of 

near Appleby, gave a crown 5 o 

[John] Caile, eldest son of [Samford Courtney] [Clark] 
upon his [going] apprentice lo a merchant in Liverpool, 
gave i a guinea ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Richard [Munkhouse] , only son of Sr. Thos. Munkhouse 
of [Holme], gent., [upon his leaving school gave i 
a gui.] ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Thos. Munkhouse, 2 son of Mr Munkhouse 

[to teach] a school at M. 1734 .... 

gave a crown ... ... ... ... ... 5 o 

Sept. I. — Daniel] Fisher, [3rd] son of [Mr. John] Fisher, of 

Embleton, near Cockermouth, [Coll. 

Cambridge] gave a crown 5 o 

[Gustavus] Thompson, only son of [Gus.] Thompson, 
Esq., of ... . berland, upon his going to Queen's 

Coll. Oxon, gave i a gui. ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Joseph Richmond, eldest son of [Mr.] Richmond, Crosby 
[near Cockermouth, upon his leaving school going to 

Liverpool] gave ^ a gui. ... ... 10 6 

[Thos.] Backhouse, eldest son of Mr. Edwd. Backhouse 
[gave upon his leaving school] ... ... ... 50 

[July 15] — Lancelot Bland, son of ... . [Bland, Esqr. 

gent.] gave a crown ... ... 5 o 

George [Bradley] , son of ... . [Bradley, Esqr.] 

, Liverpool school gave 

i a gui ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

[John Hutchinson] Deputy Coll. of the Post Office Duty 

Appleby School where he was educated 

gave 2 editions of value 10 6 

Chrisr. Musgrave, son of Mr. Christopher Musgrave, of 
[Edenhall,] upon going to Oriel College, Oxon. ist Sept., 
1734, gave i a guinea ... ... ... ... lo 6 

Thos. Barnett, 2nd son of [John] Barnett, of Kirkby 
Stephen, gent., upon his going to Queen's Coll., Oxon, 
gave a crown ... ... ... ... ... 5 o 

Wm. Bland, only son of Mr. Wm. Bland, of Knock Holt, 

in Kent, upon his going to London, gave a crown ... 5 o 

[Will] Machell, only son of Machell, of 

Lancaster, gent., upon his leaving school, gave i a gui. 10 6 


Wm. Parke, eldest son of [Allenstone] Parke, of Whit- 


beck, near Millom, Cumberland, who went apprentice to £ s. d. 
Mr. Wm. [Eskell,] Merchant, [of Liverpool, upon his 

leaving school, Mich., 1736, gave | a guinea 10 6 

Edwrard Musgrave, [second] son of Sir Richard Mus- 
^rave, of Ha3rton Hall. Upon [his being] called [away 
from the] Academy he sailed to fight the Spaniards. 
Gave ^ a guinea 10 6 

Aug. 19. — Willm. Harrison son of Mr. Hugh 

Harrison, of [Sandford.J upon his going to London, gave 

\ a crown... ... ... ... ... ... 2 6 

[Oct. 28].— Robt. Wilkin, [2d] son of Mr. Wilkin, of Brough 
Sowerby, who went to Queen*s Coll., Ozon, May [16] , 

1740, gave ^ a guinea ... ... ... 10 6 

Riehd. Bland, 4th son of Mr. Robt. Bland, of Black 
[Sike], near Sandford, who left school at Christmas, 
1739, gave a crown... ... ... ... ... 5 o 


Wm. D[enl] , Esqr., Solicitor to the Salt Office, who left 
the school at Mich., 1725, gave as a memorial of gratitude 
to the place of his education, .... |Middl'?ton's] 

Life of Cicero in 2 vol. Value ... ... ...220 

[Piece cut out here] . 


Mar. I. — [Wm. Lake], .... , Lake, gent., [of Liver- 
pool,] upon leaving school gave \ a guinea ... ... 106 

Oct. 13. — ^Wm. Thos. Addison, only son of Mr. Geo. Addison, 
Coll. of Salt Duty, of Workington, upon going clerk to 
Mr. Edm. Gibson, Attorney, in Workington, gave ^ a gui. 10 6 

Nov. I. — Chardin Musgrave, 4th son of Sr. Chardin Musgrave 
of Eden Hall, Bart., who went to Oriel College, Aug. 10, 

1 74 1, gave Scapula's Lecicon, value ... ... ... i i[oJ 

Dec. 3. — Timothy Fetherstonhaugh, Esqr., only son of 

Heneage Fetherstonhaugh, Esqr., of Kirkoswald, upon 
going to Oriel Coll., Oxon, gave ^ a guinea ... ... 10 6 

Sir Richard Musgrave, eldest son of Sr. Richard Mus- 
grave, of Hayton Castle, Cumberland, upon going to 
Oriel Coll., Oxon, gave 2 guineas ... ... ...220 


Aug. 27. — The Rev. W. Atkinson, Rector ot Woolstrop, 

between Grantham and Belvoir Castle, who went to 

Queen's Coll., Oxon, in Aug., 1746, gave upon sight of 

this list, i a gninea ... ... ... .. 10 6 


Oct. I. — James Harrison, eldest son of Mr. [Perctval] Har- 



rison, of Appleby, upon going to Queen's College, Oxon, s. d. 
gave I a guinea ... ... ... ... ... lo 6 

Sep. 13. — James Watson, eldest son of Mr. James Watson, 
Steward at Meaburn Hall, upon going [to Q] Coll., 
Oxon., gave i a guinea ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Dec. 4. — Lancelot Docker, [2nd] son of Mr. Wm. Docker, of 
[Thrimby,] upon his going to Queen's Coll., Oxon, gave 
i a guinea ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

[1745] Gilpin Gorst [2nd son] of Mr. Wm. Gorst, Steward at 
Appleby Castle, upon going to Queen's Coll., Oxon, gave 
i a guinea ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

John Warwick, eldest son of Mr. John Warwick, Comon 
Council Man, of Appleby, who left school about [Xmas], 
gave i a gui. ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Oct. 4. — 1746 Joseph Robertson [3rd] son of Mr. Joseph 
Robertson, of [Bongate] , Appleby [Parish] on going to 
Queen's Coll., -Oxon. gave i a guinea... ... ... 106 

[May 7]. — Roger Wilson, only son of Roger Wilson, of 
Casterton, in Westmorland, Esqr., upon leaving school 
gave i a g. ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

[July 11]. — William Monkhouse of [Bliton ?] who left school 

Dec, [6th] , 1738, gave i a guinea ... ... ... 10 6 

Aug 15. — Bryan [Burrell] 2nd son of Mr. William Burrell, 
Vicar of [Southwaite, in Cumberland ?] who was entered 
a Commoner at Queen's College, Oxford, in Octo. term, 
gave i a guinea ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

28. — Thomas Gildard, 5th son of Jno. Gildard, Esqr., 

[upon his going as Prentice to a 

Merchant ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 


[Thomas C] ollquit son of [Hen :J Collquit 

Esqr., [Collector] of gave ^ a gui. ... 10 6 

Richard Trafford, [3rdJ son of [Edward TrafFord] Esqr., 
Merchant, in Liverpool, upon his leaving school gave i 
a guinea ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

[June 18J. — Thos. [Leverland], eldest son of [Sr. Phiiipp 

Leverland,] School upon 

his going gave i a g. ... ... ... ... [106] 

Willm. Cheshyre, 5th son of [John] Cheshyre, Esqr., 
Merchant, of Liverpool, upon leaving School gave i a g. 10 ^ 

[Henry Smith, Esq.,] who left school 

[Feb. 3,] 1741,] gave i a gui. ... ... ... 10 6 

John Rant, 3rd son of Wm, Rant, of near 




Appleby, who left school TJan. 16, 1741] gave i gui. ... [10 6] 
Richd. Baxter, only son of [Mr. Richard Baxter.] Stew- 
ard at Meaburn Hall 


Apr. 2o. — [Jo.J Hutchinson, Esqr., eldest son of John Hut- 
chinson, of Lisbon, Portugal, Merchant, who went . . 

..... [July] 1748 up with him 

to gave i a g. ... ... ... [10 6] 

Marmaduke Wilson, 3rd son of Mr. Wro. Wilson of 

[Carleton] near [Alt hoi me, Lancashire] 

command ... ... ... 10 6 

Mathew Lamb, 4th son of Mr. Thomas Lamb, of . . . 

near Appleby, upon going to assist his 

brother Lamb ... ... ... 5 o 


Riehd. Bemp-de Johnstone, esqr., Eldest son of the Rt. 

Honble. the Marchioness of Annandale, 

upon going to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge gave a guinea £1 i 

Apr. 20. — Charles Johnstone, his brother . . . * . the 

laste time, gave | a guinea ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Mr. John Cheesebrough of School, 1741, 

upon his going 


May 4. — The Rev. Mr. Thos. Milburn, 3 years Usher of this 

School upon going along with the two Mr. Johnstone's 
as private Tutor gave Bishop Jewell's and Bishop Hall's 
Works in two Folios, value half-a-guin'ia ... ... 10 6 

Aug. 3»-— Alexander Radcliffe, Esq., son of John Radcliffc, 
Esq., of Radcliffe Hall, near Manchester, upon leaving 
School gave Ainsworth's Dictionary 2nd edition 1746, 
value 15s. 15 o 

Oct. 16.— William Chaytor, eldest son of Henry Chaytor of 
Croft Yorkshire near Darlington upon going to Magdalen 
College, Cambridge, gave one guinea ... ... i i o 

Dec. 3. — George Murthwaitc, second son of Mr. Richard 
Murthwaite of Ravenstonedale, upon going to Queen's 
College, Oxon, gave half a guinea ... ... ... 106 

18. — Hugh Simpson, only son of Mr. Thomas Simpson of 
Penrith, Clerk of the Peace for the County of Cumberland 
who went to St. John's College, Cambridge, in Aug. 1749, 
gave half a guinea ... ... ... ... ... 10^ 

Dec. 22nd. — Christopher Atkinson, eldest son of Mr. Wm. 
Atkinson of Low Hall in Morland, Gent., who went to 
Queen's College, Feb. 24, 1747, or 8, gave one guinea ... i i o 



1751. i s. c*. 

Feb. 20.— John Brunskill, eldest son of John Brunskill, Vicar 
of St. Margaretta, Caroline county, on the River ? Vir- 
ginia, upon going to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, gave 
half-a-guinea ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

23. — ^John EUiotson, and son of Mr. Thomas EUiotson of 
Great Asby, on going to be Usher to Mr. Jos. Rumney 
(late Usher here) Schoolmaster of Berwick gave a crown 5 o 

Mar. z. — Samuel Cotton, 3rd son of Mr. Thos. Cotton of 
Cank Forge, Staiford shire, Gent., on going off to bus- 
iness gave \ a guinea ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Apr. 20. — ^Joseph Jackson, 3rd son of Mr. John Jackson of 
Little Asby, who went to teach a school at Pickering in 
Yorkshire last Christmas gave a crown ... ... 5 o 

May 15th. — John Harrison, son of John Harrison of Hesket 
New Market, Cumberland, Gent., on going to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, gave ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Aug. 13. — Mr. Abram Rumney, Schoolmaster of Aln^vick, 

who left School in Dec. 1734, gave half-a-guinea ... 10 6 

Aug. 13. — Mr. Jos. Rumney, Schoolmaster of Berwick & 
Usher of this School from Christmas 1746 to Christmas 
I75«» gave... ... ... ... ... ... lo 6 

Sept. 2. — George Marsh, 2nd son of Rev. George Marsh, 
Rector of Ford near Berwick, who went to Lincoln 
College, 1730, gave \ a guinea ... ... ... 10 6 

Oct. 5.— James Bewsher, 2nd son of Mr. Wm. Bewsher of 

Drybeck, who went to be Usher at Bowes School, gave zo 6 

5. — John Heppel, eldest son of Wm. Heppel, 

Field near Chester in county of Durham gave i Gui. ,,ȣ\ 1 o 


Apr. 18. — ^James Crackanthorp of Newbiggin, Esq., who left 
school Michaelmas 1843, i^^ave the Universal History in 
20 Volumes, 8vo value ... ... ... £e^ 10 o 

20. — Atkinson Robinson of Appleby Esq. Surveyor of the 
Post Office, who left School Aug. 15, 1736 gave Pope's 
Works in 9 Vols 8vo Value ... ... ...£2 14 o 

May 2.— Willm. Raincock eldest son of John Raincock of 
Penrith, Gent, upon going to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge gave ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

17. — ^John Elleson, eldest son of Mr. Thos. Elleson, of 
Sleagill, who left school Michaelmas, 1751, gave \ a 
Guinea ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

June 20. — Mr. John Robinson, Clerk of the Peace for West- 


£ 8. d. 
morland, who left school, Feb. 26, 1744, gave \ a Gui. ... 10 6 
Dec. 2. — Robt. Gibson only son of Mr. Edmund Gibson, 
Attoraey-at-Law, near Whitehaven, on going Clerk to 
his Father gave \ a Gui. ... ... ... ... 10 6 


John Hasell, 4th son of Edward HasclIjEsqr. Dalemain. 

on going to the East Indies gave \ a Gui. ... ... 10 6 

Mar. 14. — ^Jonathan Gilder, 4th son of Mr. Jonathan Gilder, 

of [BurtonJ onf^oing to Queen's Coll. Oxonjgave \ a 

Gui. ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Apr. t6. — [John] Skinker, 3 son of Major Samuel Skinker of 

River in Virginia on being called home 

gave \ a Gui. ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

„ 29. — [Edward Hasell] 3 son of Edward Hasell Esqr. of 

Dalemain, [on going to] business gave \ a Gui. ... 10 6 

July 31. — [Wm. Rosse] son of Wm. Rosse of Seven Oaks, 

. . . . who left this school Oct. 17, 1740 gave £1 \ £\ \ o 
„ — of Do. (the above ?) who left School 

July 19, 1742, gave... ... ... ... 


of Blennerhasset gave 2 Vols, of ... . 


May 13. — [Wyvell, 3rd son of Blennerhasset 

on going to Dublin College, gave \ a Gui. ... ... 10 6 


May 17. — ^James Barton 5th son of George Barton of Man- 
chester, Gent., upon leaving School gave \ a guinea... 10 6 

Aug. 21. — Blechynden [Batch], of Penrith, M.D., pleased 
with the laudable design of these benefactors gave \ 
a gui. ... ... ... ... ... ... 106 


Jan. 17. — Edward Law eldest son of Dr. Law, a deacon of 
Carlisle, master of Peter House and upon his removal to 
the Charter House gave Gullinous & Gauter's edition of 
all [Cicero's works] bound in two .... value ...150 

Jan. 24. — Thomas Noble, Gent., son of the Rev. Mr. Row- 
land Noble, of Orton near Carlisle, in gratitude to the 
school which he left [A.D. 1736J gave a fine pair of 
Price's Globes 17 inches diameter with Chest, etc., 
value ... ... ... ... ... ...660 

Aug. 5. — Mr, Richard [Baynes] SoUicitor, of Gray's Inn, 
in gratitude to the school which he left [A.D. 1733] (see 

the list above) gave Appendix ad Stephani 



Thesaurum Graccae Linguae value ... ... ...220 

Oct. 18.— The Rev. Dr. Philip Hastwell A.M. Rector of 
Weston in Sussex in gratitude to the school which he 
left in 1738 gave Bishop Shaylock's Discourse in 4 vo- 
lumes value 20 sh. ... ... ... ... ...100 

Dec. I. — Mr. John Farrar, Usher this last year on going to 

teach a school in New Castle, gave J a guinea ... 10 6 


Aug. 27. — The Rev. Michael Richardson, D.D. Rector of 

Sulhampstead* who left school in Lent 

Term 1725 gave two guineas ... ... ...220 

** And I likewise give ten guineas to Appleby School, over which 
he (Mr. Yates) presided for above half a century »vith the greatest 
dignity and honour, and this little benefaction I must desire him to 
lay out in the purchase of such books or other furniture as he shall 
think most convenient for the school or library." 

Sep. 30. — [Arthur] Atkinson son of Mr. George Atkinson of 

ly Mill & nephew to the Rev. Mr. William 

, registered April 21, 1743 and went to 

Queen's College, — Oxon, May i, 1734, gave J a guinea... 10 6 

May 8. — Frank Wilson eldest son of Mr. Thomas Wilson 
of Ormside on going to Queen's College Oxon. gave a 
Guinea ... ... ... ... ... ... i i o 


Feb. 4.— Thomas Robertson, Usher the 2 last years on going 
to teach the Free G rammar .School of Ravenstonedale gave 

May 3. — Christopher Thornton son of Joseph Thornton of 
Kirkby Stephen, Gent., upon leaving school gave J a 
guinea ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Oct. 26. — The Revnd. Mr. Isaac Nelson of Morpeth who left 

Oct. 26 1752 gave t a Guinea ... ... ... 10 6 

Oct. 26. — [Thomas] Bellas 4th son of Mr. Richard Bellas 
of Brampton on going to Queen's College, Oxon, gave ^ 
a Guinea ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 


Feb. 24. — Mr. Septimus Collinson, Usher for last year on 
designing to go as a Tutor to Mr. Dixon's son on Raphan- 
noh River, Virginia but in reality to Queen's College, 
Oxon. gave i a Guinea ... ... ... ... i© 6 

*' The following is an extract from Dr. Richardson's will. 




The Revnd. Henry Fothergill A.M. Rector of [Cheritonj 

Hishop near Exeter who left school at Whitsuntide I730 

upon sight of this gave two Guineas ... 
March. — ^John Eaton son of Millington Eaton of Liverpool 

Esqr., upon leaving school gave i a Guinea ... 
Aug. — The Revrd. Chardim Musgrave D.D. Provost of Oriel 

gave the elegant and splendid 2nd edition of Spence's 

Polymetis 1755 value ... ... ... ...2 

(See the other list Nov. ist, 1742) 
— Arthur Bonson 4th son of Mr. Thos Bonson of Park 

houses in Brough Parish upon going off to teach school 

at Beathom near Milthrop gave i a Guinea ... 
— Matthew Powley, Usher for the last 18 months 4th son 

of John Powley of Langwathby on going to Queen's 

College Oxon. gave 
— [John] Fawcett eldest son of the Revrd. Mr. Fawcett of 

upon going to Queen*s Coll. Oxon. gave 

i a guinea... 

Oct. I — Willm. [LongstaffJ .... Monku 

Sept. 10.— Willm. [Fothergill] Brownber 

Richard Pearson Kirkby Stephen 

Dec. 3 — ^John [Ward] on going 


Feb. 20. — Thomas [Breaks] of Mus [grave] 

Dec. 3 — Robert [Robertson Apple [by] 


May 21 — Henry [Byne.junr.] .... Caskar . 


Dec. 3— John [Gibbon] Gent. . . 


May ig — W [ilUam Wilkinson] .... of K 

Chester le s . . . 
Nov. 14 — [John Atkinson] .... Carletbn . 

[on going] to be 
]une I — [Benn Todd] — utterwick . 

in Newcastle, gave 
Dec. 2— [Joseph Powell] . , . . II of Temple. 

Brockbank .... [{] guinea ... 
May 26 — [Jonathan Powley] son of Willm. Powley of 

[Cros] by Ravensworth .... 



13 6 

10 o 

10 6 


10 6 

lisle 10 6 

10 6 

10 6 

10 6 

10 6 



[on going] to be school [Master] [gave i] £ s. d. 

a gui. ' ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

May 31 — [Willm. Dobson son of Chris] topher 

Dobson, Gent., at Eden Hall on going 

Lyn Regis gave ... ... ... 10 6 

Dec. 7 — [Joseph Robertson son of] Henry 

Robertson of [on going] to be Usher to 

Mr [half] a guinea ... ... ... 10 6 

Kirkby Thore on Author^s 

Antient Value ... ... ... 10 o 


Oct. 8— [Willm. Jackson] .... of Mr. Richd. Jackson 

left school Whit. 1765 gave ... ... 10 6 


Feb. n — Holmes Tidy tor of Red Marshall 

Xmas 1754 gave i a gui. ... ... 106 

Feb. 17— [Willm. Kendal] Thos. Kendal of 

Stri— .... Usher after Matt Powley .... 

Mr. Wilkinson's .\cademy | a gui. ... 10 6 

June 14— The Revd. Thos. Foth(ergill) D.D. Provost of 
Queen's Coll., Oxon from a [grate Jful regard to a School 
that had furnished [so many] members to his College 
gave 5 guineas ... ... ... ... ••• 5 5 

Dec. 2 — Thos. Monkhouse [ . . . . Aon of] .... 

ch Monkhouse of Winton, Gent. . . . gave i a gui. 10 6 


Mar. 23 — William Brown Brown of Great 

Strickland .... Mr. Kirby's A(cademy) ... 10 6 

Apr. 24 — [John Pattenson] son of .... 

Pattenson .... to be school [Master] .... 

the Tees .... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

p of Bon [gate] i a gui. 10 6 

(June io)—[Myles Parkin ?] .... Long 

guinea ... ... ... ... ... ... i i o 

Sedgefield ... ... 10 6 

Aug. 4 — [Richd. Branthwaite] Branthwaite 

Wine Merchant gave ... 10 6 


Aug. 4. — Anthony Redman, son of Mr. T. Redman, of Green- 
holme, Orton, on going assistant to Mr. Heslop, of 
Wencladale, gave ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

David Smith, son of Wm. Smith, of Crosby Ravensworth, 
on going assistant to Mr. Warcop, Kirkbride, of Stan- 
forth, near Barnard Castle ... ... ... ... 10 6 



Oct.—The Revd. Henry Fothergill, Rector of Chcriton Bishop £ s. d. 

Exeter, f;ave Seeker's Lectures on the 

Confirmation value los. ... ... ... ... lo o 

Nov. — Henry Hildyard, only son of J. Hildyard, of York, 
the celebrated bookseller, deceased, on goi>ng to Queen's 
Coll., Oxford, gave ... ... ... ... i i o 

Dec. 3.— Francis Thompson eldest son of J. Thompson, of 

Brough, Esq., upon leaving school ... ... ... 10 6 


Mr. Thomas Lancaster, eldest son of Revd. T. Lancaster, 
vicar of Alston, who left school, Sept. 1768, and got the 
school of ... . soon after gave ... ... 10 6 

June 2. — Daniel Teesdale, 3rd son of Mr. D. Teesdale, of 

Orton ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Oct. 22.— Mr. James Castldw, of Queen's Coll., Oxford, who 
in 1764 obtained Lady Betty Hasting's Exhibition by 
Lot for the ist time, sent ... ... ... ... i i o 

Dec. I. — George Gibson, of Oddendale, ... ... ... 10 6 


June 5. — Ralph Tatham, son of Ralph Tatham, M.D., late 

of Sunderland, on going to St. John's College, Cambridge 10 6 


March 2. — Anthony Shaw, of Kavenstonedale, on going to 

teach Dufton School ... ... ... ... 10 6 

April. — John Langhorne, D.D., Rector of Blagdon, Somers., 
who left school at 'Xmas, 1753, gave 12 vols, of his own 
ingenious works, value ... ... ... ...440 


March. — ^James Lamb, son of Mr. J. Lamb, of Dolphinby, 

par. of Edenal, on going to Queen's Coll., Oxford, ... i i o 


Jan. — ^John Hodgson, of Drybeck, on going to open a new 

school near Morpeth ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Feb. — Wm. Horn, Brougham Castle, on going to Queen's 

Coll., Oxford ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

May. — Richard Munkhouse, son of R. Munkhouse, of VVinton, 

Gent., on going to Queen's Coll., Oxford ... ... 10 6 

Aug. — ^John Whelpdale, of [ ] Brough, on going to 

teach Dufton School ... ... .. 


Aug. — ^Jonathan Earl, of Bolton Field, on going to assist Mr. 

Bowman, of West Auckland, ... ... ... 10 6 


Aug.— 'Revd. Thomas Bradley, son of Mr. T. Bradley, of 



Kirby Stephen, who went to the school and curacy ot £ s. d. 
Egremont, at Whitsuntide, 1776, sent ... ... 10 6 


Oct. — Mr. William Hymers, son of J. Hymers, of [Ormsby] 

near Brough, who went to Queen's Coll., Oxford ... 10 6 


June. — Lancelot Ion, of Crackenthorpe, allotted one of Lady 

B. Hasting*s Exhibitions, the 3rd Exhibition in the 4th 

Turn (none going to stand for it in the 3rd Turn) ... i i o 


Feb. — Mr. John Bowe, son of Mr. M. Bowe, of Church 
Brough, upon quitting the school as Usher, gave two 
fine vols, of Jortin*s Life of Erasmus. Value... ...220 

Apr. 26. — John Tebay, son of Mr. J. Tebay, of Kirby Stephen 

chosen this day as schoolmaster of Kirkby Stephen ... 10 6 

Aug. 24. — ^John Stables, Esq., a Director of the East India 
Company, out of gratitude to Appleby School, where he 
was educated, sent to the Library ... ... ...550 

Dec. — ^Thomas Pearson, son of Nfr. J. Pearson, of Kirby 

Stephen, on going to Queen's Coll., Oxford ... ... zo 6 

Mar. — Rev. T. Lancaster, Lecturer at New Chapel, Sunder- 
land, 2 Vols. ... ... ... ... ... 12 6 


March. — Thos. Lancaster, son of Mr. J. Lancaster, of Burton, 

on going to Queen's Coll., Oxford ... ... ... 10 6 

Jan. ) Isaac Johnson, of Cavaload, near Stainmore 

1782. ) Chapel ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Aug. — Rev. M. Richardson, D.D., late Rector of Sulhamp- 

stead, left by will ... ... ... ... 10 10 o 

March.— John Waller, son of J. Waller, of Winton, Gent., 

on going to Queen's Coll. ... ... ... ... 10 6 


Oct. 4— James Salkeld, son of W. Salkeld, of Mauds Meaburn 

on going to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge ... ... 10 6 

Dec. 4 — Robert Robinson, of Newby Stones, Esq., gave 2 

elegant Vols, of Suetonius ... ... ... ... 12 o 

June, ) John Jones Thornhill, of Staindrop, on going to Lin- 

1785. ) coin Coll., Oxford, ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Aug. 15. — William Thistlewood, of Liverpool, Esq., one of 
his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the county of 
Lancaster, visiting Appleby, the place of his education 
in 1755. gave i guinea ... ... ... ...i i o 


Nov.— Wm. Kilner, son of Rev. W. Kilner, Rector of Dufton, 

who went to Queen's Coll. ... ... ... ' ... 10 6 



1787. — Ralph Lacy, son of Mra. Petherstonhaugh, of Kirk- £ s. d. 
Oswald, who left to go to business ... ••• ... xo 6 

Joseph Lacy, brother of the above ... ... ... 10 6 

1789. — ^Thos. Lamb, son of Mr. Alderman Lamb, .... 

admitted to Trinity Coll., Cam. in .... gave ...i i o 

Ma3'. — Thos. Wade, of Kendal, nephew to John Wade, of 

Appleby, Esq., on going to London, gave ... ... 10 6 

T. Wade, son of the above J. Wade ... ... ... 10 6 

Richard Lacy, 3rd son of the above Mrs. Petherston- 
haugh, on leaving ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Joseph Coward, son of J. Coward, of Kendal, Esq., on 
being allotted one of Lady Hasting's exhibitions at 
Queen*s Coll., Oxford ... ... ... ..i i o 

1790. — ^Joseph Jackson, on leaving School to prepare for 
going to America to teach Banaby School, in Maryland, 
gave ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

John Wheatley [?J, son of G. Wheatley of 

Esq., on going to St. John*s Coll., Cambridge, ... 10 6 

Dec. — J. Nicholson, of Thorpe, in the parish of Barton, on 

going to Queen*s Coll., Ox. ... ... ... ... 10 6 

W. Wilkin, son of Mr. Wilkin, of Appleby ... ... 10 6 


May. — W. Gorst, son of Revd. Gilpin Gorst, Rector of Marton 

and Kirkbythore ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Sept. — ^John Hewecson, nephew of Revd. Mr. Waite, of Isel, 

on leaving... ... .. ... ... ... 10 6 

Apr. 16. — Henry Wheatley, son of S. NVheatley, of Lowther, 

1792. Esq., on going to Queen's Coll. ... ... ... 10 6 

Richard Hill, Esq., late of Crackenthorpe, now of Ply- 
mouth Lodge, Glamorgan ... ... ... ...2 2 o 


June.— J. B. Glegg, son of J. Glegg, Esq., of Ncston, in 

Cheshire, on going to Cambridge ... ... ... 10 6 

Aug. — Rev. G. Lowson, M.A., Pellow of Trinity Coll., Camb., 

who left school in 1783 ... ... ... ...i i o 

Sept. — John Garnett, of Bay House, Kirkby Lonsdale ... 10 6 
Sept. 9. — Robert Dent, son of Rev. Dent, of Lanchester, who 

went to Lincoln Coll., 1791 ... ... 10 6 

Oct. — Richard Rudd, son of R. Rudd, of Hartley, Gent., on 

going to Queen's Coll., Oxford ... ... 

Dec. — Rev. John Strickland, Usher for the last five years, 

gave ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 


Sept. — Wm. Bewsher, son of Mr, W. Bewsher, Goaler, who 



left school in 1786, & is now master of an academy at £ s. d. 
Richmond, Surrey, gave ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Thos. Bewsher, who went to be his Brother's Assistant, 

gave ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 


Jan. — Richard Lacy, B.A., of Queen's Coll., Cambridge, 

gave an elegant edition of Thompson's Seasons, value... 150 


May.— John H. Lister, son of R. H. Lister, of Scarborough, 

Esq., gave... ... ... ... ... ... 10 6 

Sep. 30. — Rev. J. R. Sproule, Vicar of Appleby, on exchanging 
his living and removing into Essex, gave Sir W. Temple's 
Miscellanies) value... ... ... ... ... 10 6 


Sep. — Richard Hill, of Crackenthorpe, upon going to be 

Assistant of the Rev. R. Crosby at Farnham, Surrey ... 10 6 

Aug. — Wm. Longstaff, son of G. H. Longstaff, of Hylton 
Lodge, Esq., on leaving School to enter on a mercantile 
line of business, gave ... ... ... ... i i o 

Sept. — Francis Reed & Thomas Munkhouse, Esqs., Executors 
of Mr. Richard Yates, Master of this School, presented 
to the Library the following books : 

Pine's Horace, 2 Vols, value ... ... i 10 o 

Robinson's Hesoid, „ ... ... 15 o 

Walton's Theocritus, „ ... ... i 10 o 

Basherville's Virgil „ ... ... i 00 

A Manuscript Translation of the Spectator, by 
Mr. Yates. 












Art. IW.—GUaston Castle. By H. S. Cowper, F.S.A. 
Read at Appleby^ July 4, 1893. 

A BOUT half a mile north-east of the village of Gleaston 
in Low Furness, and to the left of the road to Scalesi 
rises an oblong hill, which is also about half a mile in 
length, and the summit of which is nearly 100 feet above 
the road where it approaches the modern farm buildings 
of Gleaston Castle. At the southern base of this hill are 
situated the ruins of the ancient castle. 

The castle is built in one ward, presenting a quadri- 
lateral figure of which the sides are of unequal length, and 
having, like the hill, its longer axis north-east and south- 
west. In the following description of the ruins, the two 
shorter sides will, for convenience, be termed the north 
and south sides, and the two longer the east and west 
sides. The greatest measurement from north to south 
including the towers is 330 feet ; from east to west at the 
north end 244 feet ; and at the south 185 feet.* 

As we cannot now decide with certainty the position of 
the original entrance, we will commence the description 
at the north end of the west curtain and proceed south- 
wards. At this point we find an entrance in the curtain 
about 13 feet in height, 6 feet in width, and with a [round 
head. Externally there have been facings of dressed 
stone, which have been entirely removed. From this 
point the curtain runs south in a somewhat decayed con- 
dition for rather over 70 feet, where it is interrupted by a 
mass in a state of absolute ruin some 70 feet in length. 
Externally this mass projects towards the field, and ex- 
amination here reveals portions of the wall faces of a 

* The ward measures about 26^ feet in length, by about 170 feet in width at its 
oortbern, and 120 feet at its southern ends. 



tower measuring about 30 feet from north to south.* 
Below this ruin the curtain is continued straight for a 
distance of nearly 100 feet, where it reaches the south- 
west tower. It is not however in the same straight line 
with the curtain north of the ruined part. The portion of 
curtain adjoining the south-west tower is the best preserved 
in the castle, being about 30 feet in external height, and 
apparently complete except the battlements. It is plain 
work of limestone rubble, of roughly squared blocks set in 
mortar, and has neither plinth, offset, string course, nor 
ornament of any kind. Like the walls throughout the 
castle, it is about 9 feet thick. The south-west tower is 
the smallest in plan of the four towers of which anything 
can now be seen, and is fairly complete. It is almost a 
square, measuring 31 feet by 33 feet, set a trifle askew 
against the west curtain, and is of the simplest construc- 
tion. The basement is entered from the ward by a door 
in the east wall, now ruined, but which has been 4^ feet 
wide. It is a dungeon with no aperture for light, measuring 
15 feet by 13 feet and in height about 7 feet. It was not 
vaulted, but the floor, as is the case in all the towers, has 
gone. From the left side of the entrance, a staircase in 
the thickness of the wall leads to the first floor. 

At the first floor level, the wall is reduced in thickness 
by a set-off something less than a foot on the north and 
south, so that the measurement of this room is about 17 
feet by 13 feet, and its height was about 10 feet. It was 
entered by a doorway to the right at the summit of the 
stairs. There are two windows, one to the north, and one 
to the east : there is also a diagonal aperture lighting the 
stairs near the head. There is besides, a fireplace in the 
east wall, and a garderobe closet in the south walL Be- 
tween this room and the upper two chambers of the tower 

* This must not be confounded with the walls of a modern byre standing just 
south of it. 




there is no internal communication. To reach them it is 
necessary to descend and come round to the north face. 
Here the curtain next to the tower is bevelled away inter- 
nally to allow an external staircase to be formed without 
adding to the thickness of the wall. Ascending this, the 
second floor is entered by a pointed sandstone arch 2 feet 

torn (Mt. 

10 inches in width. At the floor level, the wall has again 
a set-off" of one foot on the south and east, so that the size of 
this chamber is 18 feet by 14 feet, and its height was 
about II feet. There are two windows in the south and 
east walls, the sills of the rear arches of which were about 
2 feet above the floor : and a square headed fireplace with 



plaiii chamfer in the west wall^ in which also remain three 
corbels; which probably supported the floor. A garderobe 
closet occupies the same position as the one below. 

From the right of the entrance, a straight flight of 
stairs lighted by a loop and a window* ascends to the 
third floor, which is entered on the left by a pointed door- 
way. On this floor we find a fireplace in the east wall, one 
jamb of which remains with a hollow at the angle. There 
are windows in the west and south sides, the sills of the 
rear arches of which were about one foot above the floor 
when it existed. In the south side at the west corner^ 
there is an entrance which apparently leads to a garde- 
robe closet. Of these three garderobes in this wall, it is 
only possible to enter the lowest, but it appears that the 
shafts from them fall parallel, those from the upper stories 
just west of those below. From the head of the stairs a 
newel stair in the north-west angle leads to the battle- 
ments, which are too ruinous and overgrown to examine 
carefully. The remains of the parapet can, however, still- 
be traced ; and on the east side the walk is broken by the 
chimney shaft from the room below. The line of an 
obtuse angled roof can be seen below the walk, and the 
watch turret though ruinous still stands over the newel 
head. The total height of this fine tower is 43 feet from 
the battlements to the ground level on the west face. Like 
the curtain, and in fact the rest of the castle, the walls are 
absolutely plain, without any sort of off-set. It is impos- 
sible to examine the windows either externally or inter- 
nally at all carefully, as the outside is overgrown with ivy, 
and no floors exist within. Those that can be seen are 
very weathered about the head. In most cases they 
appear to have been narrow, pointed apertures, about a 
foot in width, with a plain chamfer externally, splajed to 

* This, at the head of the stairs, looks as if it may have had a trefoil head, but 
it is too weathered to be certain. 

3 to 5 

til GLEASTON CASTLE, South-east Tower. 


3 to 5 feet within, and with the rear arch roughly pointed. 
The door arches have also a plain chamfer. 

Distant from this tower about 120 feet, and connected 
by a straight curtain wall, stands the south-east tower. 
The connecting wall, which runs at rather more than a 
right angle from the west curtain, is flush with the ward 
level internally, but externally is about 3 feet high. 






B A 



The south-east tower is somewhat larger in plan than 
the last, but is only two stories high. Its situation is the 
lowest in the castle. In plan it is a rectangular parallelo- 
gram of 31 by 44 feet, with a recess 8 feet long and 5 feet 
deep cut out of the south-west corner. The entrance is 



from the west, next to the curtain, through a pointed 
doorway of red sandstone 3 feet 10 inches wide, having 
a plain chamfer, and a weather moulding above. In 
the wall, the hole for the great sliding bar to secure the 
door can be seen. There is also the jamb of an inner 
door beyond the thickness of the wall. The basement 
is an apartment 26 feet by 13 feet, and was about 12 
feet high : at the south-west comer is a projection cor- 
responding to the external recess, which is occupied by 
a closet lighted by a narrow window, which may have 
been a porter's room, or possibly a garderobe. At each 
end there is a square-headed window, about a foot wide 
at the opening, that on the north being splayed to about 
5 feet internally. The fireplace is in the east wall. On 
the left of the entrance, a narrow stone stair in the 
thickness of the wall, lighted by two loops, leads to the 
first floor, which was entered at the top through a large 
pointed door, one jamb only of which is now remaining. 
At the first floor, the wall has a set off of a foot all 
round for the double purpose of flooring, and of increasing 
the space, which now becomes 28 feet by 15 feet. This 
room is well lighted, having windows on the north, east, 
and south : while on the west, there is one on the left of 
stair top, one about the middle of the wall ; and in the 
south-west corner there is a square headed doorway that 
appears to have communicated with the rampart walk of 
the south curtain, and may also lead to a garderobe. At 
this corner the interior projection of the basement is dis- 
continued on this floor, so that the plan is a parallelogram. 
In the east wall is a fireplace with a hollow at the angle. 
From the head of the stair, a stone newel in the north- 
west angle leads to the battlements, which like those of 
the south-west tower, are overgrown and ruinous. The 
parapet however still remains on the east and south sides, 
and through the latter a plain drain to carry away water 
can be seen. Over the newel head is still standing the 



ruined watch turret. No roof line is distinguishable, so 
that the roof may have been flat. The height of this 
tower from the battlements to the ground on the west 
side is 30 feet. The windows are here also too weather- 
worn and overgrown to make much of. Those on the 
upper floor seem to have been plain lancets with a cham- 
fer, splayed internally, with the rear arches throughout 
obtusely pointed, and the sills about 4 feet above floor 
level. In Buck's view (1726) some are shown trefoil 
headed, but this does not seem to be correct. 

From the south-east tower the curtain runs north-east, 
in a straight line with the west wall of the tower, and 
therefore not parallel with the west curtain. Except a 
portion at the southern end which is still standing about 
10 feet above ward level (and about 20 feet above the 
ground outside), it is so ruined as to appear simply a 
mound from the interior of the castle, although externally 
it has an elevation of g feet. The gap is probably quite 

At about igo feet from the south-east tower are the 
fragmentary remains of the north-east tower. As only 
its southern wall which projects about 25 feet from the 
curtain, and some fragments of its east wall remain, 
it is impossible to say much as to its plan. There are 
two apertures in the former which seem to be a fire- 
place and perhaps the shoot of a garderobe. The tower 
appears to have been about 60 feet long. From here to 
the north-west tower, a distance of 150 feet, the curtain 
has entirely disappeared although its line is traceable in 
the turf. 

The north-west tower is placed at the highest part of 
the enceinte, at about the 100 feet ordnance contour, but, 
as immediately outside its walls the hill slopes gently up 
to 150 feet, its position is without natural strength. It 
was in fact the weakest corner of the castle and accord- 
ingly the keep, the largest and strongest tower was placed 
here. The 


The principal portions now remaining of the keep, are 
a large piece of the north and west walls, a fragment of 
the east wall, and a block of the south wall where it was 
joined by the west curtain. In the west and north por- 
tions, there are no lights into the basement, which must 
have been a dungeon : and above the first floor there is a 
set off in the wall to support a floor. These parts stand 
between 30 and 40 feet high, and at the west end there 
are two narrow freestone lights facing west on the first 
floor ; above which can be seen the remains of another 
window, a fire-place and a doorway. The adjoining piece 
of north wall shows a section of a mural passage at the 
first floor which leads to a garderobe above which is one 
narrow trefoil headed window. There is also a garderobe 
at this angle in the second floor, to which the doorway 
above mentioned appears to lead. 

In the east fragment, there is in the basement a narrow 
light, splayed internally 4 feet, from which the dressed 
stone has been robbed. At the first floor there is a .plain 
fireplace with segmental arch and chamfer, on the left of 
which there is a drain passing through the wall. Again 
to the left of this there is a narrow trefoil headed window. 
Above the fireplace can be seen two unornamented cor- 
bels, which probably supported the second floor, and there 
is another trefoil headed window at this level above those 
already mentioned. On the summit are two merlons in 
a ruined condition. In the mass of masonry terminating 
the west curtain, there is a window at second floor level. 
The external measurements of this tower have been about 
90 feet by 45 feet, but the remains extant are hardly 
sufiicient to draw conclusions as to its original plan. 

About half way between the east and west fragments is 
a large ruinous block of masonry, which was once a stone 
stair leading from the basement to the first floor. In 
Buck's engraving of the castle (1726), the drawing of this 
part is so confused as to be of little use ; but it can be 



• c >• « * 


seen by it» that a portion of the south wall was then 
standing adjoining the east end. This can indeed be still 
traced in the fallen debris. The engraving represents a 
two light window in this part, apparently on the first 
floor, which perhaps was a window of the hall, which may 
have extended the full width of the building for some 50 
feet from the east end. It is not however impossible that 
a hall of less lasting material stood somewhere in the 
enceinte. This tower now stands in a mound of debris, 
formed by its own fall. 

Throughout the castle the walls are of the same thick- 
ness, about 9 feet. The masonry varies somewhat, but is 
a rubble of limestone blocks of various s'zes, in places 
laid with some regard to courses. The blocks are gener- 
ally roughly squared but not dressed : and the masonry 
appears to be all, or mostly of one date. Throughout the 
southern part of the castle the interior of the ward is 
raised, probably artificially from 3 to 6 feet above the 
ground level without the walls. This is found occasionally 
in other castles, and was probably done, to make a more 
level interior, and to ensure a drier surface. 

The history and descent of the manor or manors of 
Muchland and Aldingham has been told at length in the 
works of West, Baines, and Whitaker,* so that it is not 
necessary to take here more than a passing glance. 

The names of Aldingham and Gleaston both occur in 
Doomsday. The former was a manor in the possession 
of one Ernulph who had six carucates. The latter 
" Glassertun " (evidently an English name) was a portion 
of the manor of Hougun, in which was two carucates. 

Ernulph disappears ; and soon after in his stead we 
find one Michael Le Fleming or Flandrensis, a foreigner, 
whom it is supposed that the Conqueror installed here as 
a buffer against the Scots. He and his descendants were 

* The ^genealogist should consult the Coucher Book of Furness Abbey. 



important and powerful people in the country , and in the 
foundation charter of Fumess Abbey in 1126, the lands of 
Michael le Fleming are excepted from the grant. This 
domain formed the manor of Muchland« It has been 
suggested very plausibly that Muchland and Much Urs- 
wick are corruptions of Michaels land and Michaels 
Urswick, and supporting the theory we find the term 
Mychel land in use in deeds as late as the time of Henry 
VIII. The transition by the old English " Mickle " is 
easy enough.* 

After some three or four generations of Flemings, the 
manor passed about 1270 by an heiress to the Cance- 
fields,t in which family it remained till 1293 when it went, 
also by an heiress, to Robert de Harrington, the first of 
that family to exercise territorial power in Lancashire. 
In this family it continued four or five generations, till in 
1457! it was again transferred by an heiress to Lord 
Bonville of Shuton, who took the title of Lord Harrington. 
His granddaughter (a fourth heiress) carried it by marriage 
to Thomas Grey, first Marquis of Dorset, whose grandson 
Henry, created Duke of Suffolk by Edward VI, shared the 
fate of beheading with his two brothers, his daughter 
Lady Jane Grey, and her husband Lord Dudley. On the 
Duke's attainder in 1554, the manor and castle were for- 
feited to the crown, and were afterwards granted out 
separately, into which part of their history it is unneces- 
sary to follow them here. 

About I J miles south-east of the castle, on the edge of 
the sea, are the earthworks called Aldingham Moat Hill, 
which were no doubt the " burh " of the thane Ernulph, 

* So we have Much the Miller's son. In the Sloane MS. he is called Muchel. 

t Spelled in various ways. 

t Members of the Harrinfton or Haryn^on family lingered for some time in 
the parish. One William Haryn?ton was supervizor of Uie will of John Cowper 
of Aldingham, 6 Jan., 1543. llie name is found considerably later in Much 



and of his successors the early Le Flemings. Tradition 
says that the sea having swallowed up the early residence 
at Aldingham, the Lords were compelled to build Gleas- 
ton Castle. This is evidently erroneous as the existence 
ofAldingham Moat Hill bears witness : but it is not im- 
probable that fear of such a catastrophe caused their 
migration to the safer site of Gleaston. 

From the great thickness of the walls, the fact that 
throughout the castle there is not extant a solitary double 
light window^ and that all that can be examined, are 
either plain lancet, square, or trefoil headed lights, we 
roust conclude that it was erected some time in the 
thirteenth century, but whether by one of the later Le 
Flemings, or by the Cancefields, or the earliest Harrington 
it is difficult to say.* The great thickness of the walls, 
and the height and strength of the towers contrast oddly 
with the weakness of the site, which must probably be 
accounted for by some caprice on the builder's part. The 
idea was perhaps that the castle thus situated would more 
easily escape observation, a singular desideratum for a 
fortress of the dimensions of Gleaston. Again it is most 
curious that the builders did not dig a deep dry ditch 
round the northern end, a thing easy to do, and which 
would have added greatly to the strength of the site. 

The stoiy so often repeated that the walls are run 
together with mud instead of lime is hardly correct. 
There is indeed in much of the walls, and everywhere in 
the outer courses, an abundance of lime mortar, but in 
some places where the ruined wall allows its interior to be 
examined, it is earthy and poor. 

There are no signs of a well within the enceinte, 

* Probably in the last part of the retgti of Henry HI, or in that of Edward I. 
Domestic work of the 13th century is exceedingly rare in Cumbria because of 
the continual Border disputes. Castles of the same date are also rare in the 
north. Kirkoswald however has probably some work of this period. The minor 
castles of Cumberland have not however yet received the attention they deserve. 



although good water supplies exist at Gleaston beck on 
the west, and at a well on the east, neither of which are 
at any great distance. There is nothing to support the 
repeated suggestion that a strong keep existed within the 
walls. If that was the case, where are the ruins ? The 
centre of the ward seems to have been artificially levelled, 
but there are no mounds of debris. Some building, pro- 
bably of timber or wattle, did most likely exist here, but 
the north-west tower, of which parts remain, was the 
keep. In it I think was the first hall. Whether any of 
the later lords built another hall within the ward, there 
is now no evidence, but it is not improbable. Buildings of 
different sorts, barracks, stables and offices, would, in the 
time of the Harringtons and Bonvilies, line the inner 
sides of the curtain, but the absence of debris shows that 
they were but slightly constructed. Wood was exten- 
sively used in the thirteenth century. 

What the north-east tower was cannot now be told. It 
was evidently quite in ruins in 1727, for Buck's plate 
omits that corner altogether, which would hardly have 
been the case, had anything of importance been then 

As to the ancient entrance, I would suggest it was 
through the ruined tower in the centre of the west curtain. 
That near the north-west tower is evidently an insertion. 
The west wall, as it is not straight may have been partly 
taken down and rebuilt at some time. 

The castle had all the appendages of a medieval for- 
tress and household. John de Harrington obtained a 
license for a park within the manor of Aldingham in 1340. 
The farm called Gleaston Park lying halfway between the 
castle and Aldingham moat shows where this was situated. 
The beacon hill lies close to the castle on the south-east 
side, and the corn mill still is to be found in use, a third 
of a mile away on the road to Gleaston. 

Within the village is a well called SL MichaeVs well, 



which we may conclude was originally Sir MichaeVs well, 
and to be another memento of Michael Flandrensis or one 
of his successors. 

I will conclude with the quaint words of Iceland's 
Itinerary/ which show that the castle had gone to ruin 
in the time of Henry VIII, so that it must have been 
abandoned early. 

*' There is a Ruine and waulles of a Castle in Lancastreahtre 
cawlyd Gleston Castell, sometyme longynge to the Lord Haringtons, 
DOW to the Marquise of Dorset. It stondithe a 2 miles from Carthe- 

Needless to say, " Carthemaile " is much further from 
Gleaston than " a 2 miles." Possibly Fumess was 

•VIII, p. 94. 



Tuesday and Wednesday, July 4Th and 5th, 1893. 

AN Tuesday, July 4th, 1893, the annual meeting of the Cumberland 
^ and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archseological Society was 
held at Appleby, and, according to the usual proceedings of the 
Society, the first excursion of the season took place contemporane- 
ously, starting from Bowes on Tuesday morning, and driving along 
the Roman Road from east to west, to Appleby, and continuing next 
morning to Penrith and Plumpton. The castles, churches, camps 
and other places of interest on the route were visited, the President, 
Chancellor Ferguson, being guide and director. The first place 
visited was Bowes Castle, now in a state of ruin. It is a single 
rectangular tower and, as the President observed, is thus far pecu- 
liar, the rule being, as at Brough and Brougham, subsequently 
visited, that the keep forms but a principal part of the castle, and is 
in association with other buildings. This castle stands within the 
limits of a Roman camp, a few yards from the Roman Road, and is 
928 feet above the sea. It was built in the time of Henry II., 1171 ; 
and according to the Pipe Rolls cost £z55' The fast vanishing line 
of the Roman earthworks could not be traced, the length of grass 
in the fields concealing them. The Church was also visited. 
After leaving it, luncheon was served at the Unicom Hotel, and 
then conveyances were taken for the drive to Appleby, a distance 
of about 22^ miles, over what Sir Philip Musgrave wrote of, 
in excuse of Parliamentary service, as **that great and terrible 
mountain of Stainmore.** The modern turnpike follows the line of 
the 2nd Iter with but slight deviation. On the top of the pass there 
was a strong and chilly east wind blowing. The party first halted at 
the camp of Raycross. This camp is a very large one, and has eight 
or ten gates with a tumulus in front of each. It has been thought by 
some a British Camp, while other authorities, taking a cue from the 
gate defences, and also its size, attribute it to the 6th Legion under 
Hadrian ; there is a smaller camp within the larger, probably used 
by smaller bodies of troops as a place of rest for the night. The 
Raycross itself, which the Society has of late secured and fenced off, 
has been thought to be a Roman milestone ; but the sounder theory 



now appears to be that it was a boundary stone between England 
and Scotland when a great portion of Cumberland and Westmorland 
was included in the kingdom of Strathclyde.* 

A call was made at Maiden Castle, a small Roman station, where 
several pieces of pottery and bones were picked up. Proceeding 
then to Hrough, the Castle, which also stands within a Roman camp, 
was inspected. It is in the form of a right-angled triangle with a 
comer cut off, which corner is occupied by the keep, this tower being 
not quite so large in some of its dimensions as Bowes. A drum- 
tower at the south corner is called Clififord*s Tower. The Castle is 
late Norman, and some time or other has evidently been blown up 
with gunpowder, probably at the time of the Commonwealth.f The 
church at Brough was hastily visited, and a halt was made at the 
Roman fort at Copeland Beck — the half-way station between the 
camps at Brough and Redlands. Appleby was reached about halt- 
past seven in the evening ; and a little later dinner was served 
at the King's Head Hotel. Among the membeiTi present were 
Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., Carlisle; Rev. R. Bower, M.A., St 
Cuthbert*s, Carlisle ; Mr. £. T. Tyson, Maryport ; Mr. F. Haverfield» 
F.S.A., Christ Church, Oxford ; Mr. John and Miss Fothergill, Brown* 
ber; Rev. W. S, Calverley, F.S.A., Aspatria; Rev. R. W. Metcalfe, 
M.A., Ravenstonedale ; Dr. and Mrs. Beardsley, Grange-over- Sands ; 
Mr. W. L. Fletcher, Stoneleigh ; Rev. B. Barnett, Preston Patrick ; 
Mr. R. £. Leach, M. A., Appleby ; Rev. Canon Mathews, Appleby ; 
Mr. J. Robinson, C.E., Barry; Mr. £. G. Paley, Lancaster; Mr. A. 
C. Whitehead, Appleby ; Mr. and Mrs, Simpson, Romanway ; Mr. 
G. Watson, Penrith ; Mr. and Mrs. Harrison, Newby Bridge ; Mr* 
A. B. Clark, Aspatria ; Mr. £. L. Tyson ; Mr. W. Hewetson» 
Appleby ; Mr. Titus and Miss Wilson, Kendal ; Mr. and Mrs. P. 
Wilson, Kendal ; the Mayor of Appleby, &c. 


The formal business of the annual meeting succeeded dinner, and 
the hour being late the proceedings were comparatively brief. The 
minutes were read and confirmed, and the officers of the Society 
were elected without alteration. 

* For Raycross see these Transactions : Vol. v., p. 70; also Vol. ix., p. 443 ; 
and xi., p. 312. 

t For Brough Castle, see paper by G. T. Clark, in these Transactions, vol. vi., 
p. 26b 



Patrons:— The Right Hon, the Lord Muncaster, F.S.A., Lord 
Lieutenant of Cumberland ; The Right Hon. the Lord Hothfield, 
Lord Lieutenant of Westmorland. 

President and Editor: — The Worshipful Chancellor Ferguson, 
M.A., LL.M., F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents :— E. B, W. Balme, Esq. ; The Right Rev. 
The Lord Bishop of Carlisle ; The Very Rev. the Dean of Carlisle ; 
The Earl of Carlisle ; James Cropper, Esq. ; H. F. Curwen, Esq. ; 
Robt. Ferguson, Esq., F.S.A. ; G. J. Johnson, Esq. ; Kev. T. Lees, 
M.A., F.S.A. ; Hon. W. Lowther; H. P. Senhouse, Esq. 

Elected Members of Council : — W. B. Arnison, Esq., Penrith ; 
Rev. R. Bower, Carlisle ; Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., Aspatria ; 
H. Swainson Cowper, Esq., F.S.A., Hawkshead ; C. J. Ferguson, 
Esq., F.S.A., Carlisle; T. H. Hodgson, Esq., Newby Grange ; Rev. 
Canon Mathews, M.A., Appleby; E. T. Tyson, Esq., Maryport; 
Rev. James Wilson, M.A., Dalston. 

Auditors : James G. Gandy, Esq., Heaves ; Frank Wilson, Esq., 

- Treasurer : — W. D. Crewdson, Esq., Helme Lodge, Kendal. 
Secretary : — T. Wilson, Esq., Aynam Lodge, Kendal. 
On the presentation of the accounts by Mr. Titus Wilson (hon. 
sec), the President observed that their financial position was ex- 
tremely gratifying. They had commenced the year with a balance 
in hand of ;^i39 ; and they finished with an increased balance of 
;£'i94. The accounts were passed. 

The following new members were elected : — Miss T. R. Arnison, 
Lockholme, Penrith ; Mr. R. T. R. W. Hallam, Kirkby Stephen ; 
rMr. Drinkwater Butt, Carlisle; Mr. Matthew Robinson Fairer, 
Kirkby Stephen ; Rev. T. O. Sturkey, Kirkandrews-on-Eden ; Rev, 
W. Dacre, Irthington ; Mr. J. Thompson, Milton Hall ; Miss Gough, 
Whitefield, Abingdon. The question of the second excursion for 
the season was left to the consideration of a small committee, in- 
cluding the President, Mr. E. T. Tyson, Rev. W. S. Calverley, and 
the hon. secretary. Mr. Simpson enquired if arrangements could 
be made to visit the Isle of Man, The President, however, thought 
that would need arranging six months beforehand; they had not 
received much encouragement from that quarter, but now, seeing 
they had a new Bishop from the Isle of Man, all difficulties might 
be got over. Hardknot was mentioned as a probable place to be 

There were few papers read. The President observed that the 
*' Archeological Survey of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lanca- 
shire North of the Sands,*' prepared by himself and Mr. H. S. 



Cowper, had been published by the Society of Antiquaries, in 58 
qaarto pages of printed matter, — a copy, mainly composed of a 
topographical list, being handed round. The President exhibited 
some specimens of Roman pottery with curious graffiti, which he 
pointed out to be obvious forgeries, but of some considerable age. 
The papers read will appear in these Transactions. 

On Wednesday morning the drive from Appleby to Pluropton 
Camp was undertaken. The Roman Camp at Redlands was the first 
stopping place, and here, as the President remarked, there was need 
to exercise " the eye of faith ** somewhat in distinguishing the earth- 
works from the natural surface of the enclosed fields. However 
previous to their enclosure. General Roy had made a plan which 
showed the camp to be similar in construction to that at the Ray 
Cross, and consequently it was also supposed to be the work of the 
6th Legion. The Roman road was pointed out, distant about a 
hundred yards from the turnpike at this point.* The camp at Kirkby 
Thore was next inspected and was said to have been a more perma- 
nent station than Redlands, with walls of masonry : large discoveries 
of Roman remains were made here at the end of the 17th century. 
The " Maiden Way " crosses the " 2nd Iter ** near this place, going 
over the fields to Alston. The curious little church of St. Ninian, 
near to Edenhall, was another place of interest visited; the church 
being on the ground where the saint had preached Christianity on his 
way up into Strathclyde, about 395 A.D.,and prior to the arrival of St- 
Augustine in Kent. St. Ninian was the only apostle of the North who 
preached in the time of the Roman occupation. The church is 
supposed to date from about iioo, and has been evidently renovated 
at various times. f Proceeding to Brougham Castle, standing between 
the right bank of the river Eamont and the Roman station of 
Brovacium, the next halt was there made. The area of the last- 
named camp was about 113 feet broad and 198 feet long, but its 
length has been reduced to 134 feet by a portion cut off for the Castle 
outworks and ditches. | The members of the party had luncheon at 
the Crown Hotel, Penrith, then drove on to the fine Roman camp at 
Plumpton, over which they were conducted by Mr. Simpson. 
Afternoon tea was provided by Mr. and Mrs. Simpson, at Romanway, 
and thoroughly enjoyed. Then about five o'clock the party broke 
np at the Railway Station, dispersing to their homes after a most 
interesting and pleasant excursion. 

* For Redlands camp, see these Transactions, vol. XI, p. 312. 

t For St. Ninian*8 Church, see these Transactions, vol. 1 V, p. 430. 

{For BrougKam Castle, by G. T. Clark, see these Tfansactioos» vol. VI, p. 15. 



Monday and Tuesday, Sept. 25TH and 26th, 1893. 

The second meeting and two days excursion of members of the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological 
Society for the year 1893 commenced on Monday, September 25th, 
the field of exploration comprising a portion of South Westmorland 
that embraces many centres of antiquarian interest. Members as- 
sembled at Oxenholme railway station shortly after eleven o'clock, 
when among those present were Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A. (Presi* 
dent), Carlisle ; The Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., and Mrs. Calver- 
ley, Aspatria ; Mrs. Piatt, Kirkby Lonsdale ; the Rev. H. V. Mills, 
Kendal; Mr. and Mrs. W. Robinson, Sedbergh; the Rev. R. B. 
Billinge, Urswick; the Rev. B. Bamett, Preston Patrick; Mr. H\. 
Swainson Cowper, F.S.A., Yewdale; Miss Gibson, Whelprigg; the 
Rev. J. Clarke, Selside ; Mr. Robert Blair, F.S.A., South Shields ; Mr. 
A. B. Clarke, Aspatria ; Mr. W. Crewdson, Kendal ; Mr. J. Robinson, 
C.B., Kendal ; Mrs. Hartley and party, Morecambe ; Mr. J. H. and 
Miss Nicholson, Wilmslow; Mr. T. Hesketh Hodgson, Newby 
Grange ; Mr. George Watson, Penrith; Mr. Joseph Wiper, Kendal; 
Mr. E. T. Pease, Darlington; Mr. W. O. Roper, Lancaster; Mr. 
John Otley Atkinson, Kendal ; Mr. C. B. and Mrs. Daniel, Ulver- 
ston ; Mr. Titus Wilson (honorary secretary) and Mrs. Wilson, 
Kendal. During the day they were joined by Mr. and Miss Cropper, 
Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Wakefield, and Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Weston. 
After a pleasant drive in warm sunshine and under general conditions 
that promised well for the full enjoyment of the excursion, the 
conveyances turned into the narrow lane which approaches Bleaze 
Hall, of which the president gave a description, calling particular 
attention to the wood work, to the great oak framed table, 15 feet 
long, and dated 1631, and to the Dobbie or flaying stone, a holed 
stone, in this case a pre-historic stone axe, suspended by a hempen 
strand from an iron chain, hanging from a rafter in a room in the 
roof: this is a very ancient superstition the object being to prevent 
the Dobbie. or house ghost from flaying, or frightening the live 
stock, particularly the horses : the Romans did the same, to prevent 
the evil spirit Mara from giving the horses night mare. Henry 
Bateman, who lived at Bleaze Hall in 1644, was a pack horse carrier 
on a large scale between London, York, and Kendal, as shown by 
the long range of stabling at Bleaze Hall. The Tysons of Eskdale 
were in the same business, and a holed stone (a natural one) hangs, 
and has long hung, in their residence in Eskdale : Now, a 
Tyson long ago brought to Eskdale as his bride a Bateman of 
Blease Hall ; did she take the superstition with her, substituting a 



natural holed stone for an artificial one.* Prom Blease Hall, the car- 
riages went to Barrows Green by the road skirting the base of 
Helm, on whose summit are some earthworks, which have been 
said to be a Roman fort. Several of the party climbed up to see 
them, and the opinion formed was that they were not Roman, but 
British : the site is not such as the Romans were wont to select, nor 
do the works in plan or profile seem Roman. 

From Barrows Green the party proceeded to Stainton by Cross- 
crake Lane and Spies Acre Wood, where the Secretary (Mr. T. 
Wilson) made the following remarks : — 


We are now entering a very ancient lane, and I wish to suggest that we are on 
the track of the Roman road from Hincaster to the camp at Watercrook. If you 
examine the Ordnance Survey you will find that this road is almost in a straight 
line between the two places. It is situate in the township of Stainton, a name 
which is mentioned in Domesday Book ; and when we have travelled a little 
further, we shall come across the site of a chapel that existed in the twelfth cen- 
tury. Both these facts are evidence that the road is a very ancient one, and 
therefore most likely to have been originally made for the march of the Romans 
through Westmorland. Mr. Watkins, in his Roman Lancashire, mentions that 
traces of the Roman road between Lancaster and Kendal are now all but 
obliterated by the advance of civilisation and by the progress of agriculture, but 
I think we are here on a track that 1 have no hesitation in saying is the right one. 

The next move was to Cross Crake on the way to Stainton, and at 
the former place Mr. Wilson again became the cictrdnc in the follow- 
ing observations about 


This plot of ground is the site of the old chapel of Cross Crake. The original 
chapd was founded and endowed in the reign of Richard I., 1190, by Anselm de 
Fomess, son of the first Michael le Fleming ; and in the latter part of the thir- 
teenth century. Sir William Strickland granted the same to Cartmel Priory. It 
continued in the gift of the Prior of Cartmel till the dissolution of relifi^ous houses 
in the time of Henry VIII., 1556, and soon after went to decay. It was after^ 
wards repaired, and was used for some time for Divine service. In Machell's time 
it is described as an ancient chapel re-built. It had no bell ; no service was per- 
formed therein, and no salary belonged to it, but it was used as a school, and it 
eventually fell again into a ruinous condition. After the chapel had long laid in 
this sad and sorry condition. Bishop Keene, the executors of Dr. Stratford, and the 
curate, subscribed ^200, which was further augmented by £200 from Queen 
Anoe's Bounty, and also by the proceeds of a charity brief. In 1773 the chapel 

• Ex relatione^ Rev. W. S. Calveriey, F.S.A. For an account of Blease Hall see 
"The Old Manorial Halls of Westmorland and Curaberiand," by M. W. Taylor, 
F.S.A., p. 229. 




wms re*bntl^ and in 1823 ^ barial gnrand was added. The chapel was denolisbed 

about twenty ago, and was superseded by the present new church, on an adja- 
cent site given by the late W. H. Wakefield, Esq., and the burial ground was at 
the same time enlarged by the addition of an adjoining field. 

The *' Mounds at Hincaster** (anciently Hencastre, the old camp) 
were then visited. West, in his ** Guide to Lakes,** is responsible for 
the statement that the Romans had a camp here, but Hodgson, in 
his " History of Westmorland,** says no trace nor tradition of it 
exists. Certainly these mounds are not a Roman Camp, but are 
probably glacial moraines.'^' Of Preston Hall, the next stopping 
place, no account is contained in Dr. Taylor's book, *'The Old 
Manorial Halls of Westmorland and Cumberland,*' but the Rev. B. 
Barnett gave the following particulars : — 


In the Domesday Survey the manor of Preston was held by Torfin, and it then 
passed to the Barons of Kendat, the daughter of the sixth baron marrying 
Gilbert, son of Roger Fitz Reinford. Richard I. granted to this Gilbert lands in 
Levens, Farleton Detene, Preston, Holme, Berton, Henecastre, and Loppeton, 
and Gilbert granted land in Holme, Preston, and Button to Thomas, son of Gos- 
patrick, who gave lands and possessions to the abbey at Preston about 11 19, 
which abbey was afterwards removed to Shap. On the dissolution of the mona- 
steries, these posseiffiions came into the hands of the Crown, and were granted by 
James I. to Lord Wharton, from which family they passed by purchase to the 
Lowther family. How long Preston Patrick (exclusive of what was given to the 
abbey) continued in the Talebois family after Patrictus de Culwen, is not known. 
After some time, Preston Patrick and Preston Richard passed to the family of 
Preston, who seem first to have possessed Preston Richard, and then to have 
settled here at Preston Hall. John de Preston, Knight, represented the county 
in Parliament in the reign of Edward HI. The second Richard de Preston, in the 
reign of Richard U., held the manor of Preston Richard of Sir W. Parr. He died 
without male issue and was succeeded at Preston Patrick by probably his 
brother, third Sir John Preston. He had two sons, John, a clergyman, and 
Richard, who succeeded to the inheritance. This Richard married Jacobine, a 
daughter of Middleton of Middleton Hall, and in the reign of Henry VI. they 
obtained a licence for an oratory for the manors of Preston and Levens, which is 
supposed to have stood where the present church stands. The family owned the 
manor two hundred years. The thirteenth Preston (Sir Thomas) was a priest of 
the Romish Church, but, on the death of his brother, unmarried, he married 
Mary, daughter of Carill Viscount Molineux, of Maryburgh, in Ireland. His 
wife died in 1673, and was buried in Heversham Church. Sir Thomas, being a 
widower, resumed his priestly functions, and settled his Westmorland estates on 
his two daughters, Mary and Anne. The manor of Preston Patrick was assigned 

• See these Transactions, vol. vi., p. 201. 



to tbe elder sister, who was married to William Herbert Visconot Montgromery, 
SOD of William, Marquis of Powis. It remained in this family till 1717* when the 
lands were sold to Frands Charieris, Esq., of Hornby Castle. In 1773 the manor 
was enfranchised for the sum of ^^5, 130. The manor house of Preston Hall has 
been converted into a (arm house, and there remains little of the ancient fabric 
Challon Hall, which time will not permit us to visit, was entirely re-built in 1770. 
It was anciently known as Chanon Hall, from the Canons of the abbey, to whom 
it is supposed to have belonged. It came into the Wakefield family in 1594. 

The President added a few particulars respecting Preston Hall* in 
which he said : — 

They woald notice from the front that it was in some respects very much like 
Bleeze Hall in having a central building with two wings. One of these wings is 
vaulted on the ground 6oor, and has walls of great thickness, showing that it was 
originally a peel toiler, whose upper part has been re-built. The upper room 
was, no doubt, the lord's solar or retiring room ; it is also known as the court 
room, this having been the manor house. The peel tower dated probably from 
the fifteenth century. In the Jacobean period the place was re-modelled ; the 
upper part of the peel tower re-built, and another wing, vaultless, and with thin 
walls, built so as to correspond externally with the peel-wing. 

The party next proceeded to Preston Patrick Church, when the 
Vicar (the Rev. B. Bamett) made the following observations : — 

He stated that the dedication of the church was uncertain, but that it was pro- 
bably dedicated to St. Gregory, as the well near was called Gregory Well. "The 
only dedications connecting the Cumbrian Church with the Church of Ireland, 
are," said Canon Venables, " those of St. Patrick, St. Bride or St. Bridget, and 
St. Begfaa. Three churches in Westmorland and one in Cumberland have the 
title of St. Patrick, those of Patterdale, — the old name of which was Patrickdalet 
Bampton Patrick, and Preston Patrick. Some doubt is thrown upon the dedica- 
tions of Bampton Patrick and Preston Patrick by the fact that both these places 
belonged to Patrick of Culwen or Curwen, the great-grandson of Gospatrick, son 
of Orme, son of Ketd." He (Mr. Barnett) believed that the dedication should 
be St. Gregory and not St. Patrick. Messrs. Sharpe and Paley reported on the 
old church in 1850: " The chapel appears, from the character of its architecture, 
to have been erected about the time of Henry VII., the south and east walls being 
the only portions that have remained in their original condition, the north and 
west walls, together with the entire roof, having undergone considerable altera- 
tions at comparatively recent periods." There was a chapel here long before 
these dates, and the niches, piscina, and figure heads of the windows are said to 
have belonged to this old chapel. The ancient salary of the curate was ^3 6s. 8d., 
and for many years after the Reformation no curate was appointed, but since 
1657 there has been a regular succession. In 1781 parochial privileges were con- 
ferred upon the district, and in 1873 it was constituted a separate parish. I'he 
people appointed the curate, and in 1746 there was a trial in the Court of 
Chancery with the Vicar of Burton as to the right of presentation. The ad vow- 
ion was sold to Lord Lonsdale for ^525. The greater part of the endowment is 
modem, the living being aug^mented in 1873, towards which the late Mr. W. H. 
Wakefield gave £500, Mr. Keightley jCsoo, Trinity College £500, Canon Gilbert 
£itOoth and the Eari of Lonsdale £soo. The Chancel was tbe gift of the late 
Miss Keightley. 



Heversham Church and Hall were the last places on the pro- 
gramme for the day, and at the place Canon Gilbert pointed out the 
points of interest, and the Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., read a 
paper, which will appear in these Transactions. The Hall is 
described in Dr. Taylor*s book."^ In it is a dining table of late Eliza- 
bethan work, with massive frame and footrail on fixed baluster legs. 
The top is loose and is one solid plank of heart of oak, six inches 
thick, measuring 13 feet 8 inches by 2 feet 10 inches. 

The headquarters for the night were at the Crown Hotel, Amside. 
After dinner the following new members were elected : — Mr. Towers 
Tyson, Eskdale; Mrs. A. A. Richardson, Ballawray, Ambleside; 
Mr. Claude Lonsdale, Rose Hill, Carlisle; Mr. John Inman Sealsby 
Gilcrux, Oxton, Cheshire; Mr. Lowthian Nicholson, Belgrave Road, 
London; Mr. Martin Hair, Newtown, Carlisle; Rev. J.Clark, Selside 
Vicarage, Kendal ; Rev. R. S. G. Green, Croglin Rectory, Carlisle. 

The following Societies were elected exchanging members, viz. : — 
The Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, and the Heidel- 
berger Historisch Philosophischer Vereine Universitats Bibliothek, 
Heidelbergh ; and several papers were read, which will appear in the 

Tuesday morning turned out decidedly wet, and the proposed 
visits to Arnside and Hazelslack Tower were cut out of the pro- 
gramme, and Burton Church was the first place visited, where a 
paper was read by one of the churchwardens, Mr. J. Chalmers, 
which will be printed, and Mr. Calverley called attention to some 
early sculptured stones. The party next drove to Borwick Hall, 
where Mr. W. O. Roper read an interesting paper entitled " Borwick 
Hall and the Bindlosses." Another dining table of the type of those 
at Blease and Heversham Halls was at Borwick Hall. A curious 
thing about these massive tables is — that they smack of the reality 
and pass with the freehold. 

Owing to the wet, the party did not leave the carriages at Dock 
Acres, but contented themselves with a distant view of the ancient 
dock. After lunch, at Warton, Warton Church was visited, where 
Mr. W. O. Roper read a paper on ** Warton Church and the Wash- 
ingtons.** Beetham Hall, described by Dr. Taylor,f was visited en 
route to Beetham Church, | which was described by the Vicar (the 
Rev. G. W. Cole), and the party broke up at Milnthorpe Station. 

* '* The Old Manorial Halls of Cumberland and Westmorland," p. 209. 
t " The Old Manorial Halls of Cumberland and Westmorland/' p. 211. 
t For an account of Beetham Church see these Transactions, p. 358* 







Art. V. — Notes on John Penny, Bishop of Carlisle, 1505-20. 
Part I. — By the Rev. James Wilson, M.A. 
Part II. — By J. Holme Nicholson, M.A. 

COME time ago, I was making, for my own amusement, 
certain inquiries into the vagaries of ecclesiastical 
tonsure as far as it could be ascertained from monumental 
evidence in the diocese of Carlisle, and in due time my 
attention was directed to the singularly well-preserved 
effigy of Bishop Penny in St. Margaret's Church, Leices- 
ter. In consultation with some of my friends, I was 
informed that this monument of one of our mediaeval 
bishops was not generally known and that it might be 
perhaps of some local interest if a print of it could be put 
within reach of all the members. The Editor, concurred, 
and for me there was no door of escape. 

In the first place, how do I know that this is the 
monument of Bishop Penny of Carlisle, having never seen 
it, and having no inscription to identify it. There does 
not seem to be any room for doubt. Nicolson and Burn,* 
on the authority of Dr. Todd,t say that he was buried 
" in St. Margaret's Church, Leicester, where is his effi- 
gies in alabaster curiously wrought, though without any 
inscription," a piece of information, by the way, of which 
Anthony i WoodJ was not cognisant. On reference to 
the present vicar of that church, the Rev. Arthur M. 
Rendall, he informed me that the Bishop's monument 
was in St. Margaret's, and very courteously sent me "as 
good a photograph of it as it could be possible to get 

* " History of Westmorland and Cumberland"' vol. 11., p. 277. 

f 1 have not been able to find the place where Todd makes this statement. 

{ Athena Oxonienses, vol. I., p. 563. 



under the circumstances." But the question arises 
whether St. Margaret's is the original site of the monu- 
ment and whether Todd is right when he says the Bishop 
was buried there. The most reliable account within my 
reach is as follows : — 

John Penny is said to have been of Lincoln College, Oxford, but to 
have taken the degree of LL.D. in this University (Cambridge). He 
was a canon of the abbey of S. Maty-de-Pratis at Leicester, 1477, 
and was admitted abbot of that house 25 June 1496, obtaining in 
Sept. 1505 the small priory of Bradley in the same county in com- 
ptendam. He was consecrated Bishop of Bangor 1504, and trans- 
lated to Carlisle 1508, obtaining a general pardon just before his 
translation when he resigned his abbey and priory. He died at 
Leicester at the end of 1519 or beginning of 1520 and was buried in 
the abbey there, under a tomb which was subsequently removed to 
and is now in the church of S. Margaret, and on which is his recum- 
bent figure in a pontificial habit. He made great additions to the 
buildings of Leicester abbey and gave lands for maintaining a free 
school in the parish of S. Margaret in that town."^ 

But when the tomb was removed from the abbey to the 
church I have not been able to ascertain. It would appear 
from the statement of Dr. Todd that it has been in St. 
Margaret's Church for at least two centuries. But the 
pedestal is surely modern : at least it looks of different 
date to the effigy. In 1848 " the restoration of this old 
church " was commenced ** under the superintendence of 
Mr. Carpenter " and the work was done with such thor- 
oughness and orthodoxy as to warrant the admiration of 
the EcclesiologistA It is a bold conjecture, but I should 
not be surprised to learn that the pedestal is from that 
architect's design, specially as the work of restoration was 
" not confined to the care of the external fabric alone,** 

* Athena Cantahrigienses, vol. I., p. 22. The Messrs. Cooper fortify them- 
selves by fnving these references: — Richardson's Godwin, Le Neve's Fasti, 
Wood's Athena, vol. I., p. 562, Nicholl's Leicestershire, vol. 1., pp. 26S, 275, 394, 
51 1> 558, 5625 vol. II., 510, and Rymer. 

t The Ecclesiologist, vol. IX., p. 141 (No. LXVIII, October, 1S48 : new series. 
J^o. XXXII.). 



but was SO far-reaching as to include ** the zealous incum- 
bent and his curates who are showing forth a notable 
example of living a collegiate life.*' But it is better to let 
the monument speak for itself. I say this in deference to 
the opinion of Mr. M. H. Bloxam, who, according to a 
Leicester correspondent, has stated that ** there is no 
special interest about the tomb or the vestments." In 
many ways it is interesting and certainly in this that it 
shows a bishop of Carlisle in pontificial robes at a very 
critical time in the ritualistic history of the English 


By J. Holme Nicholson, M.A. 

My attention was first drawn to the subject of Bishop 
Penny by seeing in the " Graphic" of the 27th May, 1882, 
an engraving of a fine altar tomb with a recumbent figure 
of an ecclesiastic in pontificial robes, with a mitre on his 
head, and a pastoral staff by his side. It was stated that 
this was the tomb of Bishop Penny in St. Margaret's 
Church, Leicester, and the following paragraph with 
reference to it was appended : — 

Not very many years since this beautiful monument lay neglected 
in a dusty recess under a children's gallery. Penny was Bishop of 
Bangor and Carlisle in the first decade of the x6th century, and died 
about 1 519, at Leicester Abbey, where he was staying on a visit. He 
was buried by his own direction in St. Margaret's Church. Bishop 
Penny was first Abbot of Leicester, and according to Leiand *' made 
the new bricke workes of Leicester Abbey, and much of the bricke 
walles." The monument represents the Bishop dressed in the albe, 
chasuble, and mitre, and holding the pastoral staff, the maniple being 
over the left arm. 

John Leiand, the Antiquary, died in 1552, and his visit to 
Leicester must therefore have been made within twenty or 
thirty years of the Bishop's death. The burial place of 
Bishop Penny may have been in the Abbey church of St. 



Mary de Pr6, or de Prates, at Leicester, of which be bad 
been abbot, the monastery where the great Cardinal 
Wolsey died in November, 1530, and this tomb erected 
there in the first instance, but if so it must have been 
removed to St. Margaret's at the dissolution, for, as the 
following quotation shows, it was there when Leland 
visited Leicester. 

5. MargareU^s is thereby the fairest Paroche Chirch of LeircesUr^ 
wher ons was Cathedrale Chirch and thereby the Bishop of Lincoln 
had a Palace wherof a litle yet standith. John Peny first Abbate of 
Leircesier then Bishop of Bangor and Cairluel [is here buried in] an 
Alabester Tumbe. [This Penny made the new Bricke workes of 
Leicester Abby and much of the brick walles] . 

" Itinerary of John Leland the Antiquary," Oxford, MDCCX., 
vol. I., p. 14. 

Anthony k Wood's reference to Bishop Penny is as 
follows : — 

John Penny whose native place is as yet to me unknown, was 
educated''' in Lincoln College, but whether in the condition of a 
fellow I cannot tell. Afterwards he being doctor of the laws and 
noted for an eminent canonist was made bishop of Bangor in 1504 
(having before been abbot of Leicester, as John Leland saith) where 
sitting till 1508 was by the Pope*s bull dated at Rome cal. Oct. in the 
same year translated to Carlisle, and on the 23d. January following 
paid his obedience to the Archb. of York. He gave way to fate about 
fifteen hundred and twenty, but where buried, unless in his Church of 
Carlisle, I know not. His predecessor in that see was Rog. Lay- 
bourne of Cambridge who by his WillJ dated 17th July 1507 desired 
to be buried in the parish church of St. James's near to Charing 
Cross by London, but whether he died in that or the year following I 
cannot tell, because there was no probat made of his Will. Walter 
Redman, D.D., and Master of the College at Greystock in Cumber- 
land was one of his executors. 

* Fr. Godwin in Com. de Praesul Angl. int. ep. Carlisle. 

t In Tom, I. Collect, p. 472. 

X In ofiic. praerog. Cant, in Reg. Adeane, qu 16." 

" Athens Oxoniensis/' edited by Philip Bliss, Lond. 1815 : vol. II., col. 
716. The note is by Bishop Kennet. 



Penny was buried at St. Margaret's Church in Leicester under a 
fine alabaster tomb at the end of the North isle, having his effigies 
curiously carved lying upon it in his episcopal habit. I presume his 
burial here was occasioned by his having been the chief instrument 
in rebuilding this Church. — Willis Cathedrals, Carlisle, p. 296. 

The notices of Bishop Penny in the Histories of Nicolson 
and Burn, and Hutchinson, add nothing to our knowledge 
of him, and are evidently derived from the foregoing 

Several families bearing the name of Pepny were 
located in the district of Low Furness, chiefly in the 
valley of the Crake, early in the i6th century, and pro- 
bably long before. One branch was possessed of consider- 
able landed property, and settled in the lower part of that 
valley, where they built a bridge over the river Crake, and 
where a village afterwards sprung up which is still known 
as Penny Bridge. The present representative of this 
family, and the possessor of their estates, is Miss Machell 
of Penny Bridge, who, in reply to my enquiries, cour- 
teously informs me that as far as she knows there is no 
reference to the Bishop in any of the family records or 
any tradition of his having belonged to that family. 

The tomb whereon the effigy of Bishop Penny rests has 
all the appearance in the photograph of being modern 
work, and it bears, I believe, neither inscription nor arms, 
otherwise we might have been able to trace the family 
from which he sprung. Possibly there was an older 
pedestal which may have been destroyed. The arms of 
Penny of Furness are "azure five fleurs-de-lis or." Should 
any fragments bearing these arms be discovered about St. 
Margaret's Church, or among the ruins of the Abbey, it 
would settle the question of his connection with the 
Furness family. 


Art. VI. — Burton Church. By J. Chalmers. 
Read at Burton, Sept. 27, 1893. 

THIS Church, dedicated to S. James, consists of a 
square tower of Norman structure, a nave and side 
aisles, and two mortuary chapels. The tower contains 
two Norman arches, one in the baptistry, the other in the 
ringing-room. The Dalton Chapel on the north side of the 
Church. There is no piscina in this Chapel. A board on 
the wall here informs that Sir Peter Legh was the founder 
of it : P.L. Fundator, 1628. He was Sheriff of Lancashire 
in 1596, elected M.P. for Cheshire in 1601, and died 
February, 1635/6 at a ripe old age. His descendant, 
Richard Legh, of Lyme, in Cheshire, built Dalton Old 
Hall, as maybe seen from a tablet over the door inscribed 
rLe 1666. He would be a comparatively young man 
when he built the Hall. He died in 1687 at the age of 53 
years. Lord Lilford was the heir of the Leghs of Lyme. 
He sold Dalton near the end of last century to Rev. 
Geoffrey Hornby, who was Rector of Winwick, Lancaster, 
in 1782, and great-grandfather to the present Major E. G. 
S. Hornby. 

The chapel on the south side was founded by the 
owners of Preston Hall. There is a piscina in the corner 
on the south wall, but no stone, memorial or otherwise, 
or inscription which would be likely to lead to the identi- 
fication of the founder, I am told that previous to the 
restoration in 1872 there was a board on the south side of 
the chancel bearing some letters or dates. What has 
become of it no one seems to know. Some say it con- 
tained J.F.F., 1634. There are in the building two old 
carved stones, one in an arch in the south wall near to a 
piscina, which points to the supposition that they were 



enclosed within a chapel. The other is in the south-west 
corner of the tower. These stones are supposed to be 
memorials of some of the Croft family, and bear their 
arms, — lozengy, argent and sable The Crofts were con- 
nected with Dalton in early times. In 1254, Roger de 
Croft held two carucates of land in Dalton, and in 1303 
Roger de Croft held free warren in Dalton. The last of 
the Crofts were two daughters ; one of them, Alice, mar- 
ried Sir Geo£f: Middleton, and carried Warton to the 
Middletons ; and Mabel, marrying Peter Legh, of Lyme, 
CO. Cheshire, thus brought Dalton and Claughton into the 
Legh family. In 1739 a faculty was obtained by Jno. 
Barker, draper, of Burton, which allowed him to build a 
gallery at the west end of the church between the arches 
of the north and south aisles. 

Previous to 1844 the church had no clear story. It 
then underwent restoration. The roof was removed, a 
clear story built, the vestry and chancel were taken down 
and re-built; the north door done away with, and the 
porch restored, at a cost of about 3^500.* The roof of the 
church has a longer slope on the south side than on the 
north, but we possess no documents to show when that 
alteration was made. In 1872 the church again under- 
went restoration, at the instigation of the Rev. W. Chastel 
de Boinville, the present vicar. The gallery before men- 
tioned was removed, and the organ, built by Holt of 
Bradford, was considerably enlarged by Wilkinson and 
Sons, Kendal, and placed in its present position. The 
old-fashioned pews were removed and the present seats 
erected. Two arches in the south of the chancel were re- 
built. The pulpit and reading-desk — a double-decker — 
with sounding-board, beautifully carved, was re-modelled, 
the reading-desk and sounding-board done away with, and 

• The clear story windows were made from the drawing of one of the old 
windows in the west end of the south aisle. 



the pulpit fitted up as at present. Tradition says it was 
dated 1607 ; there is no sign of a date now. The church- 
yard was considerably enlarged at the same time. In 
making the alterations in the churchyard, several stones, 
supposed to be ancient memorials, were discovered. 

There is a head of a cross, thought to be the old 
churchyard cross, a shaft, containing several human 
figures, of another. Part of an altar, and one piece of 
more modern times. The old font was replaced by the 
present one, the gift of Mrs. Hornby. It is formed of 
beautiful limestone, found in the parish — Dalton quarries. 

There is a scarcity of tomb or monumental stones, and 
none, except the few mentioned, of very great antiquity. 
The south wall supports stones in memory of the Lucas, 
Parkinson, Cotton, and Atkinson families. In the Preston 
Chapel are stones in memory of the Waller and Atkinson 
families. No stone appears to perpetuate the memory of 
one of Burton's greatest benefactors, the Rev. Jno. Hut- 
ton, who died on the 5th August, 1806. In the west wall is 
the monument of Mr. Cockin, who was at one time teacher 
of writing in the Lancaster Grammar School, and the 
author of several works, including a poem, " The Rural 
Sabbath"; then went to Nottingham, and died at Kendal. 
A little to the north-west of this stone is one erected to 
the memory of John Garnett, who died in 1773. The stone 
tells us that *' Here lies an honest man." He was the 
grandfather of Wm. Garnett, of Quernmore Park, 1782- 
1863. In the Dalton Hall Chapel there is a beautiful 
monumental brass, to the memory of the late Mrs. 
Hornby, of DaltonHall, who died August 17, 1886. This 
was designed by J. G. Waller, Esq., F.S.A., London. 
There are four memorial windows, one in the east win- 
dow in the chancel, placed by the members of the Hornby 
family, the work of Clayton and Bell. One in the north 
window in the tower, in memory of some of the Nutter 
family. One in the north aisle, placed there by the 
parishioners in memory of Mrs. Hornby. The 






















The first record of a bell in existence is the receipt for 
^7, for a bell for use at Burton Church, 1663. The peal 
previous to 1804 only consisted of three bells ; in that year 
Mr. T. Mears, London, cast and fitted up a peal of six 
musical bells at a cost of £32$ 5s. lod, allowance for old 
bells being £77. This peal was opened on Sept. 13, 1804. 

Tenor ^ _. 

Fifth .-. .-. _ 


Third -. _ 

Second .^ «... .... 

Treble ... _. 

This Church is one of the many in the neighbourhood 
given to the Abbey of St. Mary, York, by Ivo de Tailbois, 
with one carucate of land, which was on the 19 October, 
A.D. 1539 (33 year of Edward III.) appropriated to that 
monastery, reserving y*^ pension of 40s. to y* A.D. of 
Richmond 6/8 to y** ArchBp & Dean & Chapter. In 1460 
William Archbishop of York ordained ** that there be in 
this Parish of Burton in Kendal newly appropriated to y« 
Abbatt & Convent of St. Mary's, York one perpetual secu- 
lar Vicar in priest's orders who shall be presentable by y« 
said Abbatt & Convent to ye Arch Deacon of Richmond 
for to be admitted. The portion of whose vicarage shall 
consist in ^^20 sterling with one Mansion-house & Compe- 
tent garden & a close called Kirkbutts, with tithes of 
Burton, Dalton, & Holme. The Vicar to pay the annual 
pension of 103/4 to the s^ Abbatt & Convent of S. Mary in 
money, at Martinmas & Pentecost by equal portions in y« 
parish Church of Burton effectually." Kirkbutts was 
afterwards lost to the Church, as it merged into the hands 
of the lord of the manor. In 1735 an entry in church- 
wardens' book is as follows : " To loading stones in 
Churchyard & Kirkbutts 2/-," which points to its then 
belonging to the living. 





Jas. Williamson, Gierke, Vicar of Burton, died, 1585. 


John Thexton, 1655. 7 

Gerard Brown, 1662. 7 

Jno. Ormerod, Ap., 1669. 21 

J. Usherwood, Apl., 1691 i 

Tho. Barbon, Aug., 1692 32 

Jno. Bennison, Mar. 1723 41 

Jno. Hutton, May, 1764 42 

Bryan Waller, Oct., 1806 36 

Robt. Morewood, Oct., 1842 24 
W. Chastel de Boinville, 1866 


Died Ap. 19, 1691. 

Removed to Vic. of 


was at Battle of Boyne 

as an ensign. 


These were commenced in the year 1653. The entries 
in the year 1744 show that there were only four burials.* 

On November 23, 1745, the Scotch rebels entered 
Burton. They do not appear to have come on a maraud- 
ing expedition, as the Registers only account for 20 deaths 
in that year. 

* In 1655 there appear more deaths registered than in any other 'year^-33 ; in 
1666, the year of the London Plag^ue^ the number of deaths is 26, and this 
number occurs again ia 1673 and 1675. 


Art. VII. — Cumberlattd and Wesimorland under the Tudon, 
being Extracts from the Register of the Privy Council in 
the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI. By T. H. 
Read at Amside^ Sept. 25, 1893. 

THE Registers of the Privy Council, which are now in 
course of publication under the editorship of Mr. 
Dasent of the Education Department, though they have 
not come down to us in so complete a state as might be 
wished, contain a most interesting mass of information as 
to the manners and customs of our ancestors. The series 
DOW being published begins with the year 1542, the 31st of 
Henry VIII., and comes down at present to the death of 
Queen Mary in 1558. In those times the Privy Council, 
acting as a body, discharged the duties which are now dis- 
tributed among the various Departments of State. Foreign 
and domestic policy, naval and military afifairs, trade and 
commerce, the administration of law and justice, religion, 
and in short all the matters important or trivial, not to 
say frivolous, on which Ministers are now nightly ques- 
tioned in the House of Commons, then came before the 
Privy Council collectively. As might be expected from 
the disturbed state of the Borders, the Northern counties 
occupied no small share of attention, and I purpose in 
this Paper to collect the notices of local interest. It is 
not, of course, possible to make anything like a connected 
story of these scattered and disjointed entries, but it is 
hoped that the collection of them may prove of use to 
those who are interested in the history of the two 

1542. — ^The first notice we meet with is dated i Deer., 
1542, when Sir Thomas Wharton and My Lord of Car- 
lisle, probably the Bishop, are directed "to view dili- 
gently " 


gently" the proceedings of Mr. Stevins in the King's 
buildings and fortifications at Carlisle and report to the 
Council, Stevins, who is described as " Overseer of the 
King's works at Carlisle is directed to repair to the King 
bringing ** plottes " or plans of what is proposed to be 
done during the next year. 

II December. — Lord Lisle, Commissioner in the North, 
Sir Thomas Wharton, Warden of the Marches, and the 
Earl of Angus are desired to procure a " plot " (map) of 
Scotland for the King. 

The same day Sir Thomas Wharton's Report of the 
defeat of the Scots at Solway Moss was received and read 
at the Council. The Scottish prisoners were ordered to 
be brought to London, and to wear a red St. Andrew's 
cross as a distinguishing mark. Several entries follow 
respecting the treatment of these prisoners. On the i6th 
Deer, a Report was received of the capture of Stephen 
Davison and " other thieves of Teviotdale." 

On 2oth Deer, is read Sir Thos. Wharton's Report of 
certain exploits done 20 miles within Scotland, by Robin 
Foster and others. He complains that many good pri- 
soners were ransomed for small prices, perhaps in the 
expectation that the then victorious party might in the 
future be in need of a similar favour. He also reports 
the capture of the Laird of Fentre,* whom I cannot iden- 
tify. Lord Lisle reports an exploit done in Scotland, by 
Sir George Douglas. This, however, would I think be on 
the East Marches. 

On the 2ist Deer, the Scottish prisoners, including the 
Earl of Cassilis, Lord Glencarn, Lord Somerville, and 
Lord Maxwell, were received by the Council in the Star 
Chamber, and released on parole. 

1542-3. — They departed on the 9th January for Scot- 
land, and Sir Thomas Wharton was advised that they 

* Perhaps Fintry, Stirlifigsbire. 



would be at Carlisle on the loth January, where their 
friends were to send pledges for them. One Carlisle, a 
Pursuivant at Arms, was directed to provide horses and 
other such necessaries as they would need by the way. 
They were entrusted with letters for the Scottish Council. 

The 7th Jan. — Sir Thomas Wharton was cautioned to 
leave the town and castle of Carlisle in safe custody in 
case of his going into Scotland. 

The 17th Jan. — Sir Thomas Wharton is directed to 
appoint one Sconcrost to the office of King's Carpenter at 
Carlisle, in case the information exhibited against one 
Vicars, who it is to be presumed then held the office and 
had been accused of some misconduct, should be proved. 

gth Jan. — The Lord Lieutenant of the North (I do 
not know who held the office)* is granted permission to 
reside at Alnwick or Newcastle at his discretion, but is 
cautioned not to expect letters from Carlisle (to the 
Council) to be sent first to him, the " compass '* being so 

^543- 27th April. — The "matter of contention between 
Blaynerhasset and Jack a Musgrave " was committed to 
the Duke of Noriolk. It does not appear what the dis- 
pute was, but the names of the parties are familiar to us 
here. They appear again on 14 May, when the King's 
pleasure was declared touching rewards to be given to 
Jacke a Musgrave, Thomas Dacres, Eglanbye (Aglionby) 
Blanerhasett, and the Greymes, doubtless the Grahams 
of the Debateable land. It is provoking to have no infor- 
mation as to the services for which they are rewarded, — 
probably, however, in connection with the Battle of 
Solway Moss. 

On 22 May the Duke of Suffolk is appointed to hear 
and determine a dispute between Edward Eglanbye 
(Aglionby) and one Forster, perhaps one of the Forsters 

• Probably the Earl of Shrewsbury or Earl of Hertford. 



of Stonegarthside, both of whom claimed to be the 
captors of Lord Maxwell ; also between one Greme 
(Graham) and one Briskoo (Brisco) as to the capture of 
Lord Somervile. The next day there is a notice of a 
letter to the Dean of Carlisle, but no entry of its contents. 
From 22nd July, 1543, to 10 May, 1545, the Registers are 

In Nov., 1545, Lord Maxwell makes submission, and 
enters into a bond to become a King's true subject and 
servant ; Lord Wharton* is directed to receive him 
favourably accordingly. 

The 15th of the same month instructions were sent to 
Lord Wharton (Warden of the West Marches) to 
assemble a force at Carlisle for an enterprise in Scotland. 
Part of this force consisted of German mercenaries. Sir 
Thos. Whartont received 3^34 for his expenses in bringing 
up and returning with Lord Maxwell. 

8th December. — Lord Wharton is asked if he wishes to 
have a force of Spanish harquebusiers for Carlisle. 

The 19 Dec. we find a grant of land and license to 
purchase other land granted to Graham, a Borderer, in 
consideration of his resigning his claims to Robert Max- 
well and two other Scottish prisoners. The following day 
a warrant is issued to Lord Wharton to exchange James 
Pringle, taken at Solway Moss, for Parson Ogle. 

1545-6. 9 Jan. — A warrant is issued to Mr. Woodall 
for the pay of soldiers serving at Carlaverock : six hack- 
butters for 12 days at 8d. per day and 6 gunners for 54 
days at the same rate. The claim is certified by Lord 
Wharton and the Clerk of the Ordnance at Carlisle. 

Lord Maxwell's sons having made submission were 
granted a pension of 400 crowns — as would appear 200 to 

• Sir Thomas Wharton above, who was created a Baron in Jan., 154-45. 
fSon of Lord Wharton. 

28 Jan. 


28 Jan. — Richard Graham has permission to take 
ransom for such of his Scotch prisoners as may be safely 
released. Lord Wharton is instructed to recover if pos- 
sible ransom for the Laird of Fentree, and to decide a 
dispute between (Richard Graham ?) and John Thompson 
for a Scot sold to Thomas Dacre. 

29 Feb. — Thomas Nicholson and John Oxley, gunners 
at Carlisle, had warrant to Mr. Uvedale (the same as 
Woodall above) Treasurer of the Northern Garrisons for 
the arrears of their wages at 8d. per day, as well as for 
their continuance of wages. 

22 March. — Lord Maxwell's son has a pass to be fur- 
nished with two good horses for himself and his servant 
at id. per mile. 

1546. — 13 April. — The Chancellor of the Augmentations 
is instructed that lands belonging to the Lordship of 
Holm Cultram be not sold, and in the leasing of Chan- 
tries in the West Marches the inhabitants doing good 
service are to have preference, as recommended by Lord 

16 April. — Pat Grame and George Grame have a grant 
for life of 40 acres in the Debateable Land. 

18 April. — A Warrant to Mr. Uvedale to pay Robert 
Sutton, Master Gunner of the Citadel and Castle at Car- 
lisle, wages at I2d. p. d., due to him since 28th Sept., and 
George Warwick, gunner there, wages at 8d. p. d. from 
26 Deer. 

I July. — Sir John Lowther, Captain of the Castle of 
Carlisle, has permission to repair to the Court after the 
Proclamation of Peace with France. 

1546. 2 August. — Lord Wharton is directed that 
James Lindsey, a Scotsman claimed prisoner by John 
Brisco, may be put to ransom by judgment of two Eng- 
lishmen and two Scotsmen. 

28 August. — A Warrant is issued for the payment to 
Sir John Lowther of 3^40 for sinking the wells and other 
necessaries in Carlisle Castle. Vol. IL 


Vol. II. 

This brings us to the reign of Edward VI., in which, 
though there was evidently still much anxiety as to the 
Borders, the entries refer more to Berwick and the East 
Marches than to the district with which we are now 
more especially concerned. There was, however, trouble 
with regard to Langholm, which was then in possession 
of the English, Michael Wharton, probably a relation of 
Lord Wharton, Warden of the West Marches, being 
Captain. In a letter book which has been preserved and 
is printed as an Appendix to the volume now before us, 
there is a rather curious letter to Lord Wharton to 
which no reference appears in the minutes. It is as fol- 
lows : — " Letters to My Lord Wharton that being adver- 
tised by his letters of a late raid of the Scots who passing 
the river of Esk made depredation after their wonted 
manner upon our Borders, the Lords have thought good 
for certain purposes to require him that by one letter apart 
he should inform them of the very certainty of their number 
and damage by them done at that time as truly as he him- 
self was instructed therein, and by another letter to 
enlarge the matter describing their number to have beeri 
upon a 700 and that they burned a three or four villages 
upon our Borders, took notable Grays (Grahams ?) 
prisoners, and cattle away with such other aggravations 
of that their rode as his wisdom in that behalf could set 
forth." What was the object of this duplicity is not 

On 12 April, 1547, a letter is addressed to Lord Dacre 
of Gilsland calling attention to complaints of his officers* 
of Burgh and Gilsland for their neglect of the King's 
. service upon the Borders, with a strong warning of the 
consequences if they fail to attend to their duties. No 
doubt the Dacres felt themselves sufficiently powerful to 
take their own course with small regard to the remon- 


strances or warnings of the Council. The same day 
instructions were sent to Lord Wharton to report as to 
several matters, — who should have the keeping of the 
Scots prisoners, the fortification of Langholm, the means 
of providing for bowyers and fletchers (arrow makers) at 
Carlisle ; he is also instructed that the pensions of men 
on the Borders are to die with them, and " have no long 
continuance after." Letters of thanks to gentlemen for 
service on the Borders were also sent to him to be ad- 
dressed and forwarded. He is also directed that the 
Debateable ground is to be divided by his discretion to 
such persons as have served the King's Majesty against 
the enemy and amongst such as claim right and title 
thereto with special bond to be made by them that shall 
receive the land that they shall make ditches and quick- 
sets upon the ground allotted to them and pay to the 
King's use by name of a knowledge (acknowledgment) 
some small thing, as 4/ for every 20 acres and so to take 
assurance for 7 years. The said Lord Wharton to adver- 
tise if he shall proceed therein and otherwise his opinion 
for the better service of his Majesty and the satisfaction 
of the people. Patye Grame to have the 40 acres hereto- 
fore appointed or so much in some other place near the 
same. Orders were also sent to Mr. Uvedall or Woodall 
for payment of the garrison at Langholm. 

1547. 19 April. — Letters were addressed to Sir Row- 
land Thirkeld (Threlkeld), Provost of the College of 
Kirkoswald, and his brother to conform themselves for 
alteration of that College for another use, for whose pen- 
sions order should be given in reasonable sort by the 
Commissioners. The 17th May, further instructions 
were sent as to Langholm, that it was to be put in a state 
of defence and not to be abandoned without a siege. It 
would appear that Lord Wharton had recommended its 
being abandoned. Apparently, however, the view was 
that it should be held unless in the event of a serious 



attack^ rather from Dotion^ of policy than of its value^ bat 
he is instructed to report if an attack is made. 

The 8 June there is a further letter as to the dissolution 
of the College of Kirkoswald. It is that the Commis* 
sioners had intended to make an example of the Provost 
and Fellows, but on their submission they are allowed to 
continue there for the present under conditions. There is 
no further entry relating to the West Marches till 19 
Nov., I549> when a warrant was issued for the payment 
of 3^142 to Lord Wharton " for so. much due to him, for 
exercising of the office of Warden of the West Marches 
foranempst Scotland." 

In Feb., 1549-50, Lord Wharton is directed to cease to 
trouble the inhabitants and tenants of the demesne of 
Holme Cultram and deliver them possession and restitu- 
tion of their goods again ^' untill they shall be conimuned 
and recompensed by the Chancellor of the Augmentations 
other ways." 

The 28th of the same month Edward Eglanby 
(Aglionby), Captain of the Citadel in Carlisle, is directed 
to appoint Robert Smalwood to be Master Gunner at 

The 22 March Sir Robert Bowes, Warden of the East 
Marches, is directed to furnish so much artillery and 
ammunition as he can spare from Berwick for the defence 
of the Castle of Carlisle, on application being made to 
him by Lord Dacre. 

1552. 22 July, Sir Richard Lee and Sir Thomas 
Palmer were appointed commissioners to examine into 
the state of fortified places on the Borders. They are in- 
structed, after having surveyed Berwick, Norham, and - 
Wark, to repair to Carlisle and survey the state of that 
town and castle, and " if any small thing shall seem requi- 
site to be amended or done out of hand they for the 
suretie of that town to give undelayed order for doing 
thereof, causing a plott to be made of the whole," which 



done they may from thence return hither a^ain and make 
full report of their proceedings. The pay of these officers 
is fixed at 26/6 each per day. 

1550. On 14 August a Report being made from Lord 
Dacre that the Scots under Lord Maxwell are likely to 
invade the Debateable Land, he is directed to defend it ; 
also ^' further to entreat the Graymes inhabitants there as 
amicably as he might, to keep them still the King's 
Majesty's good subjects as they were before." This, 
however, looks as if they were somewhat wavering in 
their allegiance. The Scottish invasion seems to have 
taken place, however, before Lord Dacre could have re- 
ceived his instructions, as on the 21st August complaint 
is made to the French Ambassador that 400 Frenchmen 
accompanied Lord Maxwell and the Scots. Lord Dacre 
is directed to "comfort" Sandie Armstrong with his 
associates to continue the King's faithful subjects and to 
remonstrate with the Scots on their raid, while] Lord 
Wharton and Sir Robert Bowes (Warden of the East 
Marches) are called to report what they know concerning 
the King's estate and interest in the Debateable ground. 

The 30th August Lord Wharton is called on to report 
as to the prisoners taken at Solway Moss. Apparently the 
bonds given for their ransom had not been paid. 

The 5 Sept., Sir Robert Bowes is directed to send 300 
hackbutters to Lord Dacre should he apply for them, also 
to hear and certify ^the matter in question between Sir 
Thomas Dacre and Richard Graym touching the parcel of 
lande between Esk and Levyn, or Lyne. 

The 8th Sept., a letter to Dalston* and others besides 
Carlisle to cease felling of wood at Flembie, presumably 
Flimby, though it is at a considerable distance from Car- 

On the 2ist Oct. there is the minute of a letter to Lord 

* Probably Dalston of Dalston Hall. 



Dacre on various matters. It appears that John Mus- 
grave had neglected to obey a summons for service, for 
which he is warned to attend " or otherwise it shall be 
more sharply looked on against him." Also that Lord 
Wharton's steward had retained two Englishmen in Fur- 
ness. But the most important matter is a conference 
with the Maxwells respecting that frequent subject of 
contention, the Debateable Land, respecting which the 
Council states that since their last conference with the 
Master of Erskine they have instructed Sir John Mason, 
their Ambassador in France, to treat with the French 
King according to instructions given him. In the mean- 
time. Lord Dacre is directed to handle the matter 

The 7th Deer., Lord Dacre is directed to " restore 
divers the tenants called Greames to the possession of 
such lands as Sir Thomas Dacre took from the same by 

The 15 Jan., 1550-51, the Mayor and John Tomson, of 
Carlisle, are called on to see redress in a cause of George 
Greames, Priest, concerning his marriage, to report to the 
Council, to restore his goods and suffer him to enjoy the 
liberties of the town ; also to suffer him, being Master of 
the Queresters, to enjoy the same according to the 
foundation of the Church. 

The 29 Jan. the French Ambassador appears before the 
Council respecting the Debateable Qround, the point 
being, whether the Scots may be restored to their ancient 
limits and that the Debateable Ground may be neutral. 
He was informed that a full answer should be given on 
the arrival of Lord Dacre. The ist Feb. he appears again 
with demands for the restoration of Edrington or Ethring- 
ton Castle and the Fisheries in Tweed, the neutrality of 
the Debateable Land, the payment of ransom for certain 
Englishmen formerly prisoners in Scotland, freedom of 
intercourse between the two countries, and restoration of 



five Scottish ships embargoed, and the restoration of the 
hostages for the prisoners taken at Solway Moss. To 
which the Council replied that they would consider the 
matter and reply in a few days. It will be remembered 
that Mary of Guise was at this time Regen of Scotland, 
and, in the words of the Council, Scotland was now 
made French, in consequence of which they refused 
** with fair words " an application from Lord Maxwell, 
apparently then in France, to pass through England into 

On 14 Feb. they made answer to the French Ambas- 
sador, refusing the restoration of Etherington Castle, &c., 
agreeing that the ransoms should be paid, and that Scot- 
tish ships, except pirates, shall be restored, but refusing 
liberty of trade, except that such Scottish ships as may be 
driven on the English coast by stress of weather should 
be free to return. With regard to the release of hostages 
they temporised. 

1551. The 20 May the matter in variance between 
Greame and his wife and the Mayor and others of Car- 
lisle (doubtless the case mentioned above) was submitted 
to the Marquis of Dorset. 

The 26 July, Richard Bunny, Treasurer of the North, 
is instructed to continue the payment of a gunner's wages 
at Carlisle to Clement Rayleton. Also instructions are 
sent for the restoration of the Scottish prisoners and 
hostages in England. 

On 19 August there is an entry of a Warrant for a 
reward of 3^30 to Richard Salkeld, probably one of the 
Cumberland family of that name, for his service in the 

The 25th Sept., orders are given to Lord Conyers, and 
the Sheriffs and Justices of Cumberland not to proceed at 
their next Quarter Sessions with the inquisition of the 
matters laid against John Musgrave for the death of 
Ambrose Armstrong; the Musgraves, as well as Carleton, 
however, are to be detained in safe hold. The 


The 28th Sept., a return of the wages heretofore ap- 
pointed to the Wardens and Deputy Wardens on the 
Borders is called for. Also, Sir Thomas Smith,* Dean of 
Carlisle, is directed to distribute moneys which the Chap- 
ter are bound to distribute among poor folk and upon the 
highways, notwithstanding a suit which appears to have 
been pending. The same day the Lord Chancellor is 
directed to send for the Lord Dacre and his factors and 
John Musgrave and such of his tenants as the case 
concerns to appear before him in a case concerning Beau- 
{:astle or Bewcastle Dale in the county of Cumberland. 

On the 26th of Nov., Lord Conj'ers is directed to defer 
the agreement with Lord Maxwell, in order that the con- 
troversy about the Debateable Ground and a murder 
lately committed there may be further considered, and 
he is ordered to stay a raid which he appears to have 

The loth Dec, a Warrant is issued to the Lord Chan- 
cellor for a patent appointing Lord Conyers Deputy 
Warden of the West and Sir Nicholas Stirley for the 
East Marches. It should have been mentioned that on 
the II Oct. a patent was ordered for the Duke of North- 
umberland (Dudley), to be Warden General of the North 
Marches, — the present appointments not to be prejudicial 
to his patent. An interesting entry on the 20th Dec. 
shows what the pay of these officers was ; it is a warrant 
to pay to Lord Conyers 600 marks a year for himself, and 
an imperfect entry beginning X. From a later entry it 
appears to have been £10 a year each for his two depu- 
ties, and 40 shillings a year each for two Warden 
Sergeants. Lord Ogle appears to have been Deputy 
Warden of the Middle Marches, his salary being only five 
marks a year. 

1551-1. From an entry on 8 Jan., it seems that Sir 

• Secretary of State under Edward VI. and Elisabeth. 



Ingram Clyfford was one of Lord Conyers' deputies, as 
he is empowered to act for the latter during his absence. 

The 8th Feb. a summons is issued to Edward Michael, 
Vicar of Aspatric, and Nicholas Williamson, Priest 
Official to the Bishop of Carlisle, to appear before the 
Council. The 23rd of the same month there occurs a 
grant of the patronage of the church of Gosforth in Cum- 
berland to Fergus Greyme and his heirs. 

On the 28th Feb. there is a long entry respecting the 
Debateable Land, chiefly concerned with the proposal 
to appoint Commissioners for the division thereof. The 
English Council objected to the Commissioners named by 
the Scots, or rather the French, as too numerous, and 
propose a Commission of four on each side, to meet at 
Carlisle. They name on their part the Earl of Westmor- 
morland, Lord Wharton, Sir Thomas Chaloner, and Sir 
Thomas Palmer. The Commission, as we know, resulted 
in the division — nominal at least — of the Debateable 
Land, though it is long after referred to by that name, 
and certainly the turbulent disposition of the inhabitants 
showed little if any improvement. 

About this time Lord Conyers resumed his office and 
relieved Sir Ingram Clyfford, who received the thanks of 
the Council. 

On the 5th March, Lords Dacre and Wharton, who, as 
it appears had long been at odds, were summoned before 
the Council, when " after long travail they made friends, 
causing them to shake hands and to promise solemnly 
and constantly before their lordships that they would 
remit one to another all hatred, ill-will, and displeasure.*' 

The 17th March, it was resolved to send a herald to 
attend the Commissioners for the Debateable Land. This 
probably signifies the acceptance by the Scots of the 
proposals of the Council. 

1552. 26 March. — Petitions of Richard and Fergus 
Grame against Sir Thomas Dacre, and one of Margaret 



Blackbourne were sent to Lord Conyers, who is to inquire 
into them, and for the King's Majestie's better service to 
set a final peace between the Grame's and the Dacres if 
he can so do. Arrears of his wages to be paid to John 
Oxley, gunner of Carlisle. 

The loth April, the Council inform the Commissioners 
in the North that no mention can be found in any of the 
treaties with Scotland of the Debateable Land and Cano- 
hie, it being therefore supposed that these Agreements have 
been made by the Wardens they are instructed to search 
for records and the evidence of old men. A plan of the De- 
bateable Land was sent to the Commissioners on the 6th 
May. The loth May, Lord Ogle is cautioned that his 
Letters are so slightly sealed that they are for the most 
part opened before their delivery; he is, therefore, to take 
order for the surer sealing of them henceforth. The 23rd 
May, Lord Conyers and Sir John Lowther are directed to 
suffer John Dudley to enjoy his share of the mills of 
Perith (Penrith). Lord Wharton is directed to allow the 
Earl of Cumberland's servants to hold a Fair at Kirkby 
Stephen, which he is promised shall be no prejudice to 
his title. 

The 26 May, a Warrant issued for the payment of ^^40 
to Sir Ingram Clyfiford for his salary while acting as 
Deputy Warden for Lord Conyers from 26 Jan. to 21st 
March last. 

7th June. — Lord Conyers is directed to defer no longer 
to appoint a Day of March with Lord Maxwell, he being 
sufficiently authorised by his patent of Dep. Warden, and 
that the same meeting may be a means to increase quiet- 
ness and to avoid disasters on either side. 

On the 14 June, a letter was addressed to the Chan- 
cellor of the Augmentations to receive in fee by way of 
exchange of the Lord Dacre certain lands and tenements 
in Poltraghan, Kinker Hill, Aikeshawe, Lyne Holme, 
Mashethorne, Corncroke, Daplelandes or Daplemoor, 



Levin, Graynes, Wyntershell, Rydings, and Smithlands 
in the countie of Cumberland, belonging to the said Lord 
Dacre and very meet for the King's Majesty, and to 
deliver him in recompense a like estate in the town of 
Papcaster in the said countie of the yearly value of £i& 
IS. 7d. (xviii^ xix'') and to be comprised in the same ex- 
change those lands of the said Lord Dacres within 
Beaucastle Dale aforesaid. All these tenements, except- 
ing Poltraghan, can be easily identified on the Ordnance 
Map — ^indeed the names are little changed. The Dacres 
at this period were, according to the county histories. 
Lords of Papcastle ; in whose hands Bewcastle was does 
not appear. Whelan suggests the Musgraves, but as the 
Castle of Bewcastle was a royal castle, it may have been 
in the Crown. As the exchange was to be carried out by 
the Chancellor of the Augmentations, the Court estab- 
lished for dealing with the plunder of the monasteries, it 
is probable that these lands formed part of the confiscated 
ecclesiastical endowments. 

The i6th August an agreement was come to with the 
French Ambassador on behalf of the Scots for the divi- 
sion of the Debateable Land, which was to be communi- 
cated by one of the Secretaries to the Scots, and order 
taken for marking the agreed boundary by pillars, and the 
29th of the same month the agreement and plan were 
despatched to the Commissioners by the hands of Sir 
Thomas Chaloner, one of the Commissioners. Finally, 
on the 23 March, 1552-3, Lord Wharton is directed with 
regard to the ditch which is cast for the partition of the 
Debateable Land (Scots Dyke) to do what he can to get 
the neighbours to contribute to the cost, and to inquire 
whether the Scots will bear their share. If he cannot 
raise the funds required in this way, the Receiver of those 
parts is authorised to pay ^100 towards the charges — 
Lord Wharton using such persuasion as he shall think 
most convenient both with our men and the Scots. 



1552. Oct. 6.— Jno. Bunny, Treasurer of Berwick, 
has orders to pay half the sum payable to the Duke of 
Northumberland as Lord Warden to Lord Wharton, he 
being appointed the Duke's deputy. 

The 12 Oct., Lord Wharton is directed to give orders 
that his and all other letters of the King's Ministers on 
the Borders be securely sealed, for that they are oft times 
opened by the way. 

The 13th Nov., a letter to Lord Wharton for the com- 
passing into the King's hands the demesnes of Hexham, 
according to the minutes. This means a minute pre- 
served in the Council Office ; it is of frequent occurrence, 
but I do not know that any have been preserved. 

The 20th Nov., the Master of the Rolls is directed to 
search the records of thfe Chancery to see whether the 
Captains of the castle and citadel of Carlisle and their 
retinue have any patents of their offices and fees enrolled 

The 3rd Dec, Lord Wharton is directed to assign to 
Lord Evers, Deputy Warden of the Middle Marches, the 
hous^ at Wallington that was Constable's that is fled into 
Scotland for his residence. 

28 Dec. — Lord Evers appointed Deputy Warden of the 
Middle Marches, Ralph Grey of Chillingham of the East 
Marches. Instructions to Lord Wharton accordingly. 

I552-3- 23 March. — Lord Wharton instructed to 
examine the matter touching the lewd words reported by 
one Threlkeld, and to punish the same as by trial he shall 
find it deserve. 

1553- 27 March. — A letter to Lord Wharton to make 
inquiry respecting certain English fugitives fled into 
Teviot dale, two of whom, Thomas Crayford and Thomas 
Reynolds have broken out of the Marshalsea. He is to 
request the Governor of Scotland to have them delivered, 
also Constable (probably the person mentioned above) the 
coiners, Parys the Irishman, and certain murderers that 



murdered a man in Wales, — and if be shall perceive that 
the Governor to seem to show the rather readiness (sic) 
to satisfy the request by the late setting at liberty of the 
Scottish merchants, then to satisfy also his demand for 
the delivery unto him of Wilson the Scot, fled thither out 
of Scotland. 

24 April. — ^A letter to the Chancellor of the Augmenta- 
tions to give order that the parsonage of Holm Cultram in 
the county of Cumberland after the determination of his 
interest that now hath the same, — who he was does not 
appear, — may remain always to the Captain of the Castle 
of Carlisle, paying the due yearly rent as a thing annexed 
to the office of the same Captain for his better relief and 
maintenance, giving knowledge of this the King's 
Majesty's determination to any person that may happen 
to sue for the said parsonage, and to advertise the Lords 
thereof, that if need be further order may be given for the 
better stay of the same according!}'. 

The 28th April, a warrant is issued to the Receiver of 
the Court of Wards (William Dansell) for the sum of £45 
to Sir Richard Musgrave, Knight, for the amendment «of 
things within his charge in the Castle of Carlisle. 

The 13 May, Lord Wharton is again required to allow 
the Earl of Cumberland's servants to keep a Fair at 
Kirkby Stephen, which he is assured shall be no prejudice 
to his title, ** but rather a mean to frame a good end in 
the matter much the sooner." Lord Cumberland is 
required to give order that his servants that shall be 
appointed to keep this Fair do use the same in such good 
and discreet sort as no cause of unquiet do arise thereof 
but that it may appear only as it is meant, rather for the 
avoiding of trouble than either to fortify his Lordship's 
title or to prejudice the right of the said Lord Wharton. 

This is the last entry in the Register during the reign 
of Edward VL, who died on the 6th July, 1553. If these 
extracts are considered of sufficient interest, they may be 
resumed at a future date. 


Art. VIII. — On some Obsolete and Semi-Obsolete Appliances. 

By H. SwAiNSON CowPER, F.S.A. 
Read at Arnside, Sept. 25, 1893. 

T HAVE ventured to put down in the ensuing pages a 
-■- few remarks about some appliances, domestic and 
otherwise, the use of which is now dying out, or has but 
disappeared within the memory of man. That such a 
subject comes within the proper sphere of a local Society 
of Antiquaries, I venture to maintain ; for what can be 
more indispensable for the true understanding of the 
home life of a rural district, than a familiarity with the 
surroundings and appliances of the people, before every- 
thing was reduced to a cut and dried uniformity by 
the introduction of steam traffic, and machinery in 
general. Thus though the study is one of trifles, it is not 
unimportant, and in scope it is much larger than one 
would at first imagine. A chat with a Cumberland village 
patriarch about old times, will soon put the uninitiated 
into a mist about details for the simple reason that allu- 
sions will almost surely be made to contrivances which, 
though bright in the patriarch's memory, are now to be 
seen only in the most retired dalesmen's homes, if indeed 
they survive at all. Some of these appliances have died 
a natural death, apparently for little or no reason, as the 
fire cat and push plough. Others, like the brank and the 
stang, which are not domestic, but punitive, have given 
way before the relaxation of the communal judicial codes, 
which has followed as a natural re-action the barbarous 
ideas of less enlightened ages. But the majority have 
disappeared before the influence of railway traffic, which 
has brought within reach of all classes cheap and service- 
able, if often badly constructed and always inartistic, 
appliances of domestic and other character. 


Plate 1. 



The examples which I describe to-day are but a few 
which have occurred to me as suitable, because I have 
access to examples, and am therefore able to lay before 
you some slight sketches which will illustrate the subject. 
But there are many others, probably more important and 
of greater interest : and in my opinion all are worthy of 
some record at our hands unless, as must inevitably 
happen otherwise, they are to be absolutely forgotten and 
lost in oblivion. 

Many of the accessories of the house place hearth of the 
old farm houses and statesmen's residences, have become 
quite or partly obsolete during the last fifty years. Since 
ranges have taken the place of the open hearth, it is only 
here. and there in a deserted farm, where one can see, by 
gazing up the sooty chimney shaft, the crossbeam called 
the rannel balk,* fixed firmly in the walls parallel with 
the floor of the room above. From this hung a chain 
with hooks so arranged that it could be lengthened or 
shortened as might be required, and at the end of which 
could be suspended a pan. This was called the ratten 

Another appliance which has disappeared with the 
hearth fire is the girdle and brandiron, or brandreth. The 
latter was an open ring of iron supported on three legs, 
which was placed over the fire with the girdle or circular 
baking plate upon it. On this, the crisp haver bread 
(oat bread) was baked. Sometimes the girdle was sus- 
pended to the ratten crook, instead of being placed upon 
the brandreth.t 

A form of spit for cooking or toasting before the fire is 
shown in Plate i. This object, which was bought in 

* Sometimes called Rannel tree or Gaily balk.-" Glossary of the Dialect of 
Cumberland," English Dialect Society, series C, viii. 

t"T'rattans ran on t'rannel tree. Old Song (idem). Presumably this habit 
of "f rattans " f^ave the name to this appliance. 

t Lonsdale Magazine^ vol. 111., p. 290. 



Hawkshead parish^ is of iron, and is 2 ft. 5 in. high. The 
component parts are a tripod, from which rises a slender 
iron rod, upon which Is adjusted a framework of a some- 
what curious shape, furnished in front with five pairs of 
iron prongs, two above and three below. At the back are 
two perforated projections (the upper with a handle) 
through which passes the rod. A double spring from the 
back of the frame also presses against the rod, so that the 
framework can be slid up to any elevation, and will 
remain there. The same system is used in the candle 
holders from Troutbeck and Wreay, figured in my paper 
on that subject in a late volume of the Proceedings of this 
Society.* I have met with no other local example of a 
spit of this form. This specimen probably belongs to 
the first half of last century. 

The toast being made and buttered, it was put on a 
plate and placed in front of the fire on the " cat " to keep 
warm. It is singular that this simple and useful appliance 
appears to be quite out of use at the present day in the 
southern part of the Lake District, although, made of 
brass, they are still in general use in some parts of the 
Lowlands of Scotland. Those which are sometimes 
found in farms in the Lakes are of wood, and consist of 
six turned legs, screwed or fastened into a central ball of 
wood. As a rule they stand about a foot high. The 
derivation of the name is obvious ; in common with pussy 
and the arms (or legs) of man, — quocunque jeceris stabit. I 
recently purchased a " cat " from the widow of an inn- 
keeper in the Lakes, in whose possession it had been for 
years, but who had never had the slightest idea as to its 
use (Plate II). 

Sometimes at the back of the fire was an ornamental 
plate of cast iron, which, according to the dignity of the 
household, was more or less elaborate. These are so 

^ Vol. XIL, pp. 117, 119 (Nos. 16 and i8). 


Plate II. 






rare, however, that they can never have been usual except 
in houses of a somewhat superior sort. The plainer were 
only dated or initialled ; others were wondrous with 
wreaths and posies. A few showed figures apparently 
allegorical^ and of one of this character I exhibit a draw- 
ing (Plate III). It is about 17 inches wide and 16 inches 
high, but unfortunately a part of the bottom has been 
broken away, so that the design is not complete. This 
consists of three female nude figures, the centre one 
standing and the other two leaning or sitting. Two hold 
objects like sticks in their hands. I cannot suggest what 
they are meant to represent. Above the figures are r.^'a., 
and then comes an ornamented border in a sort of shoul- 
dered arch. Outside this are festooned posies or fruit 
suspended from the top by a big bow. The top edge has 
also had scroll or foliage work, which has however been 
corroded away by the action of fire. This example is from 
Keen Ground, the residence of my uncle, Mr. J. C. Cow- 
pcr. The house was the original home of the Rigge 
family of Wood Broughton, of whom the late Mr. H. 
Fletcher Rigge was an active vice-president of this 
Society. The initials are record of some of his ancestors, 
but I am unable to identify them. The design seems to 
mark the latter half of the 17th century. 

Though not properly to be counted among obsolete 
appliances, I may mention here the quaint cast iron door 
weights that are sometimes to be noticed in old fashioned 
houses. Though they are still in use, and still no doubt 
made, they deserve a passing notice, as evidence of the 
existence of old fashioned ideas in modern times. Many 
of the most modem are absolutely without interest, 
being ugly castings of floral or similar design ; but here 
and there we find them in the form of figures in the cos- 
tume or uniform of the early part of this century, calling 
to mind the Toby Fillpot jugs, or the picture board dum- 
mies of the early part of the i8th century. One, of which 



I exhibit a sketch, is in a house at Heversham, and 
represents the Duke of Wellington ; but whether the 
detail of his uniform is accurately represented, or whether 
the door weight is really of that date I am unable to say. 
(Plate IV). 

I am unaware of any really old examples of these ob- 
jects, nor do I know if they were ever made locally. The 
fashion as I have said still holds and I recently saw a 
chimney sweep (brushes and all) occupying a position on 
the oven top in a farm house in company with a burly tax 
collector with his books under his arm. 

A short time since I was shown in a house in Ulver- 
ston two curious objects, the use of which I was then 
unable to understand. The first was a minute hand churn, 
the total height of which was only lo inches, turned care- 
fully in beech wood. The other was an equally small milk 
pail, about 5 inches in diameter across the top, carefully 
coopered in staves of oak, beech, ash and yew, and neatly 
bound together with ashen hoops. These hoops were in- 
geniously spliced in a way unused by modern coopers. 
(Plates V. and VI.) 

These little objects had the appearance of neatly made 
toys : but the owner assured me that the first was 
actually used by his great-grandmother (if not by his 
great-great- grandmother) to churn her own little portion 
of butter to breakfast. The pail, which is in the same 
collection, was purchased by the owner's father in Dun- 

For some time I was completely puzzled as to the 
origin of these pigmy appliances. It hardly seemed to 
m% that the churn could be a toy, considering the expla- 
nation that was g^ven. Neither did it seem probable that 
the primitive valley of the Duddon was a likely locality to 
find toys in, either ancient or modern. It occurred to me 
as possible (thpugh the solution seemed hardly satisfac- 
tory) that they might have had some connection with the 


Plate IV. 


Plate V. 



PIQMY MILK PAIL, the Scottish **Coqii. 


dalesmen's festivals called kurn-winnings« which, origin- 
ally harvest festivals (corn-winnings) became corrupted to 
kum, ue.^ chum-winnings, because each member of the 
party was regaled with a basin of cream.* I even con- 
sidered the possibility of their having been used in some 
way for the propitiation of the " hobthrust " or brownie by 
a present of milk. 

Quite recently, however, a Scottish friend has assured 
me that in Aberdeenshire (and no doubt in other parts of 
Scotland) diminutive coopered pails were, and still in a 
lesser degree are, in regular use for serving up porridge 
in. The local name for them is " cogie." The example 
from Dunnerdale leaves very little doubt that the same 
form was in use in Cumberland. And when we know that 
porridge was eaten from pigmy pails, we hardly need 
doubt when we are told that cream was sent on to the 
statesmen's tables in dwarf churns. 

The quern, or hand corn mill, is now quite obsolete in 
this district, though it is highly probable this primitive 
instrument was in use in the fell districts till a compara- 
tively recent period. Indeed, the frequency with which 
they are turned up near old farms points to this. The 
beehive-shaped upper stones, and disc-like nether stones, 
have been so often described and figured that it is un- 
necessary to say much about them here. I know one farm 
near Hawkshead where three of the nether stones have 
been turned up in ploughing and digging, and curiously a 
wood on the farm close to where they were found is called 
Mill Stone Coppice. It would appear that several querns 
were worked at this spot at some time. 

A very different sort of mill, but equally obsolete, is the 
malt mill which is sometimes still to be seen fastened to 

*"01d Customs and Usages of the Lake District/' by Jno. Richardson. 
"Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association for the Advance- 
"■^t of Literature and Science," vol. 11., p.. 123. 



the beam of a bam in old farms. It is like a huge coffee 
mill, with a big wheel, and a handle to turn it by. 

The appliances in use in former times for securing the 
doors and cupboards are now so universally superseded by 
modem locks, that no excuse is necessary for touching on 
the subject here. Our late regretted vice-president, Dr. 
Taylor, has more than once called our attention to the 
great sliding wooden bars by which the front doors of our 
old manor houses were formerly secured. The proper key 
lock which became general at a later period was some- 
times adorned in the fashion of the 17th and i8th 
centuries with the initials of the owner of the house and 
his wife. Such are still occasionally to be observed in 
manor houses, and farm houses which have once been the 
residence of ancient statesmen families. An example is to 
be seen in the valley of Yewdale, near Coniston, marked 
G^A and there are one or more of the same sort, I be- 


lieve, in Troutbeck. It is well known that Anne, Countess 
of Pembroke, used to give to her friends presents of 
doorlocks adorned with her initials, accompanied by her 
portrait. Such a one is at Collin Field, near Kendal, 
given to her secretary Sedgwick.* 

A curious padlock was found some time ago in the 
walls of Hawkshead Hall (Plate VII). Its construction is 
simple, but ingenious and effective. The figure will ex- 
plain it better than a description. In one end of the 
barrel (a) is a screw with two holes in the flat end (6). To 
open the padlock, first remove the screw by means of the 
double pointed end of the key (c). Into the open end of 
the barrel insert the other end of the key, which has a 
series of small projections placed spirally. Wind from left 
to right until this part of the key has passed through the 
thread of the female screw within. The small projections 

* " Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and 
Archaeological Society," vol. IX., p. 191. 


Plate VH. 



then fit into and hold another moveable female screw. 
At this point the key must be turned from ri^ht to left 
which causes this female screw to revolve, an4 so forces 
out the male screw, which terminates the other limb of 
the padlock. The two limbs are semi-circles connected 
by a hinge. To fasten the lock, reverse the process and 
re-place the loose male screw (6). 

It is curious as showing how the same contrivances and 
patterns were in use all over England at the same date in 
former times, that the key depicted, which exactly fits the 
lock, was bought in an old iron shop in London, and was 
probably dredged up in the Thames. 

It is also worth remarking how similar wants, under 
similar conditions of culture, produce like results. There 
are at this day to be seen in the bazaars of Bagdad in 
Turkish Arabia, padlocks of local manufacture of practi- 
cally the same construction but of infinitely inferior work. 
No doubt if inquiry were made, this form of lock would be 
found to be as universal as the quern or hand corn mill 
was, and is still in some countries where neither steam 
nor water power are available. 

While on the subject of domestic appliances, I hope I 
may be excused for briefly mentioning one which cannot 
be said to be obsolete, but merits at least a passing 
notice. I allude to the wonderful series of old grand- 
fathers' clocks, which are still to be seen in the farms of 
Westmorland and North Lancashire. In spite of their 
continually being bought up by dealers and sold out of 
the district, these old last century timepieces are still so 
numerous, that it is evident that the useful trade of clock 
maker was a most lucrative one some four or five genera- 
tions back. I cannot help wishing that some member of 
this Society would go into the matter and by collecting 
the names of the different makers, and the patterns of the 
clocks manufactured, compile and put on record some sort 
of account of this once considerable and eminently artistic 



industry. To mention a case in point: It is perfectly 
astonishing to note the amount of tall oak cased clocks in 
North Lancashire and South Westmorland, which bear 
the name of Jonas Barber of Winster. I myself must 
have seen dozens. They differ to a certain amount in 
character, and vary, I should think, in date from some 
time in 'the first half, to the end of the last century. The 
earliest have but one hand, and the ornamentation of the 
brass face is comparatively rude. After this we find two 
hands and a more artistic dial. Lastly the dial is white 

Most of these are simple twenty-four hour clocks wind- 
ing by a chain. But Jonas Barber sometimes soared 
higher. There are examples known of eight-day clocks 
winding by a key with quarter chimes and repeating 
movement. These efforts are of course more elaborate 
throughout in detail, the face and case being more ornate 
than the others. Some appear so much later in date than 
others that I think there may have been father and son off 
the same name. A Philipson, of Winster, whose clocks I 
have only seen with enamel faces, appears to have carried 
on the business after the Barbers. 

A very remarkable clockmaker of probably earlier date 
than the Barbers existed in one Thomas Ponson, of 
Kendal. I only know one example of his work, but it is a 
great curiosity. It is of the upright shape with a brass 
dial elaborately engraved, with scrolls and flourishes. The 
time is, however, indicated on three dials, the long single 
hand covering the face marking the minutes, while the 
two smaller dials (which are included within the circum- 
ference of the main dial), tell, respectively, — the upper the 
seconds, and the lower the hour. It winds by a key at a 
hole on one side of the face, and on the opposite side is a 

* I have seen a Barber of Winster dock inscribed G.R., 1657 in old inlay, but 
I think in this case the maker most have utilised the wood from an older article 
of furniture. 


Plate VIII, 



dummy hole for symmetry. As a rule it may be taken 
that clocks winding by a key are later than those winding 
by a chain, which all the twenty-four hour clocks, as far 
as I know, do. Ponson's clock, however, just described, 
has every appearance of being earlier than any of Bar- 
bers, and its most remarkable feature is that when wound 
fall up, it goes for over a month.^ 

It is somewhat singular that the push plough has 
become obsolete, as it is not quite evident that the neces* 
sity for an instrument of this sort is at an end. Yet 
absolutely obsolete it is, and farm after farm and shippon 
after shippon may be searched in vain before one can be 
found. Yet every old farmer remembers the push plough 
in use from thirty to fifty years ago, and not a few hale 
old fellows are to be found who were mighty ** pushers " 
themselves in their day. 

The component parts of a push plough are (i) the 
plough or iron part, the shape of which is best seen in the 
sketch (Plate VIII). It was about 17 ins. long by 16 ins. 
in greatest width. At one side was a pointed upright 
flange with a sharp edge, which was called the ** cock.'*t 
(2) The wooden shaft called the ''pole,*' which was 
about 5 or 6 feet long, with an upward bend just where it 
left the socket, so as to bring the end on the right level 
for pushing. (3) The " crown," a cross bar at the end 
of the pole, about 3 feet long. The pusher was provided 
with pads fitted with wooden guards, which hung round 
the neck and protected the lower part of the chest, which 
pressed against the ''crown" when at work. 

The use of the push plough was to break up new 

• The bracket clock, with hanging weights, was also locally manufactured over 
hrohu^red years ago. There is one of these in Kendal Museum, inscribed:— 
The gift of James Cock, maior in Kendall 165A, to the maior of the same suck- 
sesivly Time runneth your work is before you. 

George Poole in S.Ans Lane fedt.*' 
t Or wing. It was not always on the same tide of the plough. 



ground for the horse plough. When a new intake of fell 
or moss ground was to be made arable, the pusher was 
sent on to remove the rough top turf, especially the 
"gale,"* with the push plough. First a line was cut with 
the sharp edge in the turf, then the point being inserted, 
it was pushed till the turf covered the length of the spade. 
In doing this the "cock" cut the turf clear on one side. 
The sod was then turned over by raising that side of the 
plough with the "cock." He then proceeded in the same 

Pushing, as may be imagined, was extremely hard 
work, which probably accounts, more than anything, for 
its disuse. There is no doubt that most of the ploughed 
land in the Lakes, and all those high intakes which often 
excite wonder on account of their having been ploughed 
at some time, have been pushed in the first instance. 

After the ground was push ploughed the gale and turf 
were burnt, and thrown on the land as " till." 

It does not appear that the push plough ever did the 
work of the horse plough, like the Highlanders* " cas- 
chrom" ; it was intended solely for preparing the way for 
the latter. 

The peat spade, which is still in use, though of course 
in a minor degree since the general use of coal, is an 
abbreviation of the push plough. Like the latter it has 
the raised flange or " cock," but the handle is short, quite 
straight, and is flat for some distance from the blade, so 
that it could be run under the peat in cutting it (Plate IX). 

As our President has, in a recent volume of our 
"Transactions," given us a vefy exhaustive paper on 
cockfighting, I do not propose to enter into any details as 
to the " noble" and " delightsome" science of "cocking" 
here. But as I have recently come across several exam- 

* The wild myrtle, myrica gale, which grows abundantly in some parts of the 


Plate X. 

9^ . '%/'■> 


%^ \m^ 1/ 

...y .,,,,.,„„., ^. 

x^ .^C-^ 

''^c^%.„ .a.^^^^- 


m/^^Xf^ ^'iMmmmmimiiiKiDn^ ^.rim^nrr^,, 

I t I I 1 , I a 



ptes of a form of oock pit, whidh is not mentioned in thdt 
paper, it may be of some interest ta allude to it now* It 
appears that the most usual form of rural cock pit in the 
palmy days of the sport, was a barn, the floor of which 
was carefully sodded to form an arena* After 1835, when 
cock fighting was made illegal, these were naturally dis- 
carded, and the devotees of the amusement were wont to 
meet in the highways and hedges, places being generally 
chosen where interruption was unlikely. But prior to the 
Act, there was a form of outdoor cock pit of somewhat 
elaborate construction, where the fighting, I am informed, 
sometimes continued for two or more days. Cock pits of 
this description in most cases belonged to old schools, and 
from those I describe it will be seen that they vary much 
in dimensions. 

The first, a very good and typical example of this sort of 
cock pit, is to be seen on the green at Stainton between 
Dalton-in-Fiimess and Gleaston (Plate X.) Its construc- 
tion is as follows:. A level piece of ground has been chosen, 
and a shallow circular ditch about 8 feet in diameter, and 
about i^ feet deep, has been dug, leaving in the centre a 
circular table^like piece of sward about 17 feet in diameter. 
The material used in making the trench was thrown up 
into a circular bank about 2^ feet wide and i.foot high on 
the outer edge of the trench^ so that when completed this 
cock pit had a total diameter of 38 feet, and had a strong 
resemblance on a small scale to King Arthur's round 
table** When fighting was on, the outer bank was the: 
boundary to keep the spectators from getting in the way; 
of the birds and their feeders and setters, and the central 
level was of course the scene of bloodshed. 

Several other cock pits of this type are known to me. 
There is one close to a stile in a field adjoining Aulthurst- 

* Perhaps this resemblanoe sugsrested to the old school of antiquaries the idea^ 
that Kmg Arthur's round table was a sporting arena. 

:; side 


side school (pronounced Owlerside) on the road from 
Woodlands to Broughton-in-Purness* It measures only 
31^ feet, with an arena 20 feet in width. When fighting 
was going on, everyone who passed through the stile was 
blackmailed of a penny before he could proceed. At 
Heversham there is, close to the old Grammar School one 
of enormous proportions, measuring in total diameter 55 
feet, and the arena of which is alone li feet wider than 
the whole of that at Aulthurstside. The old School is 
closed and going to ruin, but old inhabitants tell, how, 
long after cockfighting was given up, the glorious tradi- 
tions of the ** cock pit " were continued in another way, 
viz., by the school boys using it as their milling ground* 
Another cock pit of this sort is said to exist close to 
Ulpha School in the valley of the Duddon, and yet 
another, near the Forge at Kirkby Ireleth. The last« I 
am informed, is probably destroyed now.* 

Pursuing my investigations into this subject with an 
ancient '' feeder " in the parish of Hawkshead, I elicited 
the most marvellous traditions. The gentlemen of the sod 
in this parish were in the habit of meeting (after the 
abolishment of the sport) at various spots on the north 
side of the parish near the Brathay. The strategical 
cunning shown by this was great, for as soon as the police 
were reported on their tracks, they struck their tents, 
bagged their cocks, crossed the Brathay, and turned to 
work again in Westmorland. To show the extent the 
sport was carried on in these days, he enumerated no less 
than eight or nine meeting places in the north half of the 
parish alone. 

At some of the meetings there was in the habit of 
attending, a ** gentleman sort of chap," with whom, as 

^ Stockdale (Annals of Cartmel) mentions cock pits as ezistinsf, or having 
existed^ at Carke (behind Mrs. Mackereth's house) and at Fkx>kborough» behind 
the highest inn, near the bowling green. 



long as he lost money, the local patrons of the sod were 
content not to meddle. When, however, he had a run of 
lucky it was their habit (to prevent him, I presume, escap- 
ing with a balance) to string him up to the beams 
immured in a large basket, from which position he was 
permitted to back his fancy until he was in debt, when he 
was lowered and released to settle accounts.* 

Apart fr<yn betting, cock fighting conducted on scientific 
principles sometimes proved decidedly remunerative. My 
ancient feeder told me that he once possessed a bird 
which at different meetings won for him half a dozen 
chairs, a load of meal, a quarter of beef, a watch, and a 
chest of drawers. 

While on sport and sporting appliances, I may mention 
a very cruel instrument used for taking foxes, which I 
recently saw at Cockleybeck farm on Wrynose. Although 
pre-historic in its simplicity and mediseval in its barbarity, 
I fear I cannot say with truth that its use is entirely obso- 
lete in the Cumberland fells. This instrument, which is 
called a fox screwt consists of a pole some 5 feet long, 
from the end of which projects a powerful double screw, 
of cork screw pattern. Its use was to get a fox from under 
a stone, either at a fox hunt or otherwise. The screw was 
forced under the stone where the fox was known to be, 
and was turned round until it became fastened firmly in 
the fur of the unfortunate beast, which was then dragged 
out, in exactly the same manner as a cork is drawn from 
a bottle. If the fox, as sometimes was the case, gamely 
seized the screw with its teeth, matters were even worse, 
for the screwer screwed it into the poor thing's throat. 
Often, if a fox was not much hurt when extracted, he was 
turned loose for another run. 

* 'rUs hukel trick was evidentlv universal. It is suf 
Hogmrth's picture of a cock pit. Hie Editor of " The 
Mcvaliaed ^ (London, 1768) alludes to it as "a pnnislinK 

\ suDTgested by a shadow in 
The Works of Mr. Hogarth 

' ' I - pnnishnent inflictnd on such as 

bet more »o«ey than thiqr htvt to pay." 



There are rtnany other obsolete appliances, examples of 
which are to be found in various out of the way condi- 
tions, but of which I have not space to give here more 
than a passing mention. There are the quaint old tinder • 
boxes and warming pans in the farm houses, of which 
latter, examples are still common enough. In church 
vestries and old vicarages can occasionally still be seen - 
the rude pitch pipes, by which, in our old parish churches 
prior to the introduction of organs, the key note of the . 
psalms was given. They are made of various shapes and 
sizes. Those represented in the drawing (Plate XI.) are 
from Hawkshead (i linear) and one from Cartmell Pell 
Chapel (to a smaller scale). Both of these have ten notes 
from C to E, including A and B sharp. The former has 
these engraved on a brass plate with the date 1764.* 

Among instruments of punishment may be mentioned 
the cuckstool and brank. The former, in the '' Bc^e off 
Recorde of Kirkbie KendalP't is ordained as a punishment 
for " every common scold, railer, or of notorious misde- 
meanour," and the latter, although not mentioned in that 
interesting old compilation was evidently in use at Kendal, 
for there are two in the Museum of that town at the 
present day. The brank was a sort of iron cage, which 
could be secured on the head, with a projecting plate 
which fitted into the mouth and held down the tongue. It 
was the recognised punishment in old days for women 
who were addicted to scolding, or for immorality. For 
this reason it was also called the ** Scold's bridle," or, as' 
the Macclesfield town records puts it, the ** bridle for a 
curste queane."t T^^^ ^i^st recorded use of it in this 
country is not earlier than 1623, but it was probably in 

• This Hawkshead pipe was charged for in the Parish account book 7s. 6d. As 
it is entered in the year 1763^ the instrument was post-dated, 
t Edited by Rich. S. Ferguson. M.A., LL.M., F.S.A., for this Society (p. 159). 
: '« Old Time Punishments/' by W. H. Andreivs, F.R.H.8. (1890), {k 39. . . 


Plate XI. 




!l ■ II / 




I ., 



* • • • • 

Plate XII. 

-•• • • • • 


the fran,e^°!f,"V '"""P- The h^ " 'o««fcened in 

^y -^hich 1'°^ t'"'' *''« nose ho? *""''" Wffh. On 
*nd the nose h«i / " P"' 't oi, » "! .'^PP*' Part can be 

'•*>»'nd aadZ'^^^^' «nd the' n. "f ^^ P*^* ^°"«d be 

°*^«''-- ne^er? ^' ' Padlock tot'''"''' ^'^^^ <='-«<» 
**>e offender r-V^'"'«'>ove then J u^*' ''^^P'^ as in the 

The c»^" ^^'^^ of scorn o^^n ^* *°*" o^-tied to the 

where u * '^'fe, was knrll *** ""^^ fo«- adultery ot 
yel a Jl'^!'' '«3t obsr^ed^.r^ ^°. *h« north as 3se- 

m.Sfe***^fe'5'««''n8pmebra„k.,r«i;,v .- , •. • • 

"O* stung ridintc ««i. iJt ^'^■'^'os'v c-uxsl-,. - v -iw. 
* ■** Mr. • Andrew's "Old -Time Punitn- 



traffic. Transport of goods by packhorse must have been 
expensive, but in the absence of railways or good roads 
there was no alternative. It is probable indeed that until 
the i8th century such things as wheeled vehicles were but 
little known in the Lake District : but how late the pack- 
horse remained in use is hard to say. There is in Kendal 
Museum a heavy packhorse collar of leather fitted with five 
brass or bronze bells, four round, and a large hanging one 
of the usual shape at the bottom (Plate XIII.) A plate of 
metal is inscribed ** Robert Tebay Kendal/* and two of the 
bells are marked wiiiAN, ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ collar may have been 
used by the leader of a string of packhorses between 
Kendal and that town.''' 

The use of bells with pack animals is universal in the 
East, and it is possible that the fashion may have origin- 
ally found its way thence to our own country. In Asiatic 
Turkey the leader of every string of pack animals, 
whether horse, mule, or camel, is provided with an im- 
mense pair of *' ujras,'* or bells, some of which are treble 
or quadruple, — bells within bells, each bell forming the 
tongue or clapper for the bell within which it hangs. The 
muleteers seem to have an almost superstitious reverence 
for these bells, and refuse even to remove them from the 
animals at night, although they are a source of annoyance 
both to animal and the traveller, as I myself have experi- 
enced. They appear to have also an objection to selling 

* At the Kendal Arts and Crafts Exhibition, iSpi, there was exhibited in the 
loan collection an oil paintingr dated R.T. 1757, of an old bell mare^ said to be 
the last which led the pack train from Kenoal to London. 

Plate XIII. 



Art. IX.— TA^ Early Registers of the Parish of Westward. 
By the Rev. Jambs Wilson, M.A. 

Communicated at Arnside^ Sept. 25, 1893. 

rilHE first Register of the parish of Westward is of a 
^ nondescript character covering the period between 
1605 and 1698. It consists of four parts of varying 
dimensions, bound together in very slovenly fashion, and 
appears as good a specimen of neglect and ill usage as 
can be found elsewhere. Pages are illegible through damp 
and bad ink as well as actual mischief, nearly the whole 
of what ma}' be called the second portion, 1632-1659, 
having the leaves eaten with moths or t )rn down the 
middle. The early pages of the first part, which is a 
quarto of nineteen leaves in fairly good preservation, are 
missing, as the first entry is near the top without intro- 
duction : — 

Item the viiijth of July waa Agnes the dowghter of John Peanon, 
baptized Anno Domini 1605. 

In like manner, it would appear that the last leaves are 
also not forthcoming, as the following entry is close at the 
bottom of the last page : — 

Item the zxviij the of October was Jane the dowghter of Henrb 
Harreson of Heslespring baptised Ann® Dom i6a7« 

During the Commonwealth the method of entering bap- 
tisms as *' borne and baptized " on the same day is almost 
invariable. *In that case the minister would be called 
upon to administer the Sacrament at the houses of the 

The second volume is an upright parchment, extending 
from 1699 to 1729, but the first page, which serves as a 



cover, is obliterated. About three inches from the bottom 
the register has been cut through with a knife, an act of 
childish wantonness which is unaccountable* On the last 
leaf there is mention of certain briefs not wholly decipher- 
able. The third volume is a narrow parchment in excel- 
lent preservation, starting in 1730 and ending in 1760, 
beautifully written and arranged. By way of appendix I 
have tabulated what appeared to me to be the most 
valuable or interesting contents of all three volumes as 
affording the handiest method for reference. 

But besides those earliest of the Westward registers, 
two other parish books of some interest have come Under 
my notice. One of these, a small square note book, has 
this entry on the fly leaf: — 

The poor people's dole 
Book for Wigton Towne and 
the parish of Westward 
March 25 1728 

Richd Wilson 


On the back of (he cover in a later hatid t-^ : 

The Book of Francis 
. ,Barwise!8 Xreg^cy • • . , 

of Stank'bahk to the poor of i^ 

Westward & Wigton town 

and on the inside of the cover : — 

Trust oqtof Mr. Barwis*s personal estate 
charged in the will of Mr. Grainger upon his 
freehold estate at Bromfield 

The little book records the various occasions when the 
interest of the legacy was distributed in the beneficiary 
parishes with the names of the recipients and the.amount 
of the doles. The last entry in the book took place in 
1821. Among its contents are copies of the Francis Barwise 



brass in Westward Church, the will of John Jefferson, 
extract from the Pape will and some records of smaller 
benevolences. The following is a copy of the Jefferson 
will :— 

In the Name of God Amen. I John Jefferson of Brackenthwaite 
in the parish of Westward in the County of Cumberland yeom. being 
of sound and perfect mind and memory (praised be Almighty God) 
do make this my last Will and Testa.n^ in manner following (that is 
to say) first I do give and devise unto my Trusty & beloved Friends 
William Hayton of Westward afores^ Clerk & Thomas Grainger the 
elder of Stoneraise in the parish of Westward in the said County 
gentleman, All that my freehold Messuages & Tenement withall & 
singular the Appurtenances thereunto belonging Situate & being 
within the Township Territories & Townfields of Micklethwaite in 
the parish of Thursby in the County afores<i To have and to hold 
the said freehold Messuage and Tenement with the Appurtenances 
unto them the said William Hayton & Thomas Grainger their Heirs 
& Assigns for ever, in Trust to & for the Uses Intents & Purposes 
herein after mentioned. That is to say, To and for the Use of my 
well beloved Wife Jane Jefferson for & during her natural Life. And 
my Will also is that my said Wife shall and may either by her last 
Will & Testam' or by any other writing under her hand & legally 
attested charge the said Messuage & Tenem< with any Sum or Sums 
of Money not exceeding Sixty Pounds in the whole, either tow^ the 
paym* of her just Debts or to any other Use or Purpose whatsoever 
so as such Debts are contracted & such Will or other Writing pur- 
porting such Charge be made & signed by my said Wife when she 
hall be sole & unmarried. And so as such Payment be not to be 
made untill the space of Twelve Months next after her Decease. 
And from & after her Decease then my Will is that the said William 
Hayton & Thomas Grainger jointly (if both living) or the Survivor of 
them, or if both dead that their Heirs do sell & convey all & singular 
the said Premises either together or in Parcels for the best price 
that can or may be had. And my Will is that with the money aris- 
ing by the sale thereof (after deducting all Expenses and reasonable 
Allowances for their Time & Trouble) they do first pay off and 
discharge all such sum and sums as shall be charged or appointed to 
be paid out of the premises by my said Wife according to my intent 
& meaning hereinafore mentioned & that the remaindi" be distributed 
amongst my Nephews Isaac Jefferson Lancelot Jefferson and my 
Niece Lettice the wife of John Tate equally share & share alike & if 
any of them die before my said Wife or the said Premises can be 



3old leaving lawful Issue My Wiil is that such Issue shall have the 
share thereby intended their respective Parent amongst them 
equally. I also g^ve and bequeath unto my nephews Jonathan 
Jefferson & Joseph Jefferson each five shillings. I also give devise 
and bequeath unto the s^ William Hayton Clerk Present Curate of 
the said Parish of Westward & to John Fletcher Esq' Thomas 
Grainger Joseph Grainger John Jefferson & Joseph Jefferson present 
sidesmen of the said Parish and to their Successors Sixty Pounds 
to be by them placed out to Interest or laid out in the purchase of 
Freehold Lands or Tenem^ & with the yearly Income arising 
thereby My Will is that the same be applied towards the salary of a 
Schoolmaster to teach a Grammar School in the said parish of 
Westward for teaching a number of children not exceeding six at one 
and the same time belonging to the poor parishioners — where of the 
said Parish the Master to receive the said Salary and the Children 
to be therefore taught to be nominated & appointed by a majority of 
the said Curate & Sidesmen for the Time then in being. All the rest 
of my goods Chattels and Personal Estate whatsoever I do give and 
bequeath unto my said Wife Jane Jefferson whctm I do constitute & 
appoint full & Sole Executrix of this my Will hereby revoking all 
others by me formerly made and declaring this only to be my last 
Will & Testament. In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my 
Hands & Seal this first Day of April in the year of our Lord God 
one thousand seven hundred & forty four. John Jefferson his Mark 
and Seal O. 

Signed Sealed Published & declared by the said John Jefferson to 
be his last Will & Testament in the Presence of us : Jane Pattinson 
her mark Robert Pattinson sworn John Harrison. 

We believe the above to be a true Copy of the Original. Attested 
this twenty-sixth Day of July 1767 by us 

John Pape, Minister. 

John Willison \ 

Joseph Ireland J Churchwardens. 

John Bewley 

The will of the Rev. John Pape is dated 27th of October, 
1778, of which the following is an extract as far as it 
relates to the charity : — 

I also give bequeath and devise to my Successors in the Curacy & 
to Henry Fletcher Esq"" of Clea Hall in the parish of \Vestward his 
Successors or Administrators & the Sidesmen of the said Parish & 
their Successors the sum of twenty Pounds to be by them placed out 



at Interest or laid out in the purchase of freehold Lands or Tene- 
ments & the annual Income or Produce thereof to be applied in 
Augmentation of for & towards the Salary of the Schoolmaster for 
the time being of the School already established & adjoining to 
Westward churchyard to be given by my said daughter Ann at the 
same time 8c after the same Events as before mentioned (1^. twelve 
months after marriage) for teaching and instructing one poor child 
of the said parish such child being nominated and appointed by a 
Majority of the said Curate, Henry Fletcher Esq' & Sidesmen for the 
time being. But my further Will is & I hereby direct that after the 
Departure from the said School or Death of the Master teaching 
there when first such Legacy shall become due that the Interest 
arising therefrom be paid to a Schoolmaster, who is not in Orders 
and to the Poor of Westward by the Directions of the said Curate, 
Henry Fletcher Esq' & Sidesmen as beforementioned, And when 
any Curate of the said Parish shall teach the said School, the 
annual Interest arising from the beforementioned Principal of twenty 
pounds shall then be paid to such Poor of Westward as shall seem 
needful to the Curate thereof & his Successors & to Henry Fletcher 
Esq*^ his Executors & Administrators & the Sidesmen for the Time 
being at the said School adjoining the Westward Churchyard & on 
the first of August annually & for ever : this Exception being further 
made i.e, that the four or five first Years Interest or more if needful 
be first of all reserved & secured as a Fund sufficient to purchase a 
a Pair of three Guinea Globes or thereabouts to be chosen for the 
Benefit of the said School of Westward as beforementioned. 

Of the smaller benefactions, it is a pleasure to rescue the 
names of two or three of the pious donors from oblivion: 

Betty Huntington's legacy of Fifty Shill^* (of East Kirthwaite 
lately deceased) to the poor of Westward Parish was distributed in 
the month of May 1777 

in sums varying from eight shillings to one shilling to ten 
poor people. Also, 

Distributed at Martinmas 1772 & on and about Lady Day 1773 the 
Ten Pounds the Legacy and Charity of the Rev<l Mr. Atkinson to 
the following poor of Westward in memory of his native parish. 

Atkinson's charity was divided into twelve sums and dis- 
tributed amongst the same number of deserving people. 
The last benefaction I shall record is the 



Legacy of 25« left by Matilda Jackson to the poor of Westward 21 
of Dec' 1779 

which was distributed in the usual manner. This charity 
is commemorated upon a brass plate bearing this inscrip- 
tion : — 

Matilda Jackson (late Jefferson) of Millbeck, daughter of George 
Atkinson of Longwath, gives to the poor of Westward parish for ever 
the interest of £^0 to be distributed by equal moieties on the 21st 
day of December and the 25th day of March* 

Feofees in Trust ' 
Curate of Westward -Jointly 
Heir of Longwath 

The first distribution was made on the 21st day of December 1778 
Obiit VII»o die Maij A.D. MDCCLXXVII. 

The Vicar found this brass among some old lumber and 
intends to screw it up on the church wall. 

Some doubt has been thrown upon the date of the re- 
building of the present church of Westward, which some 
extracts from the Book of Accounts of the Churchwardens 
and Overseers of the Parish will help to settle. Of these 
the following are the most important : — 

At a publick Vestry held this third day of January in the year of 
our Lord 1782 in the parish Church of Westward in the County of 
Cumberland in and for the said parish pursuant to publick notice 
duly given in order to take into consideration sundry Matters relating 
their parish Church — 

Whereas a Brief has been obtained for raising Money towards re- 
building the said parish church now in a ruinous & uncommodxous 
condition By virtue whereof the sum of ;f8i has been collected and 
raised but is greatly inadequate to the purpose aforesaid And 
whereas a Petition hath this day been signed by the house and land 
owners of the said parish to the Right Honble. the Ear! of Egremont 
& another like petition to S' Philip Musgrave Baronet praying their 
respective Benefactions towards rebuilding the said church And 
whereas Henry Fletcher Esquire hath voluntarily proposed that in 
case the Parishion" of the said parish will raise the amount of one 



handred purveys'*' for the above purpose, he the said Henry Fletcher 
will raise the necessary Moneys to compleat the same which the 
said Brief money and the moneys to arise from the petitioned Bene- 
factions may be deficient and fall short. 

It was resolved accordingly that the necessary sum 
should be raised " with all convenient speed," and " the 
churchwardens and overseers of the poor do collect the 
same." But the matter was allowed to rest for over three 
years. In September, 1785, another vestry was held when 
the re-building of the church was brought to practical 
issue. How the work was done the following resolutions 
will show : — 

Resolved that the church be rebuilt in the present church yard & 
that the following persons be appointed for assisting the church- 
wardens in collecting the 100 purveys in & for the dif!^ Q^ and that 
they pay the same when received into the hands of Sir Henry 

Resolved also that the parish assist in leading the principal mate- 
rials proper for repairing the said church such as slate, wood, lime, 
sand & stones, such proportions as be set out. 

It is clear that the church of Westward attained its 
present structural state at that date. 

From the accounts of the overseers settled before the 
sidesmen between the years 1770 and 1780, a few extracts 
which may be of interest are given : — 

By book of Articles & churchwardens dining at the 

Visitation -... ..... o 17 2 

„ Joseph Sharp for repairing Church ..... ..... 011 4 

,. Wm. Briscoe for a ladder for the Church ..... 040 

„ Surplice Washing & book keeping ...» 050 

„ a lock for the school house ..... ..... 018 

„ a soldier's wife & 3 children travelling to Sunder- 
land ..... «... ..... ..... 020 

•The purvey for Westward was df i 6 3 made up thus, Rosley and Woodside 
£oZ6, StoDeraise and Brocklebank Xo 12 6, Kirthwaite £0 5 3: see " Hutchin- 
soo's Cumberland", vol. ii, pp. H86, ^687. 

By John 


By John Crosthwaite stone for a Dial (1773) ;fo 3 o 

„ some repairs in the School forms, doors, &c. ...066 
„ relieving the poor by consent of the sidesmen ^^ o 10 6 
„ expenses of self and horse attending Easter Ses- 
sions 1770, 3 days .^ ^_ o 13 3 

„ a Pall or Funeral Cloth i i o 

„ Jane Scot funeral expenses ^« ._. i 10 8 J 

In 1772 the old custom of farming the paupers of the 
parish was brought to an end : — 

We whose names are subscribed being the majority of a vestry or 
public meeting legally assembled in the parish church of Westward 
this 17th day of June 1773 do agree that all the poor belonging to 
the said parish be sent to the Workhouse at Hesket. 

It may be said in conclusion that I have refrained from 
adding explanatory notes or burdening the text with 
information which may be found in print elsewhere. I 
have to thank the Rev. G. M. Tandy, the venerable vicar 
of the parish, my good friend and neighbour, for many 
acts of kindness of which access to his parish chest is but 
an inconsiderable part. It has been a great regret to him 
that his parish books have suffered so much in the past 
and that there is so little to record. Now, at all events, 
every care is taken for their preservation. 

Appendix L 
ecclesiastical entries. 

Item. Upon the same day (the second day of if ebruarie, 1619) did Mr. Row- 
land Dacre, p*son of Newbtgginge make and preache a sermon att Westward 
here wth this text, who so dothe these things shall nev' fall, Psalmes the 15, 
verse last. 

Item. The nth of May was SrCuthbert Tyffine, Clarke, minister at West- 
ward and Jane Jackeson of Brig end laite of Wigdon wedded at Westward 
Anno Dom : 1620. 

Item. The xxth of August was Mabell dowghter of Sr Cuthbert TyfHne 
minister of Westward baptized Anno Dom : 1620. 

Item. The xth of ffebruarie was John the sonne of Cuthbt Tiffine. mtni^ter of 
Westward baptized Anno Dom : 162 1. 

Item. The xxviijth of March was John yo sonne of Cuthbert Tiffine, minister 
of Westward buryed Anno Dom ; 1622. 



Item. The xxih of July was Cuthbert the sonne of Cuthbert Tiffine darke, 
minister of Westward baptized Ann© Dom 1623. 

Item. The vith of fFebruarie was Richard the sonne of Cuthbert Tiffine, 
minister of Westward baptized. Anno Dom : 1625. 

Januaire was Marie the dowghter of Cuthbert Tiffine 

darke .... 1634. 

Item. The 23 of October (164S) was Cuthbert Tiffine, minister of Westward 

(In 1656 there is a marriagfe where the leaf is cut off) by James Stewart a 

1664. The 18 of September was Robert ffisher, minister, buried. 

1669. The 14 day of January Mr James Stewerd vicar of Westwd buryed. 

167 1. Elizabeth the c^aughter of Mr. Will: Robinson Curate of Westward 
bap : Aug. 24th, nat : 2 day id : mensis. 

1703. Joseph son of Tho : Holme Curate of Westward bap : September 30th. 

1 7 14. Mr. Richard Wilson minister of this parish & Mrs Margaret Ballentine 
of Crookedake were married October ye 26th. 

Mr. Thomas Holme late minister of Westward was buryed December ye 5th 

1738. The Revd Mr. Hayton Curate of Westmd & Eliz: Key December 
y« 18th (married). 

1752. The Revd Mr. Willm Hayton clerk. Westward, Decembr ye 27th 

Appendix II. 


Item. Upon the same day (July 20) was John Barwis and Elizabeth wood 
wedded 1606. 

Item. The xxviiio of November was Grace daughter of Mr. Anthony Barwis 
Esquir baptized 1609. 

Item. The xxxio day of November was ffrancis sonne of Mr. Richerd Barwis 
buryed 1610. 

Item. The viiio of September was Mabell the daughter of Mr. Richerd 
Barwis of Hylde-Kirk baptized 1611. 

Item. The viiio of June was John the sonne of Mr. John Barwis of Hylekirk 
baptized 1612. 

Item. The xxviiio of Marche was John the sonne of Mr. Anthony Barwis of 
Hyldkirk baptized 1613. 

Item. The xxxth of Marche was the said John sonne of Mr. Antho : Barwis 
of Hyldkirk buryed 1613. 

Item. The ffirst of Aprill was Anthony the sonne of Mr. Richard Barwise of 
Clcsey baptized 16 13. 

Item the xxviiith of Jane was sonne of Richerd Barwis shomaker base 

begotten buryed 1613. 

Item. The 2th of Januarie was William the sonne of Mr. John Barwis of 
Clesey baptized anno Dom : 16 13. 



Item. Ihe vth of July was Mr. Anthony Brawas of Hildkirke Esquir buryed 
at newekirk Anno Dom: 1616. 

Item. The xxvith of Julye was Mrs. Grace Barwis the wife of Mr. Anthony 
Barwis of Hyldkirke Buryed Anno Dom : 1616. 

Item. The xth of Marche was Doritie the dowg^her of Mr. Lancelote Denton 
of Hyldkirke baptized Anno Dom : 1617. 

Item. The ffirst of Aug^uste was ffrancis dowghter of Mr. Lancelote Denton of 
Hyldkirke baptized Anno Dom : 1619. 

Item. The xxth of Augfust was ffrances Barwis buryed anno Dom : 1623. 

Item. The xth of October was Robert the base beg-otten sonne of William 
Barwis and Jane harreson (?) of Heslespringe baptized Anno Dom : 1623. 

the daughter of Anthonie Barwis baptized Anno 

Dom : 1634. 

rd Barwis of brigbanke within the pish, of 

Wigdon and 1634. 

daughter of Thomas Barwis of ye ff 

baptized 1640. 

Item. The xiitth of ffebruarie was Richard Barwis of llekirk Esquire buried 

1660. The 20 of December was John Barwis the son of Antho : buried. 

1669. The 1 1 day of July Antho : Barwis of Street buryed. 

1670. ffrancis the daughter of Wm. Barwis of Street baptized ye 13 day of 

Richard Barwis son of Mr. Richard Barwis of llekirk bapt : Novemb : 29th 
1671. nat: Novemb : yc 7 day eiusdem mensis. 

Richard son of Rich : Barwis bap March (?) 1671. 

Elizabeth daughter of Will : Barwis bapt : November 14 (1672). 

ffrancis daughter of Mr. Rich : Barwis bapt Jan : the 6 (1672). 

Susan daughter of Will : Barwis bapt 1673 (or 4). 

Mrs. Mary Musgrave of Clea and Mary Barwis was {sic) buryed Decemb 
220 1675. 

Tho : son of Mr. Rich : Barwis was bur : Jan : the 6, 1676. 

Willm Barwis bapt July S, 1677. 

Thomas son of John Barwis bapt: October ye 9 (16S0). 

Richard ffil: willim Barwis bapt : November ye 4, i6Su 

Alice filia John Barwis was bapt : January 19 i6Si(-2). 

Catherine filia Mr. Rich : Barwis was bapt: Jan: the 12, i6Si(-2). 

Maryfil: Rich: Barwis bapt: Sept: 28, 1683. 

ffrancis Barwis bur : idem dies. 

Sarah fil: Will: Barwis was bapt : July 21 16S4. 

Mary (orMarg:) Barwis bur: Decemb: 10, 1684. 

Grace fil: Will: Barwis bapt: .... 16S7. 

Will : fil : Will : Barwis bapt : March 3, 1692. 

Mr. Kirkby and Mrs. Frances Barwis were marryed June the 6th 1700. 

John Featherstonhaugh Esquire and Madam Anne Barwis were marryed 
November the 2Lst 1700. 

Anne the wife of Willm Barwis bury'd Jan : 31st i702(-3). 

1703. Grace Barwis buryed May ye 3d. 

1705. Mrs. Frances Barwis was buryed November ye 12th 1705. 

1708. Madam Featherstonhaugh dyed 7ber ye i9thy duryed here 7ber ye 2is€ 



1713. Susan Barwis buried October yo 4^ 1713. 

17 16. Anthony Barwis and Elizabeth Wood mar : May ye 15th. 

(171 7). Thomas son of Anthony Barwis ffebrua* ye i ith 171^ (baptized). 

1719. Willm Barwis December 25 (buried). 

1730. John son of Anthony Barwtse November iSth (born)« 

1722. A child of Anthony Barwise's Septemb: 26 (buried). 

172S. Anthony Barwiss July 27 (buried)f 

i72S(-9). Elizabeth Barwise March 12th (buried). 

1730. Willm son of Wm Barwise Aug-ust y^ 2 (baptized). 

1732. John son of Wm Barwise July ye 6th (baptized). 

1733. Wm son of Wm Barwise June ye 14th (buried). 
>733« Jobn son of Wm Barwise June ye 28th (buried). 

1737- Agnes dauehtrof Wm Barwise April ye ist (baptized). 

I737« John Barwise & Eliz : Briscoe of Langfrigf June ye i6th (married). 

1739* Alines daughtr of Willm Barwise May ye 10 (buried). 

1739. William Barwise of Greenrig August ye 29th (buried). 

1740. Willm Barwtse & Mary Edmison Octobr ye 23d (married). 
1743. Martha daughtr of Thomas Barwise June ye 22d (baptized). 
4744. Joseph Harden & Jane Barwise Decemb> y« 27th (married). 
>744(-5)' Mary daughter of Thos : Barwise, Street. March ye 6th (baptized). 

Appendix III. 


Item. The xxth of October was Henrie Willimson and Mabell Briskoe of 
this ptsh wedded 1605. 

Item. The xxiio of December was John sonne of Guye Briskoe baptized 161 1. 

Item. The viitith of Januarie was Marie the dowghter of Guy Briskoe bap- 
tized Anno Dom : 16 15. 

Item. The vith of Deceml^r was Agnes the dowghter of John Briskoe of 
Cooningegarthe baptized Anno Dom : 161S. 

Item. The xiiijth day of Januarie was Marie the dowghter of John Briskoe of 
Cunning garth Anno Dom : 1620. 

Item. The xviiith day of May was Guy Briskoe of Cunningegarth younger 
baryed Anno Dom : 1621 . 

Item. The xxvth day of May was Katheran dowghter of Guy Brisskoe of 
Cunningegarth Buryed Anno Dom 162 1. 

Item. Th; xxiiird of September was Elizabeth Briskoe wedowe of Cunning 
garth buried Anno Dom : 1623. 

Item. The ijth of ffebruarie was Marie the dowghter of Guy Briskoe of Cun- 
ning garth baptized Anno Dom i622(-3). 

Item. Ye xxzith of Januarie was John Sanderson & Jane Briskoe wedded 
anno Dom : 1625. 

Anthony the Sonne of Guy Briskoe Buryed (?) 1627. 

the Sonne of Robert Briskoe of Cunning garth baptized 




the daughter of Robert Briskoe of Cunning garth bap- 
tized 1640. 

Item. The xxxith of May was Anne the base begotten dowghter of Anthonie 

. . . ; and .... Briskoe of Cunning garth within this pish was 

Item. The 20th of March was Robert Briscoe of Cunning garth buried 164S. 
was Jane the dowghter of Robert Briskoe baptized 

The 12 of November was Edward Rowland and Essabell Briscoe mariied 1659. 

1661. The 3 of October was Essabell the daughter of John Briscoe baptized. 

1664. The 21 of August was Susana the daughter of Jo : Briscoe of Cunning 
garth baptized. 

1664. The 26 of August was Susana the daughter of Jo : Briscoe buried. 

1665. The 29 day of November was Elizabeth daughter of John Briscoe 

1666. The 19 of September was Thomas Briscoe of Cunyearth buried. 
1666. The 8 of August was Christopher B( P)arker and Mary Briscoe weded. 
166S. The 21 of Apritl was John Harqson and Jane Briscoe weded. 

1668. The 14 of November was Mary the daughter of John Briscoe baptized. 

1668. The 12 of februarie was Mary the daughter of John Briscoe buried. 
i668. The 26 of februarie was Susana the daughter of John Briscoe buried. 

1699. The 4 of June was John Lambley and Jane Briscoe weded. 

1669. John Briscoe ye son of John Briscoe of Cunninge garth bapt ye 23 of 

1670. John the son of Antho : Briscoe of Breckinwhaite bapt ye 6 of June (?) 
1672. Gawin son of John Briscoe buried June ye 26. 

1680. Lucy filia John Briscoe was bapt Decern b : >e 26. 

1682. Jane Briscoe wid : off Cumgarth was buried June the first. 

16S3. Georg Moore of Jurrenhen (?) pish & Isabell Briscoe of this by license 
mar: ffeb : 21. 

1686. Rub : Jefferson & Jane Briscoe mar: Octob : 23 16S6. 

1700. John Briscoe and Anne Atkinson were marryed June ye 15th. 
1702. Mary daughter of John Briscoe bapt Aug ye 2d. 

1702. John Hodgson and Sarah Briscoe were marryed Augt ye 3d. 

1705. John son of John Briscoe baptized July ye 13th. 

171 1. Lucy Briscoe was buryed Jan : ye 24. 

1 712. Luce daughter of John Brisco baptized July ye 3a 

1 713. Dennis Briscoe buried Aprill ye 21. 
173?. John Briscoe January ye 21 (buried). 
I73t* A"" Briscoe March ye (buried). 

173?. Jon Briscoe & Jane Asbridge Febry ye 4tli (married). 

I73I' Joseph Harden & Mary Briscoe Septembr ye 2id (married). 

1731. Anne daughtr of John Briscoe Decembr ye 22 (baptized). 

1733. John son of Jno Briscoe Septembr ye 13th (baptized). * 

1735. Jane Briscoe April ye 2d (buried). 

1736. Margaret daughtr of Jno: Briscoe Decemb : ye 220 (baptized). 

1737. John Barwise 81. Eliz : Briscoe of I^ngrig June 30 16th (married). 

1738. Lucy Briscoe January ye 12th (buried). 

173^* Joseph son of Jno Briscoe March ye 22d (baptized). 



1741. Willm SOD of Jno Briscoe of Brackte Novembr ye 12th (baptized). 

1743* Jane wife of Jno Briscoe May ye 29th (buried), 

1744. John Briscoe & Maitha Folder August ye 2d (married). 
i74l> John Briscoe of Brackinthwaite February ye 24th (buried). 

I74f. 5)arah daughtr of Jno : Briscoe Brackinthwaite February ye 24th 

1745. Joseph son of John Briscoe Brackinthwaite July ya ist (buried). 
1756. 7th Feby Sarah Brisco of Old Cariisle spinster (buried). 

1760. March 19th John son of John Brisco of Heslespring (baptized). 

Appendix IV. 


1660. The 26 of Januarie was Ann the daughter of Richard ffletcher baptized. 

1662. The 6 of December was William the son of Richard ffletcher buried. 

1666. The 17 of March was John the son of Richard ffletcher baptized. 

166S. The 7 of Aprill was Richard the son of Rich : ffletcher baptized. 

1670. Isaac ffletcher ye son of Mr Richard ffletcher bapt : ye .... 

17 15. Mrs Mary ffletcher of Cleah-Hall was buried October ye 24th 

1717. Philip son of Mr John ffletcher of Cleah Novbr 21 (baptized). 

1719. John son of Mr John ffletcher of Clea bap : May 30th. 

1721. James son of Mr John ffletcher of Clea May 24 (under Births). 

1733. George son of Mr John Fletcher April 4th (baptized). 

1725. Grace dau' of Mr. John Fletcher High Sheriff was baptized April 2ist. 

1726. Mr James Fletcher April 22d (buried). 
17^7. Lowther ye son of JoQ Fletcher May loth. 

1 729. Harry son of Jno Fletcher Esq Octobr 2 (baptised). 

1731. Charles son of John Fletcher Octobr ye 2ist (baptized). 

i73|. Elizabeth Fletcher, Clea, February ye 15th (buried). 

1734. Jane daught' of Jno Fletcher August ye 9th (baptized). 
174^. Philip Fletcher of Qea, Major, March ye 12 (buried). 
1745. Mr* Elizabeth Senhouse of Clea Decembr ye 17th (buried). 

171^. Anthony Fletcher, Penrith & Mary Firsaker, Caldbeck January yo 6th 

175}. Mr. Thomas Benson & Mrs. Jane Fletcher March ye 12th (married). 

1754. William Taylor & Miss Grace Fletcher Jany 22nd (married). 

1756. John Fletcher Esqr of Qea, Augst 2i8t (buried). 

Appendix V. 


Item. The viith of Marche was Jehutha sonne of Adam hodgeson, baylife. 
baptized 1612. 

Item. The xth of November was John Robinson of the Hight alias halt 
Robinson buryed 1613. 



Item. The iiijth of August was Atnbros Wiflson alias Stamp of the pish of 
Wigton and Alyce Dowthwaite of the pish of Westward wedded Anno Dom : 

Item. The iiijth of October was Robert the base begotten Sonne of William 
Asbrig^ alias Lord Willie and Annas Holme buryed 16 16. 

Item. The xixth of Januarie was Adam the sonne of Adam hodgeson, bay- 
life of Westward baptized Anno Dom: 16 16. 

Item. The xxviijth day of ifebruaire was Christopher My rehouse of Myre- 
houses buryed Anno Dom 1616. 

Item. I'he xiijth of Januarie was John Wiltimson of willthorne myre old 
baylife buryed Anno Dom : 1619. 

Upon the same day (August 6) was Jane the daughter of John Malcing-e a 
traveller in ye countrie buryed Anno Dom : 1620. 

Item. The xvth of Marche was Margaret alias nurse buryed Anno Dom 1621. 

Item. The xxith of July was John Tiffin of wysey alias ded Tiffin buryeJ 
Anno Dom : 1623. 

Itkm. The xth of Marche was Doritie the daughter of Mr Lancelot Denton of 
Hyldkirke baptized Anno Dom 1617. 

Item. 1 he xxvth of October was John Armeror of the pish of Holme Coltru* 
and Katteren Musgrave of this pishe wedded Anno Dom : 1618. 

Item. The 23 of December was the wife of John Robinson of the hight 
buryed 1605. 

Item. The xxviijth of November was John Robinson of fifosterfould buryed 

Item. The xixth of Marche was John son of John Robinson of G>lepitts 
baptized 1608. 

Item. The xth of June was Symon Robinson of Howerigg^ buryed 1639. 

Item. The vth of December was Jane dowghter of Christopher Robinson 
buried 1649. 

1669. The 4th day of November Margaret Robinson of Woodside boryed. 

Willm fit : Mr. Willm Horslay bapt ffebr : the 9 16S1. 

Mary fil : Mr. Willm Horslay bapt : Jan : 26 1694. 

166S. Item. The 4 of October was Jo the son of John Lowrance milner at 
Ilekirk baptized. 

John Youn^ & Jane Musgrave was (sic) mar : May 3 1 1684. 

John Wood of Warton and Barbara Stalker of this parish were marryed Aprill 
ye 20th 1700. 

Cuthbert Atkinson of Warton and Frances Grainger of Stoneraise were 
marryed May ye i6th 1700. 

1716. John Nixon & Margaret Crookdake October ye 14. 

1700. Elizabeth Robinson of Colehole was buried July ye i8th. 

1701. John son of Mr. John Robinson of Stoneraise was baptized July ye 

1701. Thomas and Mary son & daughter of John Robinson of Woodside were 
baptized September ye 14th. 

Item. The xxvth of Januaire was Marie the doughter of John harreson 
junior called Cuthbt John of Heslespring baptized Anno Dom 1623. 

was ffrances the dowghter of Mr Thomas Lamplewghe of 

. . . . ed Anno Dom : 1634. 

.... Februaire was Elizabeth the dawghter of John Threlkerd baptized 
1634. 16^8 



1658. iTm. Thefintof June was Robert Musg^ave and . . (married). 

1621. Item. The viith of October was Agnes the dow^hter of Runyand bell 
baptized Anno Dom : 1621. 

1717. John Blamire & Mary Nicolson were married June ye 15th p License. 

Anne daug^hter of Mr William Horseley junr was baptized July ye 6tb 1707* 

William son of Mr William Horseley was baptized December ye 6th 1709. 

Frances dauf^hter of Mr Horseley bapt May 2d 171 1. 

1 7 19. Mr William Horseley March 12 (buried). 

1725. John Wilson of Graing^er Houses and his son Thomas both buried in 
one grave. 

1728. Mrs Horseley October iSth (buried). 

1733. Mary Pearson, Quaker, July ye ist (baptized). 

1731* Josiah Harrison, Quaker, January ye ist (baptized). 

1737. Mary daug-titr of Wm Hinde Sojour May ye 19th (baptized). 

1737* Georji^e Bell sojourner April ye 19th (buried). 

1741. Anthony Sharpe, clerk & Eliz : Piele April ye 2d (married). 

1741. Mary daughtr of John Stanwix August ye 26th (baptized). 

1744. John Jefferson of Brackinthwaite vul : diet: old carrier May ye Sth 

1 745- John Sanderson pensioner Decembr ye 38th (bur.) 

1744. Martin Salkeld & Esther Wilson September ye 24th (married). 

1749. John Thomlinson, Gill & Grace Liddle Moorehouse November ye 
2d (married). 

1754. Bernard Barton & Mary Porter from the parish of Dalston Jany 13 

I JS7- Xber 4th Guy Dalston of Broadmoor, said to be 104 years old (buried). 


Art. X.—Pre-Norman Cross-Shaft at Heversham. 
By the Rev. W. S. Calverlby, F.S.A. 

Read at Heversham, Sept. 25, 1893. 

TIEVERSHAM, a parish some eight miles long and 
■'-'" three wide, and containing several townships, is 
mentioned in Domesday by the name of Eversham, Euer 
being possibly the name of an early owner whose patrony- 
mic, we are told, was not extinct in the district in 1777. 

The church stands near to the Roman road from 
Chester to Carlisle, and between Lancaster (where all 
the western traffic which was not destined to follow 
the tedious roads around and across the aestuaries of 
Morecambe, and Duddon, must strike northwards) and 
Kendal, at which place the road to the head of Winder- 
mere, — the camp at Ambleside, — into the very heart of 
the mountains, and over Hardknott into the Coupland 
district to Ravenglass and Whitehaven, turned a little to 
the westward. 

About a mile to the north-east of the church and within 
the parish is the village of Hincaster. The name seems 
to point to a Roman camp or fort. Whether there are 
traces of a Roman colony or settlement here I have not 
ascertained, but that a considerable degree of Christian 
culture had been attained in the immediately succeeding 
centuries appears to be attested by the existence of the 
cross at Heversham, and by records written in the early 
days after the Norman conquest. Unfortunately the dedi- 
cation of the original church of Heversham is not known, 
and there has been some confusion of the names of St. 
Mary and St. Peter. A well 200 yards north-west of the 
church was known as St. Mary's Well, and may have led 
to the supposition that the ancient dedication was to St. 



Mary. On the other hand, the names of St. Peter and St. 
Mary may have been allowed to supplant as far as pos- 
sible the name of the patron saint of the original church 
of the British period or of the time when the Teutonic 
settlers had embraced the faith, and after the first Norman 
baron of Kendal, Ivo de Talebois, had p^ranted the church 
to the Abbey of St. Mary at York, which grant was con- 
firmed to the Abbey by the name of the Church of 
Eversheim by Gilbert son of Roger Fitz-Reinfred in the 
reign of Richard I. 

The Manor of Heversham was formerly held by Tosti, 
Earl of Northumbria, who fell fighting against his brother 
Harold Goodwinson the English King, at Stamford 
Bridge, where also fell Harold Hardraada or Harold 
Sigurdson, on the eve, as it were, of the battle of Hast- 
ings. (Something of the story of Tosti is told, I believe, 
on the Crosses at Halton, at which place he probably had 
a residence, and concerning which I had the honour of 
reading a paper before the Royal Archaeological Insti- 
tute at their meeting at Edinburgh two years ago.) 
Domesday book states that Earl Tosti had held amongst 
other lands two carucates at Hennecass^r^, two at Euere- 
shaim, two at Levens, &c., which lands are now held for 
purposes of taxation by Roger of Poictou and a certain 
Priest under him. "In Biedun habuit comes Tosti, six 
carucatas terrse ad geldum ; Nunc habet Rogerum Pista- 
viensis et Eruvin presbyter sub eo. In Jalant 4 car., 
Fareltun 4 car., Prestun 3 car., Berewic 2 car., Henne- 
castre 2 car., Evershaim 2 car., Lefuenes 2 car.," Domes- 
day. The manor, as well as the church, passed through 
the hands of the Barons of Kendal into those of the Abbey 
of St. Mary at York, and was after the dissolution of the 
monasteries granted to different persons, one of whom, 
Richard Bowskell (whose arms 1601 were in the east 
window of the south aisle of the church) bought out 
several of the others, excepting certain tenements in 



Rowell^ Leesgill, WoodhousCy Aughtinwaite^ Milnthorpe, and 
Eversham^ names which serve to remind one of the anti- 
quity and comparative independence of the holdings, as 
does the clause in the inquisition reserving to the owner a 
right to •* all the works of the tenants of the said manor 
called bond days^** if any such appertain thereto. 

Heversham presents a fair specimen of the history of 
parochial and church property from early times. Seized 
by the Conqueror and given to his friends, by the year 
1459 it had been appropriated to the Abbey of St. Mary, 
the Archbishop reserving a portion for a Vicar. This 
portion was set out next year as one third of the Mill at 
hfilnthorpe anciently belonging to the Church, tithes of 
demesne lands, one quarter of the tithes of the people, 
&c. The vicar was to find bread, wax, wine for the 
church, pay io6s. 8d. to the Abbot and convent, repair 
the chancel and bear Archiepiscopal and Archidiaconal 
charges. The residue was alienated from the parish to be 
eventually swallowed by the Crown at the dissolution. 
There are two chapelries within the parish which deserve 
attention, Crosscrake and Crossthwaite. Whether crosses 
ever stood at either place is not known, but Stainton^ 
one of the townships of Crosscrake, is older than the 
conquest, being named in Domesday as belonging to Gile- 
Michel, and its chape! was endowed by Anselm de 
Furness, son of the first Michel le Fleming, about the 
time of Richard I. The name of the " tun " appears to 
point to some stone pillar or cross of much earlier date 
than Domesday, whilst the name of the other township of 
the chapelry. Sedge-wick^ leads us back to a like period. 
Crossthwaite chapel, five miles north-west from the Parish 
Church, stands upon an ancient foundation, though it had 
been allowed to fall into decay before 1556, when the 
Bishop of Chester, on petition of the inhabitants, granted 
a license that Mass should be said, the canonical hours 
rehearsed, the sacraments administered by a priest ap- 


proved by the Vicar of Heversham without prejudice to 
the mother church. This license was^ to be produced 
every three years by the chaplain and read in the Parish 
Church on the second day after Pentecost. 

In 1580 an award was made on certain disputes between 
the inhabitants of the chapelry and other inhabitants, 
which award was destroyed when the parish church was 
burnt down in 160X9 whereupon a reproduction was made 
as nearly as possible Trom memory, setting forth that the 
inhabitants, by their churchwardens and sworn men, 
should yearly upon New Year's Eve make their accounts 
and reckonings at Heversham Church and pay what fell 
due ; also that they should pay a certain share of the 
stipend of the parish clerk ; also 3s. 4d. for every corpse 
buried above the quire wall in Crosthwaite Church ; also 
one fourth share of repairs, &c., of the parish church ; 
also they should appoint two men to serve as church- 
wardens at Heversham Church from their hamlet, and six 
others, to be sworn men, as assistants, to make up the 
number of twenty-four sworn men, the said churchwardens 
and sworn men to join with the other churchwardens and 
sworn men in all things needful and necessary to the said 
church, and always to be appointed on New Year's Eve, 
and to take their oaths on the 5th day of January, being 
the twelfth even, at the Church of Heversham according 
as hath been accustomed. It seems to me that we have 
here an indication of a reversion to the Mark or Mearc^Mot, 
an institution which, as Mr. Kemble says,* lay at the 
basis of Teutonic society. " The Mark contained within 
itself the means of doing right between man and man ; it 
had its principal officer or judge, and its priest and place 
of religious observance." At the great religious rites 
thrice in the year the Markmen assembled unbidden. On 
emergencies summonses issued to a bidden ''Thing." 

* *' Tbe Saxons in England." 



" The MArk was a voluntary association of free men, who 
laid down for themselves and strictly maintained a system 
of cultivation by which the produce of the land on which 
they settled might be fairly and equally secured for their 
service and support ; and from participation in which they 
jealously excluded all who were not born or adopted into 
the association. It was a union for the purpose of admin- 
istering justice, or supplying a mutual guarantee of peace, 
security, and freedom for the inhabitants of the district." 

The use of the lands, the woods, and the waters was 
made dependent upon the general will of the settlers, and 
could only be enjoyed under general regulations made by 
all for the benefit of all. The principle was retained and 
acted upon in the relations of the hamlets towards each 
other and towards the parish church. 

It is peculiarly interesting to find the remains of a very 
beautiful piece of sculpture of pre-Norman date upon the 
very site upon which it was first set up, amidst so many 
evidences of the state of the country about the time of its 
erection, and in the neighbourhood of dedications to St. 
Patrick, St. Oswald, St. Wilfrid and of such varied work 
as may be seen at Heysham, Lancaster, Halton, Melling, 
and other churches at no great distance. 

The fragment now standing in the porch of Heversham 
Church is of a coarse-grained sandstone, 4 ft. 7 in. high, 
13 inches wide and 8 inches thick at the bottom, and 11 
wide, by 7I inches thick at the top. Portions have been 
broken away and a considerable part of one edge knocked 
off, so that it is difficult to ascertain what may have been 
the exact measurement of the original block. There is a 
sun dial of the same kind of stone fixed in the solid socket 
stone of two steps placed upon slabs of limestone in the 
churchyard, which appears to be a part of the original 
cross. The stem of the dial has been cut away from the 
thickness of 9I in. to 6 in., and from a width of 13^ in. to 
7^ in. at the bottom, so that all calling has disappeared 










from this portion of the cross, if such it were. At Haltoh/ 
the date of the cutting down is known, and we learn that 
a monument, the h'ke of which does not exist, and one 
bearing upon an important factor in our national history,, 
after weathering the storms of six hundred years, fell 
before the infatuation of the seventeenth century. The 
Heversham dial is dated 1690. The carving upon the 
fragment in the porch is of that kind which appears on 
the crosses of Ruthwell and Bewcastle, having spirals, 
fruit clusters and foliage, with animals, but this stone is 
not so massive as either of the two mentioned, and two 
fruit and leaf-bearing stems rise and gracefully intertwine 
upon the broader face of the stone, whereas one main stem 
only appears on those parts of the Bewcastle and Ruth- 
well crosses which show animals and birds amidst the 

The eifect of this double vine stem, with its tendrils, 
clusters and leaves, and with the bodies and limbs of the 
animals curving and interlacing with the more delicate 
work of the design, must have been very beautiful in its 
original inception. Enough of it remains to arouse our 
interest in the search for other works of the kind which 
may lie hidden in walls and buildings near our ancient 
churches or in the foundations of the churches them- 
selves, and which may be exposed during the progress of 
repairs or alterations. A couple of years ago the founda- 
tion of St. Andrew's Church (Scotland) revealed the stems 
of two great crosses, possibly of the time of Benedict 
Biscop, whose influence over Christian art may have been 
felt through the more eastern coasts in some such manner 
as we believe that of St. Wilfrid to have been exercised 
here. What may have been carved upon the parts of the 
cross now lost we need not conjecture, but I do not know 
of any design so pure, so free apparently from the possi- 
bility of any admixture of legend amongst any of our 
recent discoveries. I should expect to find only Scripture 



subjects at most as the compliment of this rich portrayal 
of the vine of life, if indeed the whole cross shaft were not 
covered with similar work, varied by elaborate interlacing 
patterns on one of the faces. 

An examination of the outside walls of the church on 
the day of our excursion was rewarded with the discovery 
of a fragment of one arm of the cross showing that the 
head of the cross itself was adorned with the leaves and 
tendrils of the all-pervading Christ Vine. 

I am indebted to Canon Cooper and his son, Mr. 
Edward Cooper, for valuable drawings and photographs, 
the procuring of which cost both of these gentlemen a 
considerable amount of trouble. 


Art. XI. — Westmorland Parish Registers. By the Rev. 
Henry Whitehead, M.A., Vicar of Lanercost. 

A CLAUSE in the Census Act of 1830 ordered the 
vicars and churchwardens of every parish to make a 
return of all their then extant registers of earlier date 
than 1813 ; and a printed summary of the returns, known 
as the Parish Registers Abstract, was presented to Parlia- 
ment in 1833. 

This Abstract, having now become very scarce, is 
difficult to obtain, and therefore is little known. It would 
be well, then, if each Archaeological Society were to re- 
publish in its Transactions the summary of the returns 
from the parishes of the county or counties with which it 
is concerned, supplementing them^ wherever possible, 
from other sources of information. 

At present few persons but their custodians know what 
registers are extant. Often the custodians themselves 
know nothing at all about them. Neglect and ill usage are 
responsible for much injury to them. Leaves gradually 
disappear, the covers having become loose. Sometimes 
a whole volume is found to be missing. Perhaps it has 
been lent, and never returned. Or a vicar dies suddenly, 
or is seized with a mortal illness, takes to his bed, and 
never again enters his study. After his death away go all 
his books and papers, and with them sometimes any 
parish documents that do not happen to be in the chest. 
The place thereof knows them no more. 

One of the best means of preventing such mishaps is 
publicity, of the same kind as was provided for the church 
plate of this diocese by the now well-known book devised 
by the editor of these Transactions, which has led to the 



publishing of similar books in half the dioceses throughout 
the country ; and it is in the hope that a like result may 
eventually be secured on behalf of the registers that I 
contribute this paper to our Transactions. 

I would have liked, in this work^ to begin with the 
county of Cumberland, both because I have copied the 
Cumberland returns from the original MSS, preserved in 
the British Museum, of which the Abstract is an abbre- 
viated summary, and because I am well acquainted with 
the contents of many Cumberland registers. But for that 
very reason it is better to deal with the summary of the 
Westmorland returns, as they will afford me less occasion 
for digressions which might extend this paper to a length 
that might try our editor's patience. Moreover there are 
fewer parishes in Westmorland than in Cumberland. 

I have personally examined only one Westmorland 
register ; and the authorities on whom I depend for in- 
formation about the rest sometimes differ from one 
another. When they agree we may presume they are 
correct ; and, even when they differ, as they were not 
contemporaneous, we may occasionally learn something 
from their discrepancies. 

The available authorities are (i) the Abstract, the 
Westmorland portion of which I shall quote in full, (2) 
Whellan, who in his history of Westmorland, published 
in i860, often notices the registers, but only for the most 
part to record the date at which each is alleged to begin, 
evidently not obtaining his information from the Abstract, 
but probably from the vicars of his time, (3) some papers 
in these Transactions, and (4) Bishop Nicolson's Miscel- 
lany Accounts of the Diocese of Carlisle y which, however, 
embrace only the parishes included in the ancient diocese, 
and do not always mention the registers. 

We might have expected much information about the 
registers from Nicolson and Burn, especially as Dr. Burn 
was Chancellor of the diocese from 1765 to i7&s. But, as 



Mr. J. Holme Nicolson said in a paper read at Orton on 
July 3> 1890, " Dr. Burn, the historian of the county, and 
vicar of Orton from 1738 to 1785, makes no mention of 
the registers ; indeed he curiously enough seems to have 
ignored such records all through his history of Westmor- 
land " {ante, xi, 251-2). 

It is still more curious that Chancellor Waugh, when 
preparing in 1749 his famous "form of a proper terrier ", 
which he hoped would be "of great use to posterity", 
demanded no account of the registers, and does not men- 
tion them in his manuscript annotations to Bishop 
Nicolson's Miscellany Accounts, though he had himself 
visited many of the parishes. 

Nor is it without surprise that we find no reference to 
the registers in the Westmorland Note Book, published in 
1888-9 as a " repository for interesting notes and jottings 
from all quarters ; in short, intended to comprise every- 
thing that may add to our information on local history ". 

The Abstract deals separately with the four ancient 
wards of Westmorland, arranging the parishes of each 
ward in alphabetical order. But I here arrange them 
chronologically, and in three periods, viz., those which 
have registers beginning (i) in the i6th century, (2) in the 
17th century, and (3) between the years 1700 and 1813. 

The abbreviations in the following lists are Bp. N. for 
Bp. Nicolson, W. for Whellan, R. for Rectory, V. for Vic- 
arage, C. for Curacy, P.C. for Perpetual Curacy, Bap. for 
Baptisms, Bur. for Burials, and Marr. for Marriages. 

The first paragraph under the heading of each parish is 
copied from the Abstract. 

It will be seen that 22 Westmorland parishes, nearly a third of the 
whole number in the. county, were reported in 1833 as having regis- 
ters dating from the i6th century. Nearer the Border the proportion 
of ancient registers still extaot is considerably less. North .of an 



imaginary line passing through Hesket-in-the- Forest from east to 
west across the county of Cumberland there are only three i6th 
centur}' registers remaining, and not more than five others of earlier 
date than 1640. 

KiRKBY LoNSDALB V. — Nos I-III (parchment) contain baptisms 
and burials 1538-1812, marriages 1538-1766. Nos IV-VI marriages 
1767-1812; including baptisms, burials, and marriages, of the chapel- 
ries of Middleton, Barbon, Hutton-Roof, Mansergh, Firbank, and 

Whellan (p. 887) says that the Kirkby Lonsdale registers ** com- 
mence in 1530**; which is obviously incorrect, as parish registers 
were not instituted until 1538. 

Bishop Ware (in vol i, pp 200-2, of these Transactions) says they 
begin in 1538, but are blank from 1556 to 1560 and from 1566 to 1570. 

The reporter in 1831-3 either overlooked the blanks or thought 
them not worth mentioning. 

Act 26 George II, c. 33, A.D. 1753, commonly called Lord Hard- 
wicke*s Act, ordered all marriages to be thenceforth registered in a 
separate book ; but it appears from the Abstract that compliance 
with this order was delayed at Kirkby Lonsdale for 11 years. In 
some parishes, as we shall presently see, the delay was much longer, 
and in others was prolonged to 1812. 

LowTHER R. — No I: bap, bur, 1539-1812; mart 1539-1753. No 
II : marr 1754- 181 2. 

Bishop Nicolson in his Miscellany Accounts (p. 72) says: "The 
Register- Book commences A^ 32 Hen 8, A.D. 1540*'. 

W. (p. 798) : •• The Registers commence in 1540 ". 

Here, as with few exceptions throughout the county, we find the 
order for a separate marriage register book at once obeyed. 

MoRLAND V. — I (parchment) : bap, bur, marr, 1539-1743. II & III 
(parchment): bap, bur, 1744-1812; marr 1744- 1753. IV: mam754- 
18 1 2. 

W. (p. 802): "The registers commence in 1638" ; which is doubt- 
less a mistake, as Canon Simpson (anU^ i, 17) says they " commence 
about 1538". 

Kendal V.— I: bap, bur, marr, 1558-1561, 1570-1587. II: bap, 
buri marr, 1591-1599. HI: bap, bur, marr, 1606-1631. IV-VII : 
bap, bur, 1 679-1768; mam679-i753. VIII-X: l>ap, bur, 1769-1812. 
XI-XV : marr 1754-1812. 

Mr. G. E. Moser (anU^ iii, 50) says : " Between the ycATB 2558 and 



1679 the registers for 58 years are entirely wanting, and amidst 
the existing entries are frequent notes to the following or like effect : 
•The rest of the entries for this year are wanting*. The whole 
register book between 163 1 and 1679 is missing. Some wag had 
suggested that the lost register might have found its way into a 
lawyer's office, and never been returned ". 

It may also be suggested that on the death of some vicar it may 
have Happened not to be in the parish chest, and was carried away 
with his books and papers. 

Brough V. — I (parchment) : bap 1559-1695, bur 1556-1690, marr 
1560-1695. II: bap, bur, marr, 1695-1705. Ill (parchment): bap, 
bur, 1706-1769 ; marr 1706-1753 ; including baptisms of Stainmore 
Chapel 1 708- 1769. IV & V : bap, bur, 1770- 181 2. VI : marr 1790- 

Here, also, if the above return is correct, a whole book is missing, 
viz., the marriage register for 1754-1790. 

Crosby-Garrett R.— I & II: bap 1570-1580, 1590-1812 ; bur, 
i559-i73o» 1736-1812; marr 1559-1670,1672-1752. Ill: marr 1755. 

Bp. N. (p. 41) : '*The Register Book begins at 1559, and has been 
neatly enough preserved ". 

Great Musgrave R. — I: bap, bur, marr, 1562- 1697 ; interrupted 
by No II, bap, bur, marr, 1684-1707. Ill & IV: bap, bur, 1707-1812; 
marr 1707-1812 ; marr 1707-1753. V: marr 1754-1812. 

Bp. N. (p. 46) : " The Register Book begins in 1559**. 

There appear to be duplicate entries here for the period 1685-1697, 
perhaps owing to the condition of the concluding leaves of No I 
being such as rendered it necessary or advisable to transcribe their 
contents into Noll. 

Ormeside R. — I (parchment) : bap, bur, marr, 1562-1725, imper- 
fect and almost illegible. II (parchment): bap, bur, 1726-1812; 
marr 1726- 1 753. 111:1574-1812. 

Shap V. — I : bap, bur, marr, 1563-1619. II (imperfect) : bap, bur, 
marr, 1620-1759. Ill : bap, bur, marr, 1760-1812, 
Bp. N. (p. 75) : "The Reg' Book begins at Oct. 1559". 
No separate book for marriages reported here. 

Cliburn R. — I (parchment, loose sheets) : bap, bur, marr, 1565- 
1654. II & III (parchment): bap, bur, 1662-1812; marr 1662-1755. 
IV (parchment) : marr 1756-1812. 

W. (p. 790) : 


W. (p. 790) : •* The registers commence in 1565". 

It would seem, as the gap from 1654 to 1662 exactly corresponds 
with the period of civil registration, instituted by the Barebones 
Parliament, that during that period a separate register book was 
used at Clibum, which was not given up to the rector at the Restora- 

AsKHAM V. — I : bap, bur, marr, 1566-1723, deficient 16^-1627. 
II: bap, bur, 1524-1783; marr 1724-1753. Ill: bap, bur, 1784-1812. 
IV: marr 1754-1812. 

Crosby Ravensworth V.— I-IV: bap 1570-1812 ; bur 1570- 1691, 
1692-1812; marr 1570-1753. V: marr 1754-1812. 
W. (p. 792) : "The register commences in 1570". 

DuFTON R. — I : bap, bur, marr, 1570-16 16. II : bap, bur, marr, 
1619-1672. Ill: bap, bur, marr, 1679-1733; interrupted by No IV, 
bap, bur, 1729-1812, marr 1729-1753. V : marr 1754-1812. 

W. (p. 738) : "The register commences in 1570". 

For probable cause of " interruption " see note on Great Mus- 

Grasmerb R. — Hap, bur, marr, 1571-1812. 

W. (p. 824) : " The register commences in 1570'*. 

There may have been only one book here ; but it should have been 
stated if such was the case. The same remark applies to the returns 
from Asby, Natland, Underbarrow, and Selside. 

Ravenstonedale P.C. — I & II : bap, bur, 1571-1812; marr 1571- 
1753. Ill: marr 1754-1812. 

Bp. N. (p. 43) : "The Parish Register begins at June 12, 1577". 

W. (p. 767) : "The registers commence at 1570*'. 

The present vicar, the Rev. R. W. Metcalfe, has undertaken the 
praiseworthy and laborious task of transcribing the Ravenstonedale 
Registers for publication. No I, covering the period 1571-1710, is 
already in print, and may be obtained from the publisher of these 
Transactions. It is the only Westmorland register as yet printed. 
No one who has not attempted a similar work can have any idea of 
the labour it involves. Mr. Metcalfe in his Introduction says of the 
oldest volume: "It has suffered from neglect and ill-usage, which 
have combined to render portions almost illegible. The pages, in 
particular, recording the burials from 1648 to 1655, are so much dis- 
coloured from the effects of damp or some other causes as to add 
considerably to a transcriber's difficulties". Unfortunately the 



transcripts at Carlisle for that period are not extant, or they would 
have annihilated his difficulties. He says : " The forwarding of the 
Ravenstonedale duplicates does not seem to have been commenced 
antil the year 1667 ; at least none of an older date are in existence. 
From this year, however, the transcripts are, with but few excep- 
tions, continuous, and have proved invaluable in supplying gaps 
caused presumably by the corresponding page of the register having 
first become loose and then lost". The transcripts, in this diocese, 
were certainly forwarded to Carlisle before 1667, though none of 
earlier date than the Restoration, except a couple of leaves, one 
(dated isSg-isgo) belonging to Dalston and the other (1587-1588) to 
Langwathby, are as yet known to be extant ; on which subject see a 
paper by the Rev. J. Wilson {ante, xi, 238-249). Bishop Nicolson's 
statement that the register begins June 12, 1577, which is seemingly 
at variance with the Abstract and \VheIlan, becomes intelligible 
when we find on the flyleaf a memorandum to this effect : " A 
register book of all wedings chrestnings and buryalls beginning tlie 
rzthofjune 1^77 and so continewing until the loth of Janewarye 
1398 with as manye more as co^rld be fownde in the same church of 
Rajrvinstondall before the sayde day". This memorandum was of 
course written by some one complying with the Elizabethan injunction 
of 1597 to transcribe the contents of the then existing paper registers 
into a parchment book; and Bishop Nicolson, accepting the tran- 
scriber's statement that the book began June 12, 1577, did not 
examine the book to see whether it contained any entries that 
"cowld be fownde before the sayde day '\ 

Newbigoin R. — I (parchment]^: bap, bur, 1572-1812; marr 1572- 
1755. II ' marr 1756-1812. 

Troutbeck C. — I-IV: Registers 1572-1650, 1668-1758, 1762-1810. 

W. (p. 881) : •* The registers commence in 1585 '*. 

Here, and at Betharo, Martindale, and Mallerstang, the contents 
should have been specified. 

Where, as here and at some other places, Whellan gives a later 
date than the Abstract does for the commencement of a register, it 
ii possible, as he wrote 27 years after the completion of the Abstract, 
and leaves may have disappeared in the interval, that each of the 
two dates may have been correctly recorded. But we have seen at 
Kirkby Lonsdale and Morland that Whellan 's informants were not 
ahrays accurate. 

Crosthwaitb and Lyth C— I-III : Registers 1579-1627, 1698- 
iSiz. IV: marr 1754-1812. 



Appleby, St. Michael (otherwise Bongate) V. — I & II (parch- 
ment rolls) : bap, bur, marr, 1582-1596, 1616-1677, 1691-1709. Ill & 
IV: bap, bur, 1710-1799; marr 1710-1753. V: bap, bur, 1800-1812. 
VI & VII : marr 1754-1812. 

Kirkby-Thore R. — I : bap, bur, marr, 1593-1729. II : bap, bur, 
1730-1812. Ill : marr 1754- 181 2. 

The Rev R. Bower {anU, iv, 372-3) says : ** The Rev T. Machell 
(rector 1677- 1699) "^ust upon his institution to the living have found 
an old dilapidated parchment register; and, from the style of writing, 
he at once employed a clerk to copy into the existing one the entries 
which were in danger of being lost. . . From November 1598 to 
September 1602 the registers are evidently lost, for we have the fol- 
lowing : * Here wants a great deal, see Parchment Register * . • . 
In the parchment alluded to before were also the entries from 1609 
to 1643. This book, now lost, seems to have been in good condition 
in ^achell's time. After passing over a few blank leaves we read : 
* The old Register Book breaks off at June 4, 1643. This Supple- 
ment begins 1646; so ye 3 years are lost'". 

It appears, then, that the existing book No I has at least two gaps, 
viz, 1598-1602 and 1609-1646, which escaped the notice of the rector 
who made the return in 1 831-2. Probably he had never examined the 
register, and supposed it was complete. Some of his predecessors 
since Machell's time may have been under the same impression, and 
therefore did not care what became of the '' old dilapidated parch- 
ment register** which Machell transcribed and of the book *'in good 
condition in MachelPs time" containing the entries from 1609 to 

But where are the marriage entries 1730-1753 ? 

Orton v.— I : bap 1 596- 1646 ; bur 1595-1646 ; marr 1596-1646 
(very imperfect). II & III (parchment) : bap, bur, marr, 1654- 181 2. 

W. (p. 763) : "The registers commence in 1596'*. 

Bp. N. (p. 44) : *• The Register-Book begins the 28 of Mar. 1654, 
which is said to be A« 6^ Car 2. And so it goes on, 1655 A° 7® &c, 
Mr Fothergill, a true Cavalier, being then Vicar'*. 

Mr J. H. Nicholson (C. & IV. Arch. Trans, xi, 252) says: **The 
bishop seems only to have been shown the volume then in use, and 
to have been ignorant that there was a still earlier one in existence. 
Probably when he was in Orton it was a loose collection of paper and 
parchment leaves. In its present form it consists of both paper and 
parchment leaves much intermixed". 

Bishop Nicolson's " true cavalier" had superseded one Alexander 
Featherstonehaugh, a chaplain in the puritan army, who was insti- 


tuted in 1643. The landowners, who claimed the right of appoint- 
ment, ** filed a bill in equity, and at length Mr. Fothergill was 
established". Nevertheless *' in 1662 he was ejected by the Act of 
Uniformity, but afterwards conformed, and was presented to the 
living of Worsop in Nottinghamshire" (Nicolson and Burn, i, 4S4). 

It is not clear from the Abstract whether or not there was a sepa- 
rate marriage register book at Orton. It may be that No III is such 
a register, containing only marriages 1754- 1812. One would expect 
to find it so, seeing that the vicar of Orton when Lord Hardwicke's 
Act was passed in 1753 was Chancellor of the diocese. 

Warcop V. — I & II : bap, bur, 1597-1784; marr 1597-1753. Ill : 
bap, bur, 1785-1812. IV : marr 1754-1812. 

Bp. N. (p. 46): "The Reg' begins at 1597". 

Mr. G. W. Braithwaite, in his Handbook to Kirkhy Stephen, Appleby, 
6'C., A.D., 1884, says (p. 62): "The Warcop parish registers com- 
mence in 1597. In an old book in the registry chest are many 
curious entries, and some Jacobite songs". 

Mr. Braithwaite, in his useful handbook, should have told us 
something about the registers of other parishes in or near Appleby. 
The Bongate "parchment roils", for instance, must be a curiosity. 


Heversham V. — I : bap 1601-1697, bur 1604-1685, marr 1605-1688. 
II & III (parchment): bap, bur, 1691-1812; marr 1691-1778. IV: 
marr 1779- 181 2. 

W. (p. 829) : " The registers commence in 1600. The church- 
wardens' book also commences at the same time". 

Separate marriage register not adopted here for 26 years. 

Bbtham v.— I-IV: Registers 1608-1641, 1662-1812. See a«/^, note 
on Troutbeck. 

Patterdale C. — I (parchment) : Register 161 1 -1642, in parts 
illegible. II & III (parchment): 1653-1755, 1763-1812. IV: marr 
1754-1812. , 

Windermere R. — I-III : bap 1617-1625, 1670-1762, 1776-1812 ; 
bur 1617-1625, 1670-1812; marr 1617-1625, 1670-1812. 

W. (p. 876) : " The registers commence in 1670 ". 

The gap between 1625 and 1670 was probably caused by the 
gradual disappearance of end leaves from a coverless book ; and, if 
Whellan is correct, the few leaves (1617-1625) remaining in 1833 
were missing in i860. 



KiLLiNGTON C. — I-III : bap, bur, marr, i6i9-i&i2. 

W. (p. 894) : *' The registers commence in 1619". 

Here, and in the return from Windermere, nothing can be inferred 
about a separate marriage register. 

For an interesting account of this chapelry, and of the relations of 
such chapelries to the mother churches, see papers by Bishop Ware 
and Canon Simpson {ante, xiii, 93-119). 

Martindale C. — I : Register 1633-1749. II : 1750-1767. Ill : 

W. (p. 784) : *• The chapel is supposed to have been rebuilt in 
1633. The registers commence in 1633. All the rites of the Church 
are performed here, except the solemnization of matrimony". 

Bampton V. — I : bap, bur, marr 1638 — , much decayed, termina- 
tion illegible. II : bap, bur, 1720-1766; marr 1720-1753. Ill & IV: 
bap, bur, 1767-18x2. V : marr 1754-1812. 

Ambleside C. — I-III (parchment rolls): bap, bur, marr, 1642- 
1754. IV: bap, bur, marr, 1755-1791. V: bap, bur, 1792-1812. VI: 
marr 1792-1812. 

These "parchment rolls" are the only Westmorland register 
which I have seen. They were shown to me when I lectured at 
Ambleside four years ago on " Parish Registers". I made a note of 
them, which I cannot now find. But I remember remarking that they 
did not seem to have been originally *' rolls ". The leaves, I thought, 
had been cut out from the register book, and pasted together length- 
ways. Anyhow I considered it a most inconvenient arrangement. 

The Abstract shows that the adoption of a separate book for mar- 
riages was postponed here for 39 years. 

KiRKBY Stephen R. — I-III: bap, bur, 1647-1659, 1676-1773; marr 
1647-1659, 1676-1753. IV & V: bap, bur, 1774-1812; marr 1754- 

Staveley C. — I: bap, bur, 1651-1663, 1677-1812; marr 165 1- 1663, 
1677-1755. II : marr 1756-1812. 

Burton V.— I & II: bap, bur, 1653-1809; marr 1654-1753; in- 
cluding bap, bur, 1704-1715, 1730-1755, and marr 1704-1714, 1747- 
1758, of Preston Patrick. Ill & IV: bap, bur, 18x0-1812. V: marr 

AsBY R. — Bap, bur, marr, 1657-181^. 
See ante, note on Grasmere. 

Bolton C» 


Bolton C— I & II : bap, bur, 1669-1812 ; marr 1665-1753. Ill : 
inarr 1754-1812. 

Temple Sowerby C— I : bap, bur, 1669-1812 ; marr 1665-1753. 
II : marr 1754-1812. 

W. (p. 756): "The first legible entry in the registers occurs in 

It perhaps may not be a mere coincidence that the '* first legible 
entry" occurs in a year in which the then newly appointed rector of 
Kirkby Thore, the Rev T. Machell, issued precise instructions to the 
chapel-wardens of Temple Sowerby and Milburn, townships of 
Kirkby Thore, concerning the registration of burials in woollen ; 
"which registry," he said, "must begin on the i^t of August 1678" 
{ante, iv, 379). 

LoNGSLEDDALB C. — One book: bap 1670-1712 ; bur 1712-18x2; 
marr 1679- 181 2. 

W. (p. 864): "The chapel was erected in 1712, when the burial 
ground also was consecrated. The registers commence in 1670 ". 

No separate marriage register here. 

WiTHERSLACK C. — I (parchment) : bap, bur, i670-i8i2. II : marr 
1670-1753. Ill (parchment) : marr 1754-1812. 

W. (p. 822) : " The registers commence about 163 1 '*. 

Discrepancy here of 39 years between Whellan and the Abstract, 
and of a kind which does not admit of our supposing that each of 
them was correct for the time being. 

Burton V. — I: bap, bur, 1676-1803; marr 1676- 1753. II: bap, 
bur, 1804-1812. Ill: marr 1754-1812. 

Clifton. — I : bap, bur, 1676-1788; marr 1676- 1753, defective until 
1680. II , bap, bur, 1789-1812. Ill & IV : marr 1754-1812. 

W. (p. 791): "The registers commence in 1675". 

The late rector, the Rev W. Keys-Wells, when the Cumberland and 
Westmorland Archaeological Society visited Clifton on July 10, 1879, 
"exhibited the oldest register, dating back to 1675" {Transactions, 
iv, 541)- 

Bishop Nicolson, who visited Clifton on August 30, 1703, says: "I 
saw not the Registers of Brougham and this Parish : But the Rector 
(at whose House they are kept) assures me that they are each above 
100 years old, and that the former gives a particular ace' of King 
James the First entertainment (hunting, &c) at the Castle, as he 
returned this way from Scotland '\ 

The rector of Clifton and Brougham in 1703 was the Rev Rowland 



Burrowes, who died in 1707 ; and if, when he died, the ancient regis- 
ters of both parishes were still at his house, instead of being in the 
parish chest, it is probable that it was then that they disappeared 
(see anU, note on Kendal). 

The existing register at Clifton records on December 19, 1745, the 
burial of ** ten dragoons killed by ye Rebells in ye skirmish between 
ye Duke of Cumberland's army and them at ye end of Clifton Moor 
next ye Town"; and Chancellor Ferguson, in his paper on the 
** Retreat of the Highlanders through Westmorland in 1745 '\ says '- 
<* I have been told that before the English' dragoons were buried 
' the clerk*s wife stripped their holiand shirts from them ; and that 
woman never did a day's good after' " ante, x, 212). 

MiLBURN C. — I (very imperfect): bap, bur, marr, 1678-1718. II : 
bap, bur, 1719-1812; marr 1719-1753. Ill: raarr 1754-1312. 
See ante, note on Temple Sowerby, concerning the date 1678. 

Brougham R. — I: bap, bur, 1681-1788; marr 1681-1771. II: 
bap, bur, T789-1812. Ill: marr 1772-1812. 

The rector who in 1617 recorded in the register, now missing, the 
visit of James I to Brougham Castle, was the Rev Cuthbert Bradley. 
In those days rectors and vicars wrote Mhat they pleased in the 
registers, on which account the loss of an ancient register is the 
more to be regretted. Mr Bradley was not, like Mr Burrowes, rector 
both of Brougham and Clifton. Nor has any one except Mr. Bur- 
rowes ever been rector of both those parishes ; which makes it the 
more probable that the two old registers disappeared at the time 
I have conjectured {ante, note on Clifton). There is no harm in a 
rector keeping the registers in his house if he also keep the parish 
chest there, and the registers in the chest. But if the chest is in the 
church, and the register in the rector}', the register is then in danger 
of being lost when the rector dies ; which danger was of course all 
the greater in the bygone days of pluralities. 

Separate marriage register here postponed for 18 years. 

Mardale C. — One book : bap, bur, marr, 1684-1812. 

W. (p. 809) : '* The registers commence in 1684. All the rites of 
the Church of England, with the exception of marriage, are per- 
formed here". 

Whellan and the Abstract are at variance here, unless marriages 
have been discontinued since 1812. 

Appleby (St. Lawrence) V. — I: bap, bur, 1694-1812; marr 1694- 
1753. II & III : marr 1754-1812. 

W. (p. 715.) : 


W. (p. 715) : "The parish registers commence in 1654". 

Whellan, as at Kirkby Lonsdale and Morland, is incorrect in 
giving an earlier date than the Abstract does for the oldest register. 
The present vicar, Canon Matthews, says: "The earliest extant 
begins in 1694. A considerable portion of the bottom of each page, 
nearly all through, ha5» been damaged by the water of a great flood 
which got into the church (date unknown) so that many entries are 
hardly decipherable*' (ante, vol. viii, 403). 

The transcripts of the registers of this parish, preserved in the 
episcopal registry at Carlisle, have been arranged, mounted, and 
bound in a volume; and, as all the existing transcripts of the ancient 
diocese begin soon after the Restoration, the lost entries of the St 
Lawrence register for about 30 years previous to 1694 can be re- 
covered. By the same means it would be possible to recover the 
lost entries of all post-Restoration registers in the ancient diocese of 
Carlisle (see ante, note on Ravenstonedale). The transcripts of 
registers belonging to the parishes which were added to this diocese 
in 1856 are at Chester. They should, one would think, be transferred 
to Carlisle. I do not know how far back they extend, or what is 
their condition. 


Of the 23 places in this list all but one (Long Manon) are chapel- 
ries, viz., 12 in the parish of Kendal, 5 in Kirkby Lonsdale, 2 in 
Kirkby Stephen, i in Burton, i in Brough, and i in Heversham. 
Most (if not all) of the chapels are of ancient foundation. Mr G £ 
Moser {ante, vol. ii, 52) says: "The parish of Kendal is a very 
large one, and includes many townships ; and until Lord Blandford's 
Act the various solemnizations of rites, if they did not take place 
in the parish church, were transmitted from the various chapelries 
to the Kendal registry." Lord Blandford's Registration Act was 
passed in 1812 ; before which date it appears from the Abstract that 
most of the registers of the Kirkby Lonsdale chapelries were trans- 
mitted to Kirkby Lonsdale church. But the Abstract does not shew 
that transmission of chapel registers to the parish church was to 
the same extent the rule in Kendal parish. It is not, however, made 
quite clear in the Abstract what are the real facts conrcerning some 
of the chapelry registers. 

Kentmbre C. — One register, 1701-1812. 
One Register of what ? 

Preston Patrick C— I & II: bap 1704-1750; bur 1703-1745; marr 
1704-1753, II.-IV: b»p, bur, 1751-1812. V: marr 1755-1812. 



Also included for the years 17041758 in the return from Burton. 
Was there then a duplicate of the register for those years? 

Stainmore C. — One book: Bap 1708- 1812. 

Also included (duplicate?) for the years 1708-1769 in the return 
from Brough. 

Mallerstang C. — Registers, 1714-1753, 1756-1812. 

W. (p. 750): "The chapel is licensed for burials and baptisms. 
The burial ground was consecrated in 1813. The registers commence 
in 1730'*. 

This chapel, according to an inscription in the porch, "after itt 
had layne runious and decayed some 50 or 60 years, was newe 
repayred by the Lady Anne Clifford, Countisse Dowager ol Pembroke, 
in the year 1663." (Nicolson and Burn, i, 563.) 

Leaves of register from 17 14 to 1729 lost, if the Abstract and 
Whellan are both correct, between 1833 and i860. 

BuRNESiDE C. — One book: bap, marr, 1717-1812. No burial 
ground until 1826. 
W. (p. 817) : " Registers commence 17x7 ". 

Long Marton R. — I (parchment): bap 1717-1720,1733-1794; bur 
1733-1794; mar 1733-1753. H (parchment): bap, bur, 1795-1812. 
Ill: marr 1754-1812. 

WiNSTER C. — One book: bap, bur, marr, 1720-1712. 
W. (p. 874) : " Registers commence 1720. Burial ground con- 
secrated 1721 ". 

Grayrigg C. — I: bap 1724-1730; bur 1724-1729. II: bap, bur, 
1730- 1756. Ill: Register, 1757-1799. IV: 1800-1812. 

Nicolson and Burn (i, 144) : " Chapel rebuilt in 1708, and soon 
after made parochial." 

Helsington C. — Registers, bap, marr, 1728-1812, deposited in the 
church of Kendal. 

Whellan (p. 862): "Chapel erected 1726. All the rites of the 
Church are performed here *'. 

Burials here since 1812 ? 

Hugil or Ings C— I: bap 1732-1775. II: bur 1732-1775 ; from 
which period baptisms and burials have been imperfectly kept on 
scraps of paper. Ill: marr 1775-1812. 

W. (p. 863) : " Chapel rebuilt 1743. All the registers previous to 
1813 have been lost". 

If so, they must have been lost between 1833 and i860. 

Natland C. 


Natland C. — Bap. marr, 1735-1812, deposited in the parish church 
of Kendal. 

W. (p. 865): '• Registers commence 1777''. 

Nicolson and Burn (i, 105): "At the time of Mr. MachePs survey 
there was at Natland a ruinated chapel. About the year 1736 the 
inhabitants rebuilt the same.'* 

Underbarrow C. — Bap, marr, 1735. 1812. No burials prior to 1813. 
W, (p. 873): "Chapel re-erected 1708. Registers commence 1735." 

Crook C. — Bap, marr, 1742-1812. Earlier registers entered in 
those of the parish church at Kendal. Burials do not take place at 
this chapel. 

W. (p. 858) : ** Registers commence 1742 '*. 

Selside C. — Bap, bur, marr, 1753-1812. 
W. (p. 868) : " Registers commence 1752 ". 

Barbon C. — One Book, entering bap 1790-1812. Other registers 
included with those of Kirkby Lonsdale. 

W. (p. Sgd): " Register of baptisms commences 1813, of marriages 
1839, of burials 1848*'. 

Old Hutton C. — I: bap 1793-1812. II: marr 1754-1812. No 
burial ground until 1822. 

W. (p. 867): "Chapel erected 1628, re-built 1699. Burial ground 
consecrated 1822." 

Croscrake C. — I & II: bap 1796-1812. No burial ground until 
W. (p. 836): "Chapel in decay till 1757. Registers commence 


Evidently either Whellan or the Abstract very incorrectly reports 
the commencement of this register. 

New Hutton C. — One book, bap, bur, marr, 1808-1812. 
Nicolson and Burn (i, 108): "Chapel built in the year 1739." 
W. (p. 866): " Register commences 1741." 

Same remark about commencement of register applies here as at 

SoULBY C. — There are no registers prior to 1813. 

W. (p. 751): "Chapel erected 1665. Registers commence 1813." 

Hutton Roof C. — Registers included with those of Kirkby Lons- 

W. (p. 893) : 


W. (p. 893) : " The chapel is of very ancient foundation. Present 
small chapel built 1757. Registers commence 1796." 

Bishop Ware (ante, i, 203) says : " Hutton Roof had a chapel in 
1692 at all events, even if the chapel which existed there prior to the 
Reformation had been lost for a time." 

FiRBANK C. — Registers included in those of Kirkby Lonsdale. 
W. (p. 892) : " Chapel re-built 1742." 

Mansergh C— Registers included in those of Kirkby Lonsdale 
prior to 1813. 
W. (p. 894) : " Chapel erected 1726." 

MtDDLETON C. — Registers included with those of Kirkby Lonsdale 
prior to 1813. 

W. (p. 895): " Chape! erected 1624. re-built 1813." 

Nicolson and Burn (i, 260): *' Chapel built in 1634; made parochial 
in 1671.'* 

Bishop Ware (ante, i, 193) says : " The Middleton chapel or chantry 
was founded Oct. 20, i486. ... All the chantries were sup- 
pressed in the reign of Edward VI." 

Doubtless there was a chantry in almost every one of these 
Westmorland townships, and when resuscitated as chapels in post- 
Reformation times they were until the i8th century often served by 
lay readers. Bishop Nicolson mentions the five chapelries in the 
parish of Crosthwaite (Keswick) as so served in 1703 (Miscellany 
Accounts of the Diocese, p. 98.) The earliest reader of whom there is 
any account in a Crosthwaite chapelry was Anthony Bragg, appointed 
to Newlands in 1630, and the first ordained minister of Newlandswas 
the Rev. Joseph Fisher, licensed in 1731, in whose time the chapel 
was rebuilt. Bishop Ware says that " in 1717 it appears from the 
Kirkby Lonsdale registers that Mr. Park was * reader ' at Hutton 
Roof chapel" ; and he has *' heard it said that a lay reader, licensed 
by the bishop of Chester, officiated at Barbon chapel in the last 
century " (ante, i, 203.) The bearing of these facts on the matter in 
hand is this. Doubtless, during the time of the readers, the rites of 
baptism, marriage, and burial, were all performed and registered at 
the parish churches ; and in some cases, even after the appointment 
of ordained ministers, the registering at the parish churches, as 
shown by the Abstract, continued until 1S12. It roust not then be 
inferred, from the fact of the chapelry registers with few excep- 
tions beginning as late as the i8th century, that earlier registers have 
been lost. Only the curate of Crook seems to have recognised the 



importance of recording in his return in 1833 that " earli&r registers 
were entered at Kendal parish church.** Other curates should have 
made a similar return, as the loss of earlier registers, supposing any 
such to have been lost, is not due to carelessness on the part of the 
chape] authorities. 

I only profess to have given in the foregoing paper an 
approximate account of the present condition of the 
Westmorland registers. The Abstract was compiled in 
1833, ^^^ Whfcllan wrote in i860. Nor were the clergy 
who supplied the information in those years always cor- 
rect in their returns. A new Abstract, correct to present 
date, should now be made, and in these archaeological 
days there are doubtless Westmorland antiquaries both 
able and willing to take up the subject where I leave it. 

( 142) 

Art. XII. — Brasses in the Diocese of Carlisle. By the Rev. 
R. Bower, M.A., Vicar of St. Cuthbeif s, Carlisle. 

Read at Appleby, July 4, 1893. 

THE monumental brasses of the Diocese of Carlisle 
having figures of some kind upon them and not mere 
inscriptions are fourteen in number. There are memo- 
rials to two Bishops (Bell and Robinson), one doctor of 
law (Dr. Whelpdale), two priests (Ouds and Blythe), the 
latter a palimpsest, five knights, three civilians, five ladies. 
Ten are in Cumberland, two in Westmorland, and one in 
Lancashire. At Edenhall, Crosthwaite, and Ulverston 
husband and wife are engraved side by side. The accom- 
panying plates have been produced by lithography from 
rubbings made by the writer of the paper or by various 
clergymen and other friends, to whom he would now 
publicly give his grateful thanks. The order of the des- 
criptions cf the plates has been suggested by a book on 
Monumental Brasses, written by the Rev. H. W. Mack- 
lin, whose work has been freely quoted in the paper and 
whom the writer also thanks for very much kind help. 
The inscriptions on the brasses in memory of William 
Stapleton and John Whelpdale are printed in full. . 

Plate L— A.D. 1458. 


Position, — In the floor of chancel. 

Component Parts. -Two figures ; length of male 36 in., of female 
27^ in. A black letter inscription of three lines. 

Description, — A man in full armour with a slightly pointed helmet, 
a gorget or collar of mail, fluted coudidres with escalloped edges. A 
skirt of mail with tuilles is seen below the tabard, which is charged 
on the body and on the sleeves with the armorial bearings of the 


maiiam Stavteton anO WBUU, 1458, 
SBmlNdlf ftiimberlaiili* 


Biftlov Sen, 1496, 
ftarlinlr ftat^eOralt ftmiiiiertaiili* 


famlHes of Stapleton (dexter side) and Veteripont (sinister). Al the 
knees are genouillieres small and plain, while the feet are covered 
with sollerets (sharp toed). The long sword is broken and the hilt 
of the dagger seen on the dexter side. 

His wife's robe is plain, but the head dress is that called ** horned" 
a development of the ** crespine,'* ** In the latter the hair is fastened 
in a net, often jewelled, on the top of the head with a bunch or knob, 
also netted above each ear. The whole coiffure is kept in position by 
a jewelled band or fillet, and partially covered with a light veil, 
which hangs down the shoulders. Gradually the side nets increased 
to a ver3' large size, so as to form a pair of stiff horns.'* — Macklin, 

P- 73- 

Inscription, — 

Hie Jacet Willielmus Stapiltonus Armiger quondam dominus de 
EdenhallquiobiitXXVlodie | Augusti Anno Domini MoCCCC°LVIII*> 
et Margareta uxor ejus que erat filia et heres | quondam Nicholaii 
de Veteriponte et domina de Aldeston mor Quorum animabus 
propicietur deus. 

Plate II.— A. D. 1496. 

Position. — In the centre of the floor of the choir. 

Component P«r^s.— Figure (4 ft. 8^ in. long), under triple rich 
Gothic canopy (9 ft. 5 in. long). A marginal fillet of brass with black 
letter inscription. Plate with four line inscription below figure. 

A bishop in full eucharistic vestments with amice, alb, stole, 
maniple, chasuble, tunicle and dalmatic, which both reach to the 
knee. The tunicle richly embroidered and fringed is rather longer 
than the dalmatic. The stole is beneath the dalmatic and tunicle. 

Other episcopal insignia are seen in the mitre, gloves, and pastoral 
staff. The left hand holds the staff and the right a book with this 
inscription, " Haec spes mea in sinu meo." A scroll at the head 
says: "Credo quod redemptor meus vivit, &c.,'* under his feet, a 
tablet with four hexameters. 

Hac Marmor Fossa Bell praesulis en tenet ossa. 
Duresme dudum prior hie post pontificatum 
Gessit sed reunit, Christum super omnia querit 
Despiciens mundum, poscendo premia fratrum. 



On the marginal fillet are the words : 

Hie jacet Reverendus Pater Ricardus Belt quondam Episcopus 
Karliolensis qui ab hac luce migravit videlicet vicesimo quarto die. 
.... Anno Domini 

omnium ffidelium defunctorum per misericordiam dei requiescant 
in perpetua pace. Amen. 

Plate III. — A.D. 1500. 


Position. — On the south side of the floor of the chancel. 

Component Parts, — A figure 13^ in. long, and two medallions. The 
higher i ft. 9 in. above the figure ; the lower 2 ft. 6 in. 

A priest in eucharistic garments, viz., amice, alb, stole, maniple, 
and chasuble. Around the breast are the words : '* Reposita est 
haec spes mea in sinu meo.** The medallions have emblems of St. 
Matthew and St. Mark. Nicolson and Burn say : '* In four roundels, 
one at every comer an angel with the label Mercy Jesu**. Bishop 
Nicolson, in his Visitation Notes, says : " There is at foot the follow- 
ing epitaph. Orate pro Aia Mri. Thomse Ouds quondam Rector 
Dnorum epi et archidiacor.i Carliol Official qui obijt XXII " 

This has now disappeared. 

Plate IV.— A.D. 1551. 

Position. — On the floor of the south aisle. 

Component Parts,— Ont figure (11 J in. long) with black letter in- 
scription of four lines, upside down on the plate, but legible to the 
person kneeling on the figure and looking eastwards. 

Description. — A civilian with long hair, and dressed in a long 
fur-lined gown, open in front and turned back, so as to show the fur 
from the neck to the feet. 

Inscription. — Of your charite pray for the soule of Rychard | New- 
port that was buryed under thys Stone | and Deptyd the vij day of 
August in the yere of | our Lorde God MCCCCCLI. whose soule 

Jhu pdon. 
Plate IV. 

PLATE ni. 

«rrat i^Mgratoe, 8Be)$tmorIanO« 

""• ^ * -*^ -e" ' ** 'J r * y, 



Kftfiarg Kttot>ort, 



•r. 9«|tt imeiylMle, 1526. 


Of .na^dmr iti mTtiji^ ttif m[£ Qf# '^m mMpj^^^^ 

u toi of frtaifirn anllD' aVmy J? ^kta rmiif itiu toff iro 

Sir 9o|in matelff onO ttlffe, 1547. 


Plate IV.— A.D. 1526. 

Position. — Figure 6} in. long, on the floor of the south aisle.'^ 

Component Parts. — Half length figure (6} in.), four line inscription, 
and two coats of arms. 

Description. — Half length figure of a doctor of laws, clad in a fur 
tippet with long pendents (very like an almuce) over the gown. To 
the sinister and dexter of inscription are the arms of De Whelpdale, 
Arg. 3 greyhounds, current in pale, gules collared, or. 

Inscription. — 

Orate pro anima Johannis whelp | dall legum doctoris, magistri 
CoIIegii I de graystok, et rectoris de caldebek | qui Obiit viii<^ iulii 
anno domini 1526. 

Plate V. — A.D. 1527. 


Position.South aisle, near east end. 

Component Parts. — Two figures each about 23I in. in height), a 
black letter inscription of three lines and four coats of arms. 

Description. — The knight is represented in a complete armour of 
plate. A gorget and cuirass cover the throat and body. Rerebraces 
and vambraces, with pauldrons and coudi^res, encase the arms, 
shoulders, and elbows, while taces with dependent tuilles cover the 
skirt of mail beneath. The shins are protected by jambs, the thighs 
by cuisses, and the knees by genouilliSres, while on the feet we find 
broad toed sabbatons. A strong, straight, cross-handled sword hangs 
behind the figure in a sloping condition, and the small misericorde 
or dagger on the right is slung in the opposite direction. The head 
is bare, and the hair flows in tresses behind. Round the gorget is 
a chain with a tau cross hanging from it, resting upon the cuirass. 

The lady is Dame Alice, daughter to Sir Edmund Sutton de 
Dudley, Lord of Dudley in Warwickshire, by Maud, his second 
wife, daughter to Thomas Lord Clifford of Westmorland. On the 
head is the pedimental head dress worn by females in the time of 
Henry VII. and Henry VIII. It is very stiff" and entirely hides 

* " On the east side of the south transept under the floor of a seat used by the 
Castle servants," says the late Rev. Thomas Lees. 



the hain Frontlets of velvet, elaborately embroidered, meet over 
the forehead, making a sharp and decided angle, Thene hang down 
in lappets on either side of the head. A high close-bodied gown fklls 
in long ample folds from the waist, where it is secured by a girdle 
clasped in front with an ornament composed of three roses or quatre- 
foils, from which suspended by a chain reaching almost to the ground 
is another ornament of a globular form, intended to contain a 
pomander or other perfume. 

An under garment, with embroidered collar, is seen at the throat 
and at the wrists. A chain, with a tau cross similar to Sir John's, is 
round the neck, and both figures have the hands in an attitude of 

Above the head of the knight is a shield charged with : — Argent, 
a bend engrailed, sable, the bearing of the Ratcliffes ; and at his feet 
another : — Or, two lioncels passant, azure, the arms of the Suttons de 

Over the lady is her shield and below that of the Ratcliffes, with 
the additional charge of a ro^e or cinquefoil in the sinister chief (a 
due reference to the younger house from which he sprung).* 

Inscription, — 

Of yo' Charite pray for the Soule of S' John Ratclif knight 

& for the state of Dame Alice his Wyfe which S' John dyed ye 

ii day of february an di m.d.xxvii O whoos Soule Jhu have mcy. 

Plate VI.— A.D, 1547. 

Position. — On an oak board on the south side of the chancel ; size 
of figure, 16 in. high. 

Component Parts, — A knight and black letter inscription of four 

Description, — Sir Hugh is in full armour. The pauldrons and 
genouilH^res may specially be noticed. Also skirt of mail and 1am- 
boys.f The hair is cut short, and the head rests on a helmet. 

• NoTR BY The Editor.— The head of the knight, and the four coats of 
arms are a restoration of, probably, the beginning of the i8th century .»Sce Proc. 
S.A., 2nd series, vol. II., p. 191. 

t The skirt of taces has now disappeared, and instead appendages called 
tassets or lamboys are seen, buckled immediately to the cuirass. These are a de- 
velopment of the tuilles but consisted of many plates, of which the lowest were 
rounded off. Sometimes they reached to the knee plates. — See Kendal brass. 



\ » (Tf IndlilMmjitir .^IKrtlt bnaljt Iwh^irf ttif srl/rr in 
Kinior t^n»limiY}!]'r \'\^ iiiJnrl] Pumil) «mg lUHiiJiynip 

Sb« Urngli 9liiitrto» 1562, 
Soofle, CtunbrrUnQ. 

>r i. " '^ '- : < •".- '^ •> 


aBtnifrOl Netoportt 1547, 
Crestttolie, eambertatiO. 

-*» -•**• 

«« • 1 ,'* I* i 


Jfameft JKore^iis anU SKt^, 1540, 
ffiresntotte, CttmberlanO* 


Inscription. — Here lyeth S' Hughe Askew Knight late of the seller 
to I Kynge Edward the VJ which S' Hugh was maid knyght | at 
Moskelbrough felde in y* yere of o' Lord 1547 and dyed | y* second 
day of Marche In the yere of oure Lord God 1562. 

Plate VII.— A.D. 1547. 

Postion. — In south aisle. 

Component Par^s.— Female figure (7^ in.), with black letter inscrip- 
tion of four lines. 

Description, — ^The lady has for a head dress the French bonnet, 
a close linen cap with a horse-shoe shaped front. The hair down 
the back shows she was unmarried. The collar of the dress is 
turned down so as to show the partlet or linen garment drawn 
together round the neck. The sleeves are puffed at the shoulders. 

Inscription (upside down). — Of your charite pray for y« soule of 
Wenefride | Newport whose bones lyeth under this stone | whiche 
deptyd the IX daye of Decemb' Anno | dni MCCCCCXLVIJ whose 
soule Jhu perdon. 

Plate VII. — About 1540. 


Position. — Now in vestry. The matrix is in nave, not far from 
chancel arch. 

Component Parts. — Female figure (13! in.) and inscription, with 
black letter inscription of two lines. 
Inscription, — 

Of yo charite pray for y soules of James Morisby and 
Margaret his wyf on whose soules Jhu have mcy ame. 
Description. — The lady is attired in the dress of the time of Henry 
VII. The headgear is of the kind called pedimental, ante pp. 145, 
146. The dress has tight sleeves, with fur cuffs, and is cut square 
at the neck* The skirt is trimmed with fur. A large embroidered 
belt is buckled loosely round the waist, and the end hangs down 
to the ground. 

Plate VIII. 


PLATE VIIL— A.D. 1577. 


Position. — In Bellingham Chapel N. 1888, but formerly in an 
adjoining pew. 

Component Parts, — Male figure (19^ in.), black letter inscription of 
nine lines. 

Description, — A man in armour, like that of Sir Hugh Askew, 
Bootle. Tassets reach to the knee plates. 
Inscription, — 

Here lyeth the bodye of Alan Bellingh'm Esquier, 
who maryed Catheryan Daughter of Anthonye 
Ducket Esquier by whome he had no children 
after whose decease he maryed Dorothie daughter 
of Thomas Sanford Esquier of whom he had VII 
sonnes & eight daughters of which 5 sonnes and 7 
daughters with ye said Dorothie ar yeat lyving. he 
was thre score & one yares of age & dyed ye 7 of Maye 
A®dnL 1577. (ABD).* 
The following description of the Arms is taken from Mr. Bellasis* 
book " Monumental Inscriptions of Westmorland ". 

Arms. — I. : 4 ly, i & 4 ar. 3 bugle horns stringed sa (Bellingham) ; 
2 & 3, ar 3 bendlets on canton gu. lion rampant of field, (Burneshead). 
11. — The same impaling 4 ly, i, per chevron sa, and erm, in chief 
2 boars* heads couped or (Sandford); 2. gu. 3 lioncels rampant ar. 
(English) ; 3 or, on chevron between 3 mullets pierced az., as many 
fleurs-de-lis of field (Crackenthorpe) ; 4. ar, 2 bars on Canton gu, lion 
rampant or (Lancaster). 
Motto, — Ains y V est. 

The first Alan Bellingham of Levens Hall was Deputy Warden of 
the Marches and Treasurer of Berwick in the reign of Henry VII. 
This Brass is either in memory of the son or grandson of the first 

Plate IX.— A.D. 1606. 


Position. — Oh the south wall, near the east end of the south aisle 
in the Braddyll Chapel. 

*The exact form of this, the engraver's monogram, will be seen on Plate VI 1 1. 



ijftr 1 nftlj tlif Mm oiAlm HipRmpliiii Cfmiu'r 
\lil)fl murjJtH ffatiiniitm iimalUiTotRiirtiminr 
aiulu-ti^ftpiif r Ijjt Uiluniif lirliHi) nil i\Mm 
unrrliihnif Omatf liPtiifltnfi) t^mattnrOfluelrtn 
iif ?l)0iii95 5BnfeK^ri]uin-irf<l)bottif Ivf !i«iJ iJiJ 
imm\ nulit Dauijdm-ij.uf iMuii.i Mim\ .7 ■ 


Alan ISeningtmrn, 1577, 



DODJJINC lli-q^ TQ;^HCWEt His wife who UlEDIN TtC 

JKslen SoDDtog attD WBLiUf 



Jfofin lSl8t|e, 1565, 

Aim part of Itnigit anO Sbnn on utiOer nOie* 
Zarlp I6t| Centnrp. 


Component Paris, — Male and female figures (22! in.). Below is a 
five-line inscription in Roman capitals* 

Description. — A civilian clothed in long gown, almost hiding the 
doublet and hose except in the sleeves and in front. The cloak has 
long open ornamental sleeves which sometimes hang nearly to the 
ground. It may be fur-lined, but the ruff round the neck is some- 
what against it. The hair is cut short. 

The female figure has the French cap, but considerably depressed, 
and the black lappet turned over upon it. The skirt of the dress is 
gathered up at the waist, and stuffed out by a large fartingale (the 
precursor of the crinoline). The sash has now been given up, and 
the bodibe become a long waisted peaked stomacher. 
Inscription. — 

Here before lyeth bvried the bodies of Myles 
Dodding Esq : & Margaret his wife who died in the 
Yeare of o' Lord 1606. after they had lived Maried 
43 yeares & had issve tenne children of whome 
there only svrvived them, Myles Dodding & Henrye. 

Plate X. — A.D. 1562. 


Position, — Loose m vestry. Size, 20J in. by 5J in. 
Component Parts,— Iht only palimpsest brass in the diocese. On 
the one side is a four line black inscription as follows : — 

John Blythe lyved here Vycar of this Churche by the 
space of XXXV. yeres & iiii dayes and Departyd this 
lyfif the XVI. day of January in theyere of our Lorde 
God MCCCCCLXII. on whose soule Jhii. have mcy ame. 

John Blythe (says Mr. Lees) was vicar in 1538, when the Register 
commences. This is a fine specimen of post- Reformation use of 
Prayers for the departed as allowed in Queen Elizabeth's time. 

But a more ancient brass has been demolished to provide Blythe 
with a memorial, for on the other side, cut sharp and clear, is a 
figure of a knight in full armour, and the shoulders, elbows, and legs 
of another larger knightly figure ; perhaps it was executed in remem- 
brance of a father and son. The inscription below in black letter is 

Orate pro an 
et Sybille ux. 

This is supposed to have been cut forty or fifty years earlier. 

Plate XL 


Plate XL— A.D. i66i. 


Position, — In the north wall of north aisle of Carlisle Cathedral. 

Size. — 22J in. by 16 in. 

He was a native of Carlisle, and was consecrated Bishop on July 
23rd, 1598. He died at Rose Castle on June 19, 1616, and was 
buried on the north side of the high altar, where was put over his 
grave by his brother, the vicar of Crosthwaite, an engraved and 
gilded brass plate, copied from the original in the chapel of Queen*s 
College, Oxford. He is said to have been *' a Pious Christian, Charit- 
able to the Poor, and a great Benefactor to Queen's College. He fell 
a victim to the Plague whidh raged with great virulence in Cumber- 
land in the summer of 1616.*' 

Platb XII.— A.D. 16^8. 

Position, — On west wall of church. 

Size, — 25 in. by 21 in. 

Inscription, ---Four lines of Roman capitals. *' A memorative epi- 
taph for the excellently | accomplisht Gentleman Richard Barwise | 
late of Ilekirk Esq". He dyed the 13 of Febr. | 1648 in the 47th 
year of his age." 
This is followed by ten lines of Roman capitals : — 

Belowe good Barwise, Clos'd in bodye lyes, 
Whose saintly sovle, loyes Crown'd above y* Skyes 
Cyties wise gvide Covntries cheife Ornament 
In grace and natvr's gifts, most eminent 
Grave prvdent, piovs stord with vertves best 
Exchanginge life for death by death lives blest 
Of whome tis sayd none here lived more approved 
None dyed more mist, none mist was more beloved 
Whose vertvovs wife, in sable thovghts doth movrne 
Her tvrtles loss, till layd neere to his vrne. 

Beneath this, four lines in Roman small letters:— 

Oh pittye great soe choyse a Couple fhould 
without Grand ifsue be reduced to mould. 
Nor can they well while here they leaue a name 
fhall them furuiue till they reuioe a gaine* 



JlLT\r, SVJ^ LXJnj'. PIE JN DOTo OimOfLMlENn. BERN-^fiJ)' RQB1N.S0.V\.S Ffc\TF:« 

Btei^op Kobmnon, 1598, 
Catltele CatfieDralt tf ttnriifrlanO. 



AccoMPLisHT Gentleman RtcH arb Barwise 

164^ IN THE 4 7^*'yEAKF OF HIS AGE. 

Belowe good BARwtsE, Clos'd in bodye lyes 
Whose saintly sovleJoyls Crown b above y sky es 



None dyed \fORE mist, none mist was more beloved 
Whose vertvovs wife inmble THOvaHTSnoTHMOVprt 


^0 oil pittye great soe choyse a Couple* IhoulJ 4 
,f vvirhnuf Grand ifsuc he reduced to mould, |';' 
11^ Nor can the \utI1 wtiile here rhev leaue d name ;s 
|\ (hall rhem iuruiue till thej^ reiiiue a gainc ,1;^ 




Hirl^avD Bartaiter, 1648, 
SKeKtiDAvD, CttmberlatiD. 

• • ♦ • , 

»• * •/ • , 


. • • • •• 


Roman capitals : — 

Death is swollowed vp in victory. 
Vivit post Fvnera virtvs. 

Below on the dexter side is a figure emblematical of Truth, with a 
fillet with the words : '* Tryed, honord, loved, from this world he*s 

On sinister side a similar figure representing Fame, with the 
words : " Where he left scarce soe just wise good a one.** 

Richard Barwise was descended from Anthony Barwise, who 
bought the property from Thomas Dalston. He was a man of 
colossal stature and amazing strength. A stone is to be seen at Ile- 
kirk called Barwise*s stone, of prodigious size. It is asserted that he 
could throw it the length of his courtyard, but few men could raise it 
from the ground. He was called the Great Barwise, and his moral 
character held in estimation. 


Art. XIII. — Some Signatures of Carlisle Notaries. By the 

Rev. Jambs Wilson, M.A. 
Communicated at Arnside^ Sept. 25, 1893. 
rpHE first use of Notaries, it would seem, was to take in 
writing the whole process of the heathen judges 
against the Christian martyrs, what questions were put to 
them, what answers they made and whatever passed 
during their trial and suffering. Its first institution as a 
standing office is ascribed to the time of the Decian per- 
secution after which it is said that an order of men was 
appointed in every church to make a faithful collection of 
the acts of the martyrs and to preserve them as authentic 
memorials for the example and encouragement of future 
generations. Afterwards these Notaries were employed 
in writing the acts of synods and councils, taking notes of 
the debates and reading instruments or petitions or what- 
ever else of that nature was to be offered or read in 

In England we find the name of Notary at a very early 
period connected with the drawing up and the authentica- 
tion of important documents of various kinds, though the 
office as we know it was not recognised as a general or 
effective institution till several centuries later. There can 
be no doubt of the existence of some phase of this office 
during the Anglo-Saxon period. It is true that civil and 
ecclesiastical rulers thought that the signum venerandce 
cruets appended to their signature was sufficient testimony 
to certify the validity of their acts. But with the progress 
of society, the necessity of guarding the modes of inter- 

* Bingham's Origines Ecclesiastics, vol i, bk III, cap xiti, sect 5. Moreri's 
Dictionaire Historique under the word fiotaires de Rome, vol iv., p. 38, should 
also be consulted. 


•I 3J-vnd 


communication became more imperative. It was cus- 
tomary for several witnesses to attest grants of privilege 
or deeds of transfer, but in many cases the presence of a 
disinterested notary was required. There is ample oppor- 
tunity for studying the early methods of authenticating 
documents by reference to the series of charters belonging 
to the Saxon period of our history printed with much 
industry by Thorpe :* in some of these the Notarius is not 
only present but his function is recognised as that of 
writing the deed and countersigning it in Dei nomine 

Whatever may have been the precise nature of the 
notary's office in England during the period covered by 
tliese charters, it had fallen into desuetude, at all events 
to some extent, after the Norman conquest, and though 
it was an operative institution in continental states,t 
there is a strong presumption that its use was not general 
at home. This is what Sir Henry Spelman says: — 

Legi (sed locum nescio) Notarios publicos build papali hie in 
Anglid institutos esse tempore Regis Ric. 2. sed hos fort6 in re 

But it is bad policy to trust to the memory even of a 
great scholar. There is evidence that the office had fallen 

• Diplomatarium Anglicum Aevi Saxonici, pp. xxiii, 406, 414, et passim. The 
same information may be gathered from ICemble*s Codex and the intricate 
volumes of Haddan and Stubbs. Upon the early history of signatures a trust- 
worthy French writer says : — 

Avant que les sceaux fussent reconnus n^cessaires pour donner autorit^ 
k un acte quelconque, les parties int^ress^es se contentaient de tracer une 
croix {signum cruets) devant leur nom et d'y mentionner un nombre de 
temoins. Mais au xiie si^leles sceaux suppl^^rent aux seings ou signatures 
composies d'une simple i{( pT^6d€e du mot signum. Ce ne fut qu'au xvie 
siccle que la signature en toutes lettres fut exig^ pour donner aux litres la 
sanction n^essaire (M. Chassant's PaUographit des Charles, p. no, Paris, 
t See the interesting paper by the Rev. Joseph Hirst on the Signs-Manual of 
some Italian Notaries in the Antiquary of March, 1893. 

J This is his explanation of the word woteriiw in the Glossarium Archaiologi- 
cum, but he goes on to say that he found mention of the office in certain charters 
of Edward the Confessor. One or two of these he has printed in the Concilia, ^ 
vol i, pp. 628-632, edition 1639. 



into disuse at the date of the Legatine constitutions of 
Otho in 1237 where it is stated in two consecutive articles 
that there was at that time a greater necessity for sealed 
instruments in partibus Anglicants ubi publici Notarii non 
existunt* but it is only right to say that John of Athon, the 
annotator of these Constitutions, who was almost a con- 
temporary of Otho, flourishing in 1290, interprets the non 
existunt as raro existunt, thus preserving the continuity of 
the ofiice in this country. From this date we find it in 
operation,t to the time of the Reformation.^ 

When Henry VIII was re-adjusting the national policy 

• These constitutions with Athon*s notes are found in Lyndwood, Provinciafe 
part II, pp. 6S'S, edition 16^9: also in Johnson's Collection of Ecclesiastical 
Laws, vol li, in loco, 1237, ^irtides 27 and 28, edition 1720, and in Bishop Gibson's 
Codex Juris Ecclesiastici Anfrlicani, vol ii, p. 1056, edition 17 13, The office, 
falling^ into abeyance at this period, is only of a piece with the treatment of other 
Saxon offices and customs, which had g^dually ^own obsolete and forgotten. 

t There are three very notable instances in well-known statutes where the 
office is mentioned, vis, tne Act of Provisors of Benefices in the 25 ^according to 
the printed copies of the statute but according to Bishop Gibson \Codex, vol i, 
75-6 the 35) Edward iii, st 6, sect. 4 : the act otPremunire 27 Edward iii, cap i, 
sect, i, and the Act of Premunire for purchasing bulls from Rome, 16 Rich ii, c 
5, sect. 2. It was the languagre of the latter statute probably that induced Spel- 
man to conjecture that the office originated there. 

X It may be well to supply a few more references to show the office in opera- 
tion in this country at the time spoken of and the methods by which it was 
exercised. For considerations of space a bare summary must be sufficient : — 
(i) Notarial exemplification of two assi^^nments made by the prior and convent 
of Lewes and subscribed with sign-manual by "Johannes Northwyk, 
Clericus, Wygorniensis diocesis, oublicus auctoritate apostolica nota- 
rius." and bearing date 1411 (Sir George Duckett*s Charters and 
Records of Cluni, vol. I, 214-219.) 
(3) Notarial inspeximtts of two ancient records of the priory of St. Pancras by 
" Thomas Edynghara, clericus Cantuariensis diocesis, publicus auctori- 
tate apostolica notarius " in the year 1417 {Ibid, 1, 46-56). 

(3) Notarial exemplification of the official appointment of Robert Amicel, the 

well-known prior of l^wes, as vicar-general of the Cluniacs in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland with the notarial emblem of " Johannes Gooidman 
de Lewes, clericus Cicestrensis diocesis, publicus auctoritate apostolica 
notarius," of date January, 1434. Other acts of Prior Amicel are 
attested by this Notary (Itid, 11, 45-52). 

(4) Public instrument, date 1446, testifying to the non-acceptance of the priory 

of Lewes by Nicholas Benet on the xleath of Amicel with notary's 
emblem and attested by "Johannes^ Wybbery clericus Exon. diocesis, 
publicus auctoritatibus apostolica et imperiali notarius" {Ibid II, 69). 
From the same volume > may be gathered many examples of foreign notaries, 
but their procedure differs in no perceptible respect from that of their English 
contemporaries. The continental office received its authority from papal, impe- 
Aal or royal sources just like the office in England. The international recogni- 
tion of the office is interesting. 



of the English Church, the Act of 1533, 25 Henry VIII, 
commonly called "the Act of Peter Pence and Dispensa- 
tions," freed his subjects from the exactions of foreign 
ecclesiastics and invested the Kin^ with the power of 
granting faculties which had been previously usurped by 
the Bishop of Rome. As a necessary outcome of this 
legislation a new court, called the Court of Faculty, was 
originated, which came within the sphere of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, to whom the appointment of nota- 
ries was delegated, and in whose hands it has remained 
ever since.* From this time forward the use of notaries 
had sprung into prominence and their duties were en- 
larged and defined. In the celebrated but abortive Refor^ 
matio Legum EccUsiasiicarum, attempted in the reigns of 
Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Elizabeth, the Notary came 
in for his share of official reconstruction, a whole chapter 
of twenty-one articles having been devoted to his edifica- 
tion. In the article concerning the modus conficiendi 
instrumental technical directions are given not only for the 
peculiar phraseology of the instrument but for the use of 
the sign-manual — Notarii quoque obsignatio cum subscrip- 
tiane ac propria signo in fine adjiciatur.f 

The number of notaries increased and multiplied during 
the reign of Elizabeth and occasions for their intervention 
were created by the variety of causes placed within their 
jurisdiction. In 1603, as a testimony to the repute in 
which the office was held, their signature was imposed as 
a warrant for the good faith of *' deans,! archdeacons, 
prebendaries, parsons, vicars, and others, exercising 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction who claim liberty to prove the 

* Buni*s Ecclesiastical Law, vol iii, p. 2, 4th edition, 1781. 

t Cardfrell's Reformatio Legum, &c, p. 233, Oxfoid edition. After the futile 
attempt to give le&^al effect to some such body of ecclesiastical and civil laws in 
the Parliament of 13 Elizabeth, 157 1, the subject dropped (Strype's Parker, 
book iv, chap. 5» P- 323, folio 1711). 

t Canon cxxvi, English edition. The precaution was necessary for a proper 
lecofd of Wills in the Bishop's Registry. 



last wills and testaments of persons deceased within their 
several jurisdictions". Nowadays notaries are for the 
most part confined to seaport towns or reckoned among 
the officials of bishops, their duties consisting chiefly of 
certain diocesan work or of shipping and mercantile 
matters. Notarial practice is largely guided by custom 
and some acts''' of parliament passed during this century. 
It is thought that the palmy days of the office are over. 

A most curious feature of the notarial office was the 
sign-manual or special mark which was used to supple- 
ment the signature of the name and render it more diffi- 
cult of imitation. It was of the nature of a heraldic device 
to characterise the peculiarity of the office and was largely 
used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in attest- 
ing deeds and documents belonging to cathedral and 
collegiate authorities. Several of these signatures have 
come under my notice, the most distinctive and interesting 
of which, as far as they relate to the diocese of Carlisle, 
are reproduced in illustration of this paper. It may be 
observed that on inquiry I can find no trace of the office 
of a public notary among the muniments of the Corpora- 
tion of Carlisle, so that all the fruits of local research are 
confined to the registries of the Bishop arid the Dean and 
Chapter. From this it may be concluded that the office, 
at the time under consideration, was more or less ecclesi- 
astical, as may be understood from the authority which 
makes it effective. Of the signatures, all but one are found 
in the first volume of the post-Reformation registers of 
the See of Carlisle, the solitary exception being that of 
the Chapter clerk of 1570. The first I meet with was 
used by Bernard Aglionby, registrar to the Bishop when 
the series of episcopal registers is resumed An^ dni 1561 

* Some of the more recent statutes for reg-ulating* the functions of notaries may 
be mentioned : — 41 George III, c. ^9 as amended by 3 and 4 William IV, c. 70 : 
6 and 7 Victoria, c. 90: the Shipping Acts of 18 and 19 Victoria, c. iii, as 
amended by 25 and 26 Victoria, c, 63 : 33 and 34 Vict. c. 2S, and 52 Vict. c. 10. 

29 Septembris, 

Plate IL 



29 Septembris. He continued in his office till February 
1576, after which his signature disappears. During this 
time the style of the device, whenever it occurs, does not 
vary, so that it cannot be considered a mere haphazard 
flourish without any definite purpose. Of the two dozen 
signatures made by Aglionby during the episcopates of 
Bishops Best and Barnes, the balloon-shaped device is 
employed no less than eleven times between the years 
1561 and 1565, after which he dropped the figure alto- 
gether. His signature continues occasionally up to the 
translation of Bishop Barnes in 1577, but it* does not recur 
in the register of Bishop Meye. There is no appreciable 
variation in any of the notarial figures used by him, a 
family likeness existing all through, one being a fac-simile 
of the other. 

As a contemporary with AglionSjfpThomas Tallentyre 
filled the post of clerk or notary to the Dean and Chapter 
of Carlisle. At the beginning of one of the earliest vol- 
umes of the Capitular books he has entered a copy of 
Queen Elizabeth's commission, dated 29 June (8 Eliza- 
beth) 1566, concerning the granting of improper leases, 
to which he subjoined the sign-manual given in the illus- 
tration.* Of Tallentyre's signature I have found no 
duplicate. It would appear that he was succeeded in 
August, 1579, by John Smithe. About the same time, 
August 1st, 1579, the name of Reginald Perkin occurs as 
a public notary in Bishop Meye's register, and on the 
nth of December following he blossoms out into the 
registrar. But Perkin was more particular in tricking 
out his device with additional touches than in what desig- 
nation he appended beneath it : sometimes he styles 
himself, as in 1594 : — 

Ita est Reginaldus Perkin notarius pub^" 
Deputatus Regrarij Carliolcn 

* For a tracing of the signature I am indebted to the kindness of the Dean of 



though he had previously subscribed a caveat in 1580 

Per me Reginald urn Perkin 

Notariuna Publicum 

Carliolen Regrum. 

but for the most part he was satisfied with notary pubh'c 
as shown in the woodcut. There appears to have been a 
definite rule observed as to the signature of notary and 
registrar. When an ordinary document is entered upon 
the Register, the office of notary was deemed sufficient to 
attest its authenticity, but in weightier matters like a 
caveat or a wTll it was thought more prudent to recite 
the double office and append the sign-manual. Perkin 
was a most excellent scribe, and his device is always in 
itself a work of art, like some others of this date that I 
have seen in the Public Record Office and elsewhere. It 
is clear that he took considerable pride in embroidering it, 
as in idle moments he sketched it in the margin and on 
vacant spaces on the pages: besides out of the thirty 
documents he was called upon to witness he employed it 
with scarcely any variation in form or detail as many as 
twenty times. It has been suggested that notarial marks 
have some concealed signification, some riddle or rebus 
on the name or status of the person using it. That may 
be ; but it has yet to be proved. In my own view they 
are mere conceits* like much of the floriation of mediaeval 
sculpture or the grotesque embellishments of old books. 
The sign-manual of Thomas Gibson, which bears some 
resemblance to that of Perkin, first occurs in witness of a 

• Perkin was apparently a notary with many " fads," since he thought his 
marriage of sufficient importance to be entered amongst the acts of the bishops. 
It mayoe useful to republish it here : — 

Die dnica px ante festum Penthecosts viz dnica duodescimo die mesis maij 
Anno oni millimo quingeno octog^esimo tertio in ecdia bte Marie vir^inis 
civitate Carlii pnte tempore Divinor solemnizatus futt mrimonium inter 
me Reginalaum Perkin Notarium Publicum et Katherinam Sowthaick 
filiam Thomae Sowthaick mgn choristoru* ecclie CathHa Carliolen p 
dnum I'homam Johnson Curatum ibm, Mro Thomafar&x sacre theologie 
bacc eodem die ibm concionate. Quod quidem mrimonium contractum 
fuit inter nos die dnica vigiliis Sti jTacobi Apli, viz xxviijo die mesis Julij 
Anoo dni millimo quingeno octagesimo. 


Plate III. 





deed of resignation of the rectory of Bowness-on-Solway 
by Mr. Leonard Lowther in June, 1597, and ceases alto- 
gether in 1602. Of the eight signatures which occur in 
the Register, the device is delineated three times without 
perceptible modification. Bishop Robinson was a prelate 
who delighted in having notaries about him, some of his 
instruments being witnessed by three and one of them by 
as many as four of these officials. When his brother 
Giles Robinson resigned the archdeaconry in 1602 it took 
four notaries to authenticate the deed. One of these was 
Giles Swinbank, who had previously witnessed a caveat 
respecting the church of Orton in Westmorland in 1594, 
the writing having been signed in qimdamp'lura sive officio 
infra Domum soliter habiiacois mei Reginaldi Perkin notarij 
puhlici deputati Regrij Carliolen in vico vocat Castlegate 
infra Civitatem Carlij. Swinbank's device, of which I 
have not seen another example, seems to be more of a 
caligraphic flourish than any conventional form. 

Four of the signatures, which are illustrated, have no 
distinctive figure or device, viz., those of John Meye, 
William Mulcaster, Philip Ellis, and Edward Fountain. 
Meye is an interesting personage, being a son of the 
Bishop of that name. The signature in question is taken 
from a deed of resignation of Crosthwaite by Robert Beck 
in 1597. It maybe permissible to interpolate in this place a 
couple of Cambridge documents, which were duly recorded 
in the Register: one from Dr. Preston is a quaint and 
friendly letter conveying to the Bishop the news of his 
son's admission to the degree of Bachelor of Laws and the 
other is the grace or placeat from the doctors and profes- 
sors of that University. If of no other value they will 
serve to show that a notary at this date could be a person 
well learned in the law.* They are the following : — 

** Another example may be of use to establish this statement. It is from a 
deed of the resignation of the Rectory of Kirkbythore by Robert Warcop in 1597, 
and entered in Bishop Meye's register. It concludes as follows :~ 



Lra direct dno Epo My Verie good 

p admisione Johnis Meye lorde the Rosiall 

cius filij in ordinem curtesies w<* I 

bacchaiaurei legis &c once receyvede 

unacu* vera notula gracie muste comande 

sue, subscript p doctores my poor endevours 

Cantabrigien for ever, M' 

Johne Meye his 

grace to comence bacheler in lawe is accomplished honorablelie and 
frugallie w^hout penaltie constrainte of exercise or convivacon only 
payinge accustomed dewties unto the ordinarie officers, as vice- 
chanceler, peters, beadles, and coropoundinge w^^ the father for his 
chaire. Honorablelie for that he pceedeth by the privilledge of 
Nobilitye Ita ut eius admissio sUt ei p, compUt, gradu et forma^ w<* 
favour of actuall admission is pemptorilie pi'cluded to all psons by a 
statute of her Ma^®*^ ^j^i ^ijit Regie ma^ asirreU^ Epi, nobiles aut 
nohiliu' filij. That it may more fully appeare I have sent herein - 
closed a Trewe purporte of the grace unto yo' lo : veiwe w'*» such 
handes subscribed by M' vicechanceler the heades of Colledges, and 
doctors of the facultie as our universitye order requireth. The 
admission may be any tyme betwixt this and the comencement at 
his owne convenientest oportunitie, when as I hope he will not 
refuse Trinitie haull for his lodgeinge nor me for his oste to whome 
he shalbe moste hartilie welcome. And I will not faile godwillinge to 
accompanie him unto the full dispatch of all his busines Evenso 

Et ego Edmundus Pope Dioceseos London auctoritate Regia Notarius 
Publicum, et Univ'sitatis Oxon artiu' Mag^ister et in legibus Bacchalaureus 
quia resijs:noi, cession! et renunciation! nee non procuratoris constit .... 
ceterisq : prmissis oibus et singulis dum sic ut prmittitur agerentur et fierent 
una cum testibus supius noiatis psonaiiter interfui, eaque oia et singula sic 
fieri vidi et audivi atque prout pesta sunt in protocollum redegi sub annis 
Dot, mense die et loco prdict, Ideo prsens publicu' instrutum nianu mea 
propria fideliter scriptu exinde confeci subscripsi et publicavi atque in hanc 
publicam et authenticam formam redegi, sig-noque meo Tabellionali, noie et 
cognoie et subscriptione meis notis et consuetis ^ignavi, in 6dem et testimo- 
nium pmissor rogatus ad id specialiter (ut prfertur) et requisitus. 
The allusion here to the office of Jabellion is of great interest. Blount says that 
it differed in some countries from that of Notary, but in his day they were grown 
or made one in England (Law Dictionary sub verl'o). He quotes Matthew Paris 
(fol. 454, de Anno 12^6) : — 

Quoniam Tabellionum usus in Regno Anglix non habetur, propter auod 

magis ad sigilla authentica credi est necesse, ut eorum co(.ia facilius habea- 

tur, statuimus, ut Sigillum habeant non solum Archiepiscopi et Episcopi sed 

eoitim Officiates. 

This is aJditional testimony to that stated in the Legatine Constitutions that the 

office of notary, tabellion, or scrivener had fallen into disuse in England at the 

beginning of the thirteenth century. 


Plate iV. 





W^ i i »'* - » C w 

Plate V. 


desireinge to have my comendacons remembred to M*" Meye And if 
yo«" lo» give me leave to M' Wilfride Lawson and his bedfellowe, I 
wishe to yo* good lo^ all happines in Christe. ffrom Trinitie hall in 
Cambridge this xxviij^ of March 1594 

Yo^ lo^ moste humble to comand 
Tho: Preston 

in dorso. To the right rev*end father in god ^ 
my very good lo : the lo : busshopp of Carliell ) 

Mr Johannes Meye 
gracia Johnis Meye Placeat vobis ut 

rev'endi in xpo pris ac nobilis 

viri, et dni Johnis Meye Carliolen epi filius post studiu' aliquot 
annoru* tam in humanioribus Iris, qm in iure Civili positum, admit- 
tatur ad gradum Bacchalaureatus in eodem Jure. Sic ut eius 
admissio stet ei p complet gradu et forma et ut non arctetur ad 
aliquam Ceremonia' solitam observari ab intrantibus in eadem 
facultate Juramento pmittat se consuetudines privilegia et statuta 
huius universitatis observatura* 

Doctores Juris Civiles Professores theologie 

Thomas Binge ^ Jo : duport vicedecanus \ 

Tho: Legge 
Thomas Preston 
John Hettis 

Rob : Some 
Humfridus Tyndale 
Gulielmus Whitacre 

Jo: Cowell 1 Edmund: Harwell 

Robertus Newcome I Tho : nevile I 

Matth : Sethell / John Jegon / 

I have a pardonable interest in the persons of Philip Ellis 
and Edward Fountain, as they were both of the parish of 
Dalston, The former is styled generosus in the parish 
register and was buried in Dalston on February 18, 
1662-3, while the interesting old farmhouse in the town- 
ship of Hawksdale, now called Fountain head, takes its 
name from the latter family. Fountain came on the scene 
as a notary with Bishop Potter in 1629 ^"^ continued 
registrar of the diocese till the ecclesiastical breakup in 



George Tullie, who was registrar for a number of years,* 
affected a very complicated device, if it can lay claim to 
such a title. His handwriting begins in 1609, but his 
name does not occur till 1612. He evidently took great 
pains in subscribing the different instruments with which 
he was connected, rarely forgetting to add a touch here 
and there to the fantasies with which his signature is 
invariably adorned. While he and Fountain successively 
filled the office of registrar to the Bishops, other notaries 
had occasion to witness documents entered in the Regis- 
try. One of these was John Pattinson, probably the 
official of the Dean and Chapter, who enters a caveat 
with respect to the patronage of Lowther. It is of in- 
terest as describing the location of the episcopal office — 
in quadam superiori Camera vulgariter vocai the Registers 
office infra p'cinct ecclie Cathedralis Carliolen sup^du sett et 
situat ad rogatu decani et Captli Ecclie Cathedralis Carliolen 
pdict.f The signature of Thomas Hammond occurs but 
once as witness to the oath taken by the churchwardens 
of Crosthwaite in 1638 like that of Hugh Briskoe which 
forms the last entry in Bishop White's register in a caveat 
respecting the advowson of Plumbland Church in 1627. 
These notaries were employed by the contravening parties 
and formed no part of the Bishop's entourage. We are 
indebted to the ordination, by letters dismissory, of a 
deacon from the diocese of York for the signature -of 
Thomas Hopper, who attended at Rose Castle to witness 
the ceremony. It seems only a copy of the original as it 

* TuIIie had some notarial transactions with Lord William Howard, e.g-., 

1612 Junij 2. To Mr. Tullcy for coppyingf out totum processum versus 
Milburn, is., 
and he took an interest too in Lord William's hobby : — 

1623, Oct 29. To Jo : Robinson for charges of carryingc be&re to Carlyle 
long- since and brinffing an antique stone from Mr Tully xiiijd. 
George Tullie was father of Thomas, Dean of Ripon, who was born in Carlisle, 
1620 (Lord William Howard's Household Books, pp. 15» 220). Timothy Tullie, 
Rector of Cliburn 1639, and occasional preacher in Carlisle was a later personage, 
t The Dean and Chapter claimed the patronage of the Church of Lowther but 
failed to substantiate their claim. 


Plate VI. 



is undoubtedly written in the same hand and with the 
same ink as the rest of the register, which is the work of 
Reginald Perkin. The last of the notaries I have to 
mention is Adam Sanderson, whose signature occurs six 
times between the years 1632 and 1639, and never once 
without the distinguishing appendage. 

During the remainder of the 17th century, that is, from 
the Restoration, I can find no distinctive sign-manual in 
use by any of the notaries employed by the Bishops of 
Carlisle. In 1661 the registrar witnesses thus : — 

Ita test or 

Rich: Sterne 
Reg' Carliol 
though sometimes he describes himself simply as notarius 
publicuSf a custom which I have seen observed by others 
in after days. The nearest approach to a device was 
made on one occasion by John Nicolson in 1685, but it is 
such a tame affair that I did not think it worth repro- 
duction. In recent years, the notaries attached to the 
episcopal registry have used seals, bearing their names in 
legend with their family crests on the field. The seal of 
the present holder of the office, Mr. A. N. Bowman, to 
whom some of us are under great obligation for unfailing 
courtesy, displays the bow and arrows, a rebus on his 
surname and a reminiscence of vocation of his ancestors, 
bowmen in the forests of Cumberland. 


Art. XIV. — On a Bronze Vessel of Roman Date found at 

Clifton^ near Penrith. By The President. 
Communicated at Amside^ Sept. 25th, 1893. 

OUR member, Mr. Blair, F.S.A., well known as one of 
the Secretaries of the Society of Antiquaries of New- 
castle, sent me a post card recently to inform me that in 
a well known dealer's catalogue, there was advertised for 
sale a drawing of " A Roman vessel of copper, consisting 
of three parts, found near Clifton by Penrith." For the 
sum of half-a-crown, I purchased the drawing, and it 
is now reproduced for the benefit of the readers of these 

The vessel is a saucepan with flat rim and handle, in 
which is a hole, for the purpose of suspending the vessel 
on a nail when not in use. The maker's stamp is on the 
handle thus : taliof.* The diameter of the vessel at the 
top is eight inches, and depth about four. A strainer, 
about two inches deep, and perforated with many holes, 
fits into the vessel, while a lid again fits into the strainer. 
The whole arrangement much resembles a modern fish 
kettle. The lid appears from the drawing, to be concave 
and perforated with holes, so that vegetables may have 
been steamed in it, while the fish was being cooked below. 

A scale is on the drawing and the legend " A Roman 
vessel of copper, consisting of three parts, found near 
Clifton by Penrith," in a handwriting of the middle of the 
last century. No history is known of the drawing, except 
that the dealer purchased it at Bath. It would be desir- 
able to know if the vessel is still in existence, and where, 
or if the find is recorded in any book. 

* Talio F occurs abroad. 













Art. XV. — A Fourth Century Tombstone from Carlisle, By 

F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A. 
rpHE remarkable tombstone which forms the subject of 
^ the following paper, was dug up in 189?, on Gallows 
or Harraby Hill, near the London Road, leading south- 
wardsout of Carlisle, at a point where previous discoveries, 
made principally in 1829 and 1847, had demonstrated the 
existence of a Roman Cemetery.* When found, it was 
lying face downwards over a rough wooden coffin which 
contained fatty earth and a skull. It is a slab of red local 
sandstone, measuring 20 by 31 inches and bearing six and 
alhalf lines of lettering separated by lines ruled across the 
stone. The inscription is perfect at the top and sides, 
but is broken across the seventh line, an attempt having 
seemingly been made to ** chad " the stone into two pieces. 
This fact and the position in which it was found, shew 
that it was not in situ when dug up, though it obviously 
belongs to the circumjacent cemetery. It has been given 
by the finder, Mr. Dudson, to the Tullie House Museum. 
The reading, t as I copied it, is as follows : — 

D M 










•R. S. Ferguson, Proc. Soc, Ant. xiv (1893) 261. These Transations, vol. xii, 
p. 365. 

t Published by Mr. Ferguson and myself he, cit. ; bv myself. Academy, Dec. 
24, 1893; Proceedings of the Neiocastle Society of Antiquaries, v. 231. The 
present article is somewhat modified from one which I contributed to i\ie Journal 
of the Royal Archaologieal Institute, 



D(is) M{anibus) Fla(viu)s AHiigOH{u)s Papias, civis Gr{a)eeus, vixit 
annos plus minus Ix^ quem-ad-modum accom(m)odaiam fatis animam 
revocavit Septimiadon ? 

The reading is absolutely certain with the exception of the 
seventh line. This I read septimiadoni, but the i after 
the M is not quite vertical, and the D might possibly be a b 
or siniilar letter. The interpretation is quite clear down 
to LX : the rest is disputed. Fortunately we can, in spite 
of this uncertainty, predicate some facts about the in- 
scription as a whole. 

It is the tombstone of one Flavins Antigonus Papias, 
a Greek, who died about the age of sixty and was buried 
in Carlisle. He lived in the fourth century of our era and 
it is possible, though it is not capable of actual proof, that 
he was a Christian. These certainties or uncertainties 
lend the tombstone an unusual interest. We have ex- 
traordinarily few inscriptions, excluding milestones, in 
Britain, which we can assign with confidence to the 
fourth century. Perhaps the only clear instances are (i) 
a '' basis " lately found at Cirencester, the pedestal (as it 
seems) of a monument to Juppiter which a governor of 
Britannia Prima restored at some moment, such as the 
reign of Julian, when Paganism reasserted itself against 
Christianity, and (2) a stone recording the erection of a fort 
near Peak, between Whitby and Scarborough, about the 
beginning of the fifth century. The Carlisle tombstone, 
may, therefore, claim to be an object of more than ordi- 
nary interest to Antiquaries and especially to Antiquaries 
in Cumberland. 

First, as to the date. We may with confidence attri- 
bute the inscription to the fourth century. The proofs 
are the following : — 

I. The name Flavins, popularized by the Flavian 
dynasty of the Constantines, becomes very common in the 
fourth and fifth centuries. The late military cemetery at 
Concordia (N. Italy), for instance, contains a large pro- 


portion of Flavii, while of the 180 Flavii mentioned in the 
fifth volume of the Corpus (which includes Concordia), 
certainly 60 and probably nearly 90 lived after the year 
A.D. 300. The name was taken even by barbarian kings 
and nobles, and always suggests a late date for any 
inscription which does not belong to the era of the first 
Flavii, Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.* As Constantius 
Chlorus conquered Britain in A.D. 297, we cannot put 
our inscription much, if at all, before that date. 

2. The abbreviations Flos Aniigons for Flavins Antu 
gonus are characteristic of a late period. In the first 
three centuries, the Romans abbreviated by the first letter 
or syllable of the abbreviated word ; in the fourth century 
they began to take the first and last letters or syllabes, 
thus commencing the system which went on in the middle 
ages and produced epus for episcopus and sett for sancti. I 
do not know whether the actual forms Flas and Antigons 
recur elsewhere, but we have abundant parallels from the 
fourth and fifth centuries, Julians for Julianus, Jans for 
Januariusy Debres for Decembres^ cus for coniuxs^ Maxianus 
and Consiius for Maximianus and Constantius^ the two latter 
on a boundary stone at Cherchell in Africa.t 

3. The employment of civis to denote nationality is 
also a mark of late date. In the first and second centuries, 
the word is used of members of an actual community or 
of a tribe which could be regarded as a civitas : later, it 
denotes only birth, and civis Gallus means exactly the 
same as natione Gallus. The meaning crept even into 
literature and Sidonius Apollinaris (p. vii. 6, 2.) speaks of 

* C.I.L. V. p. 178, Caf^nat ann^ ^t^r. 1890, n. 143 foil, 1801, n. loi foil. 
See also de Rossi, pp. cxii and 390, au Cange, s.v, " Flavius," ana especially Th. 
Mommsen's Ostgothische Stitdien in the Neues Arckiv fur aliere deutscke 
Geschicktskunie, xiv, p. 536. 

tSce C. xii. 5351, xiv. 399; le Blant i. 472, 614: Bulletin ipif^r, iv. 234; 
Bulletino di Arch. Christ i« 65 (DEPS=i2efKmltfj) ti. 108, (FRis=/ra^m), etc. 



a "Goth by birth" as civis Gothus.^ It may be added 
that Graecus in this context does not necessarily mean a 
native of Greece. A Christian inscription, probably of 
the fourth or fifth century, found in Hungary, mentions a 
civis Graecus ex regione Ladicena (C. iii. 4200) and a Lyons 
gravestone records a man who was natione Graecus Nico- 
medea (Allmer Lyon i. 322, n°. 62). The first was a 
Phrygian, the second a Bilhynian. This, of course, 
agrees with the literary usage of the word Graecus. It 
would be wrong, I think, to connect with this the proper 
name Greca on a Plumpton Wall inscription. (C. vii. 326). 

4. The formula pltis minus, familiar enough to classical 
scholars as good Latin, is rarely used on tombstones 
until Christian times and is indeed almost a mark of 

5. The lettering and general look of the inscription 
suggest the fourth century as the most probable date. 

We may therefore conclude that the inscription belongs 
to the fourth century. Later we cannot put it, for the 
evacuation of Britain came early in the next century, and 
the proofs I have quoted forbid us to put it much earlier. 
We may, I think, go further and conjecture that the 
inscription was Christian. The formula plus minus is 

• Mommsen Hermes xix. 35. The following examples may be quoted :— 

civis Britaiinicus, found at Cologne (Bambach 2033 addenda). 

c. Gallus, Pola (Pais, 1096), Rome (Le Blant 656, 658, both fourth century). 

c. Helvedus, Rothenbur|( (Brambach, 1639). 

c. Raetus, Rome, Christian {Eph. iv. 943) ; Birrens and Netherby in Britain 
(C. vii. 1068, and 972). 

r. Noricus, Halton and Castlecary in Britain (C. vii. 571, 1095) ; Transylvania 
(C. iii. 966). 

c. Pannonius, Africa, Christian C. viii. 8910); Rome, Christian {Eph, iv. 953), 
Chesterholm in Britain (C. vii. 723). 

r. MensiacuSf {=Moesiacus), Bordeaux (Julian, i. p. 146, n. 44). 

c. Graecus HungarVi Christian (C. iii. 4220), Bordeaux ( jullian i. p. 1S7, n. 69.) 

c. Sums, N. Italy (Aquileia), Christain (C. v. 1633) j Hungary {EphAi. 895); 
Cilli {Oest. Arch, epigr, Mitth. iv. 127, seen by myself). 

c. Armeniacus Cappadox, Rome Christian, A.D. 385 (de Rossi, i. 355). 

c. Afer, Cilli (C. iii. 5230), and possibly Spain {Inscr. Christ. Hisp. 71). 

c. tuscus, Rome, A.D. 408 (de Rossi, i. 55S). 

c. Thrax, Cherchell (Bull. Epigr. iv. 6^). 

c. Francus, Aquincum (C. iii, 3576), obviously late. See also C. iii, 1324, 3367. 



usually, and I think rightly, reckoned as a mark of Chris- 
tianity, though simple classical scholars will perhaps 
smile at the idea. The formula D.M., though in its origin 
Pagan, is not unknown on Christian tombstones and 
especially, as it would seem, on the earlier ones.* It 
must be remembered that, as Hirschfeld and Le Blant 
have pointed out, the early Christians used ordinary burial 
formulae, indicating their religion only by preference for 
special words and phrases like plusy minuSf pius^ sanctuSy 
which would not attract the attention or arouse the 
fanaticism of the hostile pagan majority round them.t 
At the same time, I must repeat that the Christianity of 
Flavins Antigonus Papias, however plausible, is a matter 
of conjecture. 

So far we have dealt only with the first half of the 
inscription. The second is less certain and half requires 
a word. It is unfortunate that the stone does not tell us 
whether we should read quemadmodum or quern adtnodum 
or quern ad modum. It is also unfortunate that the last 
line is so broken that we can hardly tell how it ran. To 
me SBPTiMiADONi seems most probable, but it is also 
possible to read septima, supposing the stroke after m 
(which is not quite vertical) to be an accident. The 
passage, thus involved, has puzzled many persons, and 
various distinguished scholars whom I have consulted. 
Prof. Domaszewski, Prof. Ellis, Prof. Wolfflin and others, 
have differed considerably in their interpretations. Of the 
views suggested, the most attractive is that which takes 

* F. Becker die heidnisehe Wei)\fiyrmel D.M. ai^f altchrlHlichen Grabsteinen 
(Gera 1881). To his 100 examples (not all certain), add instances from South 
C^ul (C. xii. 4091 3ii4» 331 1, 4059); Africa (C. viii 11S97, 11205, ii^5» 12197; 
Epk, vii. 492; Cagnat ann^e ^piffr. 1801, n. 136); North Italy (Pais Supfl n. 
349; Arch. EMgr, Milth, iii. p. 50, C. iii. 1C43, 8588, 8575); Salonae (C. iii, 
9414; Larisa (C iii, 7315); Rome (de Rossi, i, 24 and 1192; Brittany (Q>rneilhan| 
Revue, ipigr, i. p. 107), etc. See also De Rossi, Bull, Arch. Crist i. 174, ana 
F. X. Kraus, Roma SoUerranea, p. 64, who consider the use as a rare one. 

t fFestdeutsche ZeitschrifU viii, 138. Plus minus occurs also on a tombstone 
found at Brougham {EpK, iii» n. 91 j Bruce, Lapidarium, 814). 



quemadmodum as three words, " at which date," and 
renders it revocavit by the rare sense " gave up," and puts 
a fullstop after it. Then revocavit animam means '' he 
gave up his soul," either as an equivalent to the common 
Christian formula reddidit animam or with the heathen idea 
(mentioned in Seneca and elsewhere) of life being a loan 
from the gods. Of the two alternatives, I prefer the 
former, but, whichever is accepted, it remains a difficulty 
that revocavit in this sense is very rare. * If, however, it 
be admitted, we shall render ''at which time, he gave up 
his soul resigned to death (or its destiny "). We shall 
then suppose that Septimia (ov Septima) Doni commences 
a sentence about the person, perhaps wife or daughter, 
who put up the tombstone. Doni may'be part of donicella, 
that is domnicella, as Prof. Wofflin suggests ; for the form 
compare Dominicellus on an African inscription of Christiah 
date (Bulletin epigr. vi. 39). 

There are however other possibilities. We may trans- 
late revocavit in its ordinary sense and suppose that the 
nominative to it was in the lost part of the inscription. 
Septima (if that be right) may belong to a date, such as 
was often expressed on Christian inscriptions. We may 
take QUEM ADMODUM as two words, quem being in opposi- 
tion to animam and admodum meaning '' wholly," as it 
does both in classical and in post-classical Latinity : we 
should then render " whom, a wholly resigned soul. ..." 
Prof. Robinson Ellis suggests to me that we should 
translate " he lived sixty years more or less, for so it was 
that, when his spirit was prepared to meet its doom, he 
recalled it to life (and did not die") ; that is, he was often 

* Mr. G. Rushforth has pointed out to me in the African Gesta Ptirgationis 
Felicia (of the fouth century, Routh, RflL Sacrae, iv. 290), revocare is used as 
the equivalent of tradere^ restituere and revocare. The later African poet Corip- 
pus ( floruit 560 a.d.) may possibly have used the word similarly in Joh. ii, 34^ 
where the manuscript readinj^ captives revocet '* let him restore the captives '* 
would make good sense. But it is a Ult cry from African Latin to Carlisle. 




on the point of death but recovered as often and lived to 
be sixty years old. On the whole, I fear that certainty is 
unattainable, but I cannot help thinking that the curious 
wording, whatever exactly it means, savours rather of 
Christian than of heathen epigraphy. 


Art. XVI.— i4 Survq^ of the City of Carlisle in 1684-5, 
from the collection of Lord Dartmouth. By The 
Communicated at Amside, Sept. 25^*, 1893. 
THE Lord Dartmouth, who is well known as having 
been sent out to Tangiers to arrange for the evacua- 
tion of that place, held the ofiEice of Master of the Ordnance. 
In that capacity he was by commission under the Royal 
Privy Signet and Sign Manuel, bearing date the ist of 
May, 1682, authorised and empowered to make a Survey 
of all the King's magazines, castles, and forts in England, 
and was empowered to deputy such officers of the Ordnance 
to act for him as he might select. By warrant dated 30th 
June, 1684, Lord Dartmouth directed Sir Christopher 
Musgrave, Lieutenant General of the Ordnance, to inspect 
and survey the castles of Carlisle, Chester, and Shrews- 
bury. These surveys, with a large number of others, 
have remained in the hands of Lord Dartmouth's suc- 
cessors in the title, and the present peer sent a selection 
of them to the Record Office in Fetter Lane for examina- 
tion. Among these was the survey of Carlisle ; through 
the kindness of a friend, the writer was informed of its 
existence : armed with permission from the present Lord 
Dartmouth, he visited the Record Office, and recognised 
with delight an utterly unknown plan of Carlisle. That 
plan with the report that accompanies it are now here 
reproduced by the courteous permission of the present 
Lord Dartmouth, having been carefully copied under the 
superintendence of Mr. J. J. Cartwright, F.S.A., Secretary 
of the Public Record Office. 

The plan itself is by James Richards, whom we believe 
was one of three brothers, who were much employed as 



military engineers and draftsmen. It shows the City of Car- 
lisle and the vicinity for some little distance around, par- 
ticularly on the north side, the Swifts and the Sands being 
carefully included. The course of the river Eden, as laid 
down, differs very considerably from that in which it now 
flows; sweeping round the Swifts, much as at present, 
the main channel runs south, almost as far, we should 
imagine as the foot of the present George Street and 
Rickergate, before turning to the north-west : at the foot 
of Rickergate it is crossed by a bridge of seven arches, 
and is marked on the plan as " River Eden " ; the 
depths of the water are given at various places as 3 and 4 
feet. A smaller and nameless stream"^ is shown about the 
position of the present channel of the Eden, and is crossed 
by a bridge of two arches. A large area is included 
between the two streams, and is the Sands, though not 
so named on the plan. The Swifts are shown as divided 
into several fields, and the present cricket ground to be 
partly under the plough, and, also some portions of the 
Broad Meadows on the east of the town. A few houses 
with small enclosures at their rear occupy the site of the 
present Rickergate. 

On the west of the city the course of the river Caldew, 
and the dams on each side of it are given : of these the 
one nearest the city appears to have been covered over 
for some distance just outside of and opposite to the Irish 
Gate : the road from the Irish Gate to the west crosses 
this dam, where thus covered over, and then crosses the 
Caldew by a stone bridge of three arches, of which the 
central one appears to be dry, an island being shown 
there. The road then crosses the further dam, or Little 
Caldew, by a wooden bridge. 

The English Gate is on the Bush Brow, and is pro- 

•The " Priestbeck/* so called, we believe, because the Prior of Carlisle had 
some fishing rights there. 



tected by a barbican, or advanced work ; the two towers of 
the Citadel are connected by walls enclosing a considerable 
space and a circular bastion faces up English Street. 

The plan of the city is given only in skeleton, but 
English Street, Scotch Street, Fisher Street, the Lrong 
Lane, Blackfriars Street, the White Horse, and S. Cuth- 
bert*s Lanes are indicated, though their names (if different 
from those in present use) are not set down. Castle 
Street, Paternoster Row, Finkle and Annetwell Streets 
are also given. The Town Hall stands detached from S. 
Alban's Row, and the Main Guard (opposite the end of S. 
Cuthbert's Lane), the Market Cross, and the Shambles 
are depicted in the Old Market Place. In the right hand 
lower corner of the plan enclosed within a wreath and a 
trophy of arms are sections of the fortifications, titled as 
follows : — 

Profil of y* Great Castle 
towards y« Towne 
Profil of y« Wall of y« Great 
Castle towards y« North 
Profil of y* little 

Profil of y« towne 

Also scales for "3^ whole mapp" and y« profils. The 

litte Castle must be the Citadel. 

A charming little picture is also given, entitled 

A Prospect of Carlisle towards the North : — 
Jac: Richards Fecit 

The following is the text of the report : — 


HIS MAJ^« ; by his Commission Vnder his Royall Privy 
Signet and Signe Manuall bearing date the i^t May 1682 : Author- 
ized and empowered Yo*^ Lordi^ to make a Particular survey of all 
his Maj^^ Maga2ines Castles and Forts, in this his Kingdome of 
England; and All Governors Commanders and Other Officers are 



required not onely to be obedient, but Aiding and Assisting to You 
in the performance of this his Maj^s Service. And in case the Exig- 
ency of his Majts Affaires or other Emergent Services shall hinder 
you personally from takeing such inspection and Survey, Yo' Lordw 
is Authorized and Empowered to Depute such of the principall 
Officers of the Ordnance or other Ministers belonging to the Office of 
the Ordnance as You shall think fitt to View inspect and survey the 
said Castles and Forts according to such Instructions as by You 
shall be given them. 

YOr LORD», by Yo' Warrant beareing date the 3ot»> June 1684 
was pleased to direct Mee to inspect and Survey the Citties and 
Castles of Carlisle Chester and Shrewsbury ; and to take Accompt of 
the State of the Fortifications of the said places ; and Likewise of 
the Quality of the Governors, Officers, and Soldiers, their severall 
Entertainements, and whether such as are in Pay be resident upon 
their respective charges. And alsoe to take an Accompt of all Ord- 
nance Carriages Munition and Habiliaments of Warr in the said 
places. In pursuance of these Yo^* Lordi^ Instructions I went first 
to Carlisle and shewed my Comission from Yo^ Lordi'* to Lievtenant 
William Fielding (he being the Officer commanding in Cheife there 
at that time) who paid all Obedience to My Lord Morpeth comeing 
to Towne two dayes after and he being the Officer then Commanding 
in Cheife, I shewed him my Comission : After perusall of itt, his 
Lordi>v was pleased to say, That his Comission was from the King, 
and hee should not Obey any other Comission, and that Yo** Lordw 
had noe power or Authority over him, and that Yoi" power related 
onely to Storekeepers and Gunners : I told his Lord>o that hee must 
needs observe, in the reading of my Comission, the reciteing of his 
Maj^ Comission to Yo' Lord» and the power given thereby to Yo* 
Lordiv, which required all Governors and other Officers to be Obedi- 
ent to Yor Lord». His Lord» replyed that hee would not Obey any 
Command of Yo' Lordi^ and if any Officer or Soldier vnder his 
Command Obeyed any Orders or Comands of mine, he would Com- 
mitt them. I told his Lord"* I very well vnderstood the power that 
was granted me by this Comission, and that if his Lordiv Obstructed 
me in the Exercise of itt, for dischargeing the Trust reposed in mee, 
I knew how to have Right done, and to Release any that should be 
Comitted for Obeying my Orders : I shewed him a Copy of his 
Maj" Comission to Yo' Lordw Attested by S' Edward Sherburne 
Clerke of the Ordnance, and informed him that noe Governor or 
Comander had in the Least questioned Yo' power, but Yielded all 
Obedience to itt. His Lord>v said that he could not vnderstand that 



any such Authority was granted to You ; in which he much injured 
his Judgement, when with great justice he might have charged the 
fault vpon his will. I have related to Yo' Lord** all the Esteeme he 
had for Yo' Comissioni and all the discourse I had with him, he not 
Vouchsafeing to acquaint mee with anything relateing to the Garri- 
son, <fc Offer any thing which might advance his Maj*B Service in 
that place. Whether this Proceeding is according to the duty of his 
Employment is humbly submitted to Yo^ Lordv^ great Judgment. 

BY* his Majts Patent vnder the Great Scale beareing date the ^^^ 
March 1677 : Charles Earl of Carlisle is made Governor of the City, 
Citadell and Castle of Carlisle dureing his Maj*'«* Pleasure, in the 
place of Sr Philip Musgrave Baronett deceased, and hath the Fee of 
iqs p diem payable out of his Maj^ Exchequer, all the Feasts of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary and S^ Michaell by equall portions. Vpon his 
Maj^ Restauration the Earle of Carlisle Obtained a Lease of Thirty 
one yeares from the Queene Mother of the Castle of Carlisle with the 
Demesne Lands and soccage Tenements therevnto belonging. Her 
Maj^* receiveing the Yearely Rent of 5oli: And this Lease hath been 
renewed by the present Queene (being her Maj*« Jointure) to com- 
pleat the Terme of 31 : yeares. His Lord» received a considerable 
8ume of money vpon renewing the Leases of the Soccage Tenements: 
I am informed that the Demesne Lands and Soccage Tenements 
may be worth 200 li p Annum. Whether it is for his Maj^s service 
that a Grant should be made of his Maj^ Forts is submitted to Yo' 
Lord"* consideration. 

IN this Garrison is one Company of Foot consisting of Fifty Pri- 
vate Soldiers, two Serjeants 3 Corporalls, one Drummer, Edward 
Lord Morpeth Captaine of this Company, William Fielding Liev^ 
Francis Sanderson Ensigne. The Allowance for Fire and Candle 
formerly was two shillings and sixpence p Diem, but now is reduced 
to 12^ : there is also Established a Master Gunner and three Gun- 
ners, Richard Lethatt Master Gunner hath the allowance of 2" 
p diem : at the time of my being upon the place, I found only two 
Gunners, viz^ James Maxwell and Miles Sutton (Thomas Tayler 
being dead) each of which Gunners hath the allowance of i2d p 

JAMES MAXWELL is Steward to my Lord Morpeth and Lives 
at Noward Castle eight Miles from Carlisle, Yol^ Lordi^ may remem- 
ber that some time since Vouchers were returned to the Office of the 
Ordnance for moneys disbursed for Workes done at Carlisle, and a 
Debenture therevpon made to my Lord Morpeth ; These Vouchers 



declared that the Severall sumes therein menconed were paid by the 
said James Maxwell, but vpon examination it appeared that more 
was charged then the Vndertakers agreed for or received ; And alsoe 
money said to be paid for worke which was not done : whether a 
Person guilty of so great a fraud is fitt to be continued in his Maj^ 
service, is humbly submitted to Yo' Lord"* Judgment. 

I here present to Yo' Lord^P a List of the Officers and Soldiers 
which was delivered to me vpon honour, by Lievtenant William 
Fielding (and I saw the Company drawne out and Exercised) by 
which List itt appeares that one Serjeant and Six Private Soldiers 
have Liberty from my Lord Morpeth to hire their duty, and I am in- 
formed that a Soldiers pay hath been sometimes divided betwixt two 

THE Duty performed by the Soldiers is in this manner. A Guard 
kept at the Castle consisting of Eleaven Sentinells, a Serjeant or 
Corporall Comanding from this Guard in the day time, 3 Sentinells 
are drawne out and sent to the Severall Gates in the Towne. To 
each Gate there is a very good Guardhouse, and a very good house 
for a Maine Guard neare the Markett Place. All these Guard-houses 
were built by the late Rebels, who made vse of the Stones of the 
Parish Church of S^ Maries. 

THE Citty is surrounded with a good Stone wall with Battlements 
and Ramperts, but few Flanques. Neare to the south Gate of the 
Citty is a small Cittadell, in which was a house wherein the Sherriffs 
entertained the Judges, but was destroyed by the Scotts in the late 
Rebellion : nothing is now standing but the Walls and two Platt- 
formes, both Looking into the Country, vpon one of which Five Guns 
are Planted, and Power, vpon the other. That part of the Cittadell 
which Comands the Towne hath noe Plattformes. 

IN the Cittadell the Country Goale is kept, which is very inconve- 
nient, and a Prejudiee to his Maj^s Serrvice ; S^ George Jeofferies 
Lord Cheife Justice of England att the last Assizes fined the County 
for not Provideing a better Goale. 

THE Civill Government of this Citty consists of Twelve Aldermen 
out of which a Mayor is chosen, and a Councill of Twenty fower, out 
of which two Bayliffs (who are in the Nature of Sherriffs) are yearely 
Chosen, a Recorder, a Towne Clarke, and some Officers of an infe- 
riour Ranck : The Revenue oi this Citty is betweene Power and Five 
Hundred Pounds p Annum. 

VPON the North-west is the Castle, which is pleasantly and 



Advantageously scituated Comanding the Towne. The Walls about 
the Castle are good : in the Inner Court stands the Castle in which 
the Governor lives (when vpon the Place) and is a good Old house ; 
the best Rootnes were built by Queene Eiizabeth. All the Castle is 
covered with Lead ; There is a great Tower joyneing to the Castle 
covered with Lead, in which all his Maj'^ Stores are kept : in this 
Inner Court are very good Plattformes, and severall Guns Planted 
vpon them : in the Outward Court which is very large there are att 
present but two Platformes, one of three Guns, and the other of two, 
and Guns are placed vpon them : vpon one side of this Court is a 
Stable and Barne in one entire building 72 Yards long ; there is 
alsoe another Slight Building about 46 yards long, but very narrow. 
There is likewise a Hwelling-house for the Gunner with a Conve- 
niency to lodge his Ordinary Stores in. Both the Towne and Castle 
are capable of being Fortified for a reasonable Charge. Vpon the 
North are two Hills which are about halfe a Mile distant, which are 
the onely places that can Annoy the Towne and Castle, all the rest 
is low ground as will appeare by a Draught thereof presented to Yo' 
Lord™. Though this be a Frontier Towne, itt doth not stand vpon a 
Passe, and an Army may come out of Scottland wiihin less then two 
Miles of the Towne, and March by itt. As his Maj*** did in his way to 

I here represent to Yo*" Lord» the Defects of the Towne and Castle 
Walls, and Platformes, with the charge of Repaireing them, which 
amounts to 46^^ : 8$ : 5<) : makeing vse of such stones as may be con- 
veniently spared at the Cittadell. 

ANNEXED is the Remaineofhis Maj*s stores, and another Re- 
maine of the House-hold goods belonging to his Maj***. 

I have delivered to S^ Edward Sherburne Gierke of the Ordnance 
Lievtenant William Fielding's Accompt, of Receipts and Issues of 
Stores, alsoe the Master Gunners Accompt. 

AND finding that some very good Swords would be vselesse except 
speedy care were taken thereof, I contracted for dressing, new scab- 
berting them with Calfe's Leather, new blacking and repaireing the 
Hilts of 80 swords at the Rate of 20** each, and to have them kept 
cleane for one Yeare at the Rate of I2<^ a score. This is a sincere 
Report of what occurred to my poor observation at Carlisle, which 
I humbly leave (as I ought) to Yo' Lordws Judgment, being 

Yo^ LordPK most Obedient and most humble Servant 
February y« 10*^ 1684. CHRIS : MUSGRAVE. 



THIS INDENTURE made the Thirteenth day of September in 
the yeare of Our Lord God One Thousand Six Hundred Eighty and 
Power, and in the Thirty Sixth yeare of the Reigne of Our Sover- 
aigne Lord Charles the Second by the Grace of God King of England 
Scotland France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith &c. BE- 
TWEENE the Hono»»»« S' Christopher Musgrave Kn' Lievtenant 
Generall of his Maj^ Ordnance for and on the behalfe of his Maj^^ 
his Heires and Lawfull Successours on the one part AND Cap^ 
William Fielding of his Maj's Citty of Carlisle in the County of 
Cumberland on the other part WITNESSETH that he the said 
Captaine William Fielding hath Received into his charge and 
custody for the vse and Service of his Maj^s Garrison of Carlisle 
aforesaid All the Hrasse and Iron Ordnance, Carriages, Powder, 
Match, Shott, and other Stores and Habiliaments of Warr hereafter 
mentioned. AND the said Capt : William Fielding doth hereby 
covenant to and with the said S** Christopher Musgrave for and on 
the behalfe of his Maj<*^ his Heires and Lawfull Successors, that he 
the said Cap^ William Fielding shall nor will not at any time die- 
pose of any of the said Ordnance or other Stores, otherwise than for 
his Maj^ service but render a just Accompt thereof when therevnto 
duely required. 


I So 


Moanted on Stand : 

1 ' 










i s 




S'l 1 


\ 1 




c qr It 



H -;: > 



3590 : li 







12: Pounder (i) 


i2c: pest : 




! M / = . 


' I 


1661 : p : est 




1 » 2 : . 





17 : 3 : 14 

1 " 



; » ' • 1 




9 \ >5^ • li 




„ 2.1 



84 , 17 : o : oo 




» 4 : . 

► t 


Saker(i) . .^ ] 8J | 17 : : 07 




.. 3 : 



8| 17 : : 07 




„ 2 : 




7 ; 11 ; : 16 




„ 2 : , 





10 : 3 : 22 

! •• 



. •» , 2 : 



[ Falcon (I ) ... 


07 : 3 : 22 




»» 1 »t : 




36 : I : 00 




« . 2 : , 


Demy 1 
Culvering (6) ' 

II 1 36 : I ; 00 
II 1 36 : 3 : 00 
11 36 : 3 : 00 






5 ! . 

3 • . 
5 •• 1 



1/ : : 00 





2 : , 



17 : : 00 





>» : 1 



6 Pounders (i) 


16 : p : est 





« : , 



23 : : o2 




» ! 4 : , 


I : . 


28 : : 03 




,. 6 : , 


I : f 



17 : : 03 




>. « 1 , 


1 : . 


Saker (7) ... ' 

„ «* u.. 

27 ; : 00 




>» »» * 1 


« : . 





J-" 1 


26 : : 02 





2 : , 


»» : 


19 : I : 00 





3 : 1 


I : 



16c : p est 





I : , 


t : 



oS : 3 : 14 





»» • ' 


1 : 


06c: pest 





»f • J 


»» : 

Minion (5) ... / 


06 : 2 :23| 

On the 
of a 




»t ! » 

»» • 





06 : : 23 




„ . I : 


>» - i 


06 : 3 : 00 




» » : 


»» • ! 

Falcon (1) ... 

„ <J ^, . 04c ! p : est ! 
rionycomb d 




» 3 : 


>» • 1 


si 05c : p : est : 



»t f» ' 


»» • 

* Tampeons ^tampions) bung^, or corks used to stop the mouth of a cannon : cuincv 
wted to elevate its breech : aprons, pieces of lead used to cover the touch holes. 



OU Hammerd Gun^ 6| Inch Diameter 4I 
foot Long poiz : 8 Cwt| 
p Est: each 
, Inch foot 

Servble Repble Vnsble 

Iron Murderers J 

13 Diameter 6} Long in a) 

Block Carriage I • 
I g^g Diameter : 7} L-inj^ in a )^ 
I Block Carriage { 

Slin^ Peeces without Chambers j 5 .^"f^„g.» 

Iron Chambers f 

J Demy Culvering 
Netv StanJing Carriages^ for > 12 Pounders 
) baker 
Cannon 7 
Demy Culvering 

Round Shott for { paS 

24 Pounder 
12 Pounder 
6 Pounder 
3 Pounder 
Crosse Barr Shott for Saker 
Tin Cases fiird I .^ j Demy Culvering 

with Musquett Shott f '^"^ ) Saker 

1 Culvering 
Demy Culvering ... 
Minion • 
12 Pounder 
Ladle Staves 

fSaker ... 
Cases of Wood for Cartridges for \ Minion ... 

(Falcon ... 
Musquett Barrells 
Old Short Musquetts ... 
Match Lock Musquetts 
Snaphance Musquetts 

Bandaliers ... 

Come Powder 

Halberts ... 


















































La: Sp: 

' • >» 

II ' 



4 : » 

1* • 



2 : 1 

99 ! 



I : t 




2 : » 

•1 : 



I : » 

If • 

































Barr: U 




C qs li 

C qs li 




* A block carriage is of i^ood without wheels. 

t For breech loaders. 

X Sunding carriages as opposed to travelling carriages for use in the field. 







Ijong Pikes 




3 Quarter Pikes 




Hatchetts ... 




Swords ... 

C qc li 



Musquett Shott 

... 132:1:00 



Crows of Iron 




Sledge ... 




Great Melting Ladle ... 




Field Bedds 




Coines* ... 




Heads and Rammers great 




Heads and Rammers small 




Formers great 




Formers small 




Hand Granadoes 




Budge Barrellsf 

••• f) 



Tann'd Hides 




Sheepskins .. 




Basketts ... 

Khm : Qr 



Paper Royall 

2: 4 



I^nthornes Ordinary ... 




Muscovia Lights {g;;^;^^^.^^^ 






Handcrow Leavers 




Powder Homes 




Linstocks ... 




















Brasse Cock 




Brasse Socketts 




Leaden Cisterns 




Frames for Ditto 








Wooden Wheel and Rowler for a Well 




Rope for Ditto 







Spades ... 








Pickaxes ... 




* Wedges used to raise the breech of a gun. 

t Bud^e-barrells, small barrels well hooped, with only one head : on the other 
end is nailed a piece of leather, to draw together upon strings like a purse. Their 
use is for carrying powder with a gun or mortar, being less dangerous, and 
easier carried than whole barrels. 




Bepbltf Vnsblo 



Lon{; Fowling peece ... ... ... » 

Old Brasse Gun 4 foot Long^ ... ... „ 

Sword Belts ... ... ... 30 

Lances ... ... ... ... „ 

Pack Sadie ... ... „ 

Hand Mill .. ... ... ... „ 

Extrees for Standing Carriages .. ... 5 >. »» 

Double Racks ... ... ... 3 •• » 

Ditto Single ... ... ... 7 „ i* 

Oyle Botles ... ... .. 2 „ »> 

Gin Ropes... ... ... ... 2 „ 3 

Double Blocks with two Brasse Shivers each 

for Gins ... ... ... 2 „ »» 

Wheeles for Limbers ... ... ... „ »» » 

Extrees for Limbers ... ... .. „ m i 

l^eaden Cover for a Powder Barrell ... i »» <i 

Flags of Buport* ... ... ... 2 „ ». 

Iron Spikes ... ... ... 15 >» >* 

Pye-Treet" ■•• ••• ••• ' »» »» 

Capsquare % ••• ••• ••• > >* »* 

(Backs ... ... ... ,» .. 14 

Armour \ Breasts ... ... ... „ »» 10 

vPots ... ... ... „ „ »4 

Faces$ ... ... ... ... ,» ** 588 

Broaken Wheel for a Windloss ... ... „ „ i 

C qi K 

Sheet Lead Poiz ... ... ... 5 : i : 19 ' „ „ 

C qx li 
Peeces of Broaken Shott and Hand Granadoes 

Poii... ... ...0:3: 14 » »» 

Body of a Standing Carriage for Minion ... ,• 1 tt 

Locks and Keys to the Store-houses 8 „ ,• 

Ginsll ... ... ... ■■. I II »» 


Firegrates with 4 Barrs each ... ... 5 „ » 

Fire Shovells ... ... i i> »» 

Fire Tongues ... .. . ip », 3P 

Guard Bedds ... 5 „ „ 

Benches ... ... ... . 5 „ 2 

Lanthornes Ordinary ... ... . . i „ „ 

Old Chaires ... ... ... 3 ., „ 

Livery Cubbert ... ... i ,, „ 

Shelves ... ... ... ... 1 „ „ 

* Buport qu : Bunting. 
+ The beam or pole of a gin. 

t Capsc^uares, strong plates of iron, which come over the trunnions of a gun 
and keep it in the carriage. 
§ Torches or links. 
II Machines for lifting timber, guns, etc. 




Servble Bepble Vnsble 

Bedstead frame ... ... ... i „ „ 

Square Fire Grate with 16 : Barrs ... i „ „ 

Wooden Horse* ... ... ... „ 1 „ 

Hooks for Pikes ... ... ... 2 „ „ 

Racks for Musquetts ... ... ... 2 „ » 

Window Shutters ... ... ... „ „ 9 

Stock Locks with Keys ... ... 4 „ „ 

Padlock with Key ... ... ... i „ „ 

Wooden Barr ... ... i „ „ 

Table ... ... ... ... 1 „ ,. 

IN WITNESSE whereof the Parties aboue mentioned have to these Present 
Indentures Interchangeably sett their hands and Seales the day and Yeare above 

Sealed and delivered 
in the presence of 

Basill Fbilding. 
James Nicholson. 
Christ: Winteringham. 

ILoose paper, 2 memsj] 

AN ACCOt : of what Stores have been sent to his Mats Guarrison of 
Carlisle since the Remaine taken the 13th of Septemr 1684 to the ist of 
June 1686. For supplying of the said Guarrison. 

Culvering ... ... ... i 

12 Pounder ... 
Demy Culver 
6 Pounder ... 

Falconett ... 
6 Pounders... 
Demy Culvering 
Boxes for do. 
/ Handgranadoes 
Fuzes for do: 

Culvering ... 
12 Pounders... 
Demy Culver 
6 Pounders... 
Ladlestaves ... 

Standing Carnag : 

Round Shott for 

Ladles & Sponges for< 


1 body 

2 & 10 
I & 03. 
I Body 









La. Sp. 

: I 

: I 
2 : 6 

I : 1 

13! 14 
4: 4 
t» : 2 

• For punishment of ill-behaved soldiers. 




Ladlestaves ... 


Barrlls : 

150 ind 25 f. 


2 Ton \ 

Match Musketts 


Muskett Rodds 


Bandaleirs ... 

I90 Collrs: 

Pistolls wth Holsters . 

360 p 

Longf Pikes ... 


Muskett Shott 

6 Cwt 

Pistoll shott ... 

4 Cwt 

Crowes of Iron 



40 p 

Linchpins ... 

40 p 




40 P 

lod Nailes ... 


6d „ ... 


4d ., 



2S field 


. . 08 

Heads & Ramrs grt 

4 P 

Dito small .. 

6 p 

Formers ffreatf 


Dito small ... 


Budge Barriis 


Tand hydes ... 




Paper Royall 

5 Rie 


7 gall. 


I C J 


10 1 

Needles ... 

10 dozn 


10 1 

Lanthornes ordry 


Muscovia Lights 

f) ordry 

Do extraordinary 




4od Nailes ... 




Powder homes 


Priming Irons 


Marlin: ... 

50 1 


10 1 

* Wedges of iron, put through holes in the end of bolts to hinder them from 
slipping out. 

t Formers are gouges, according to Halliwell : also grappling irons. 

% Marlin, lines of untwisted hemp, dipped in pitch or tar, with which ropes are 
wrapped round to prevent them from being fretted or rubbed in blocks or 
pulleys. Wyre 







••• ... 

30 ford 

Do tor Dragoons 



Carbine shott 


3 Cwt 









t Mynion 

8 p 

Standing Carriages 

2 p 

Extrees for 



Standing Carriages 






Sho veils 



[ Endorsed] Account of Stores 


sent to Carlisle. 



THIS INDENTURE made the Thirteenth day of September in the yeare of 
Our Lord God One Thousand Six Hundred Eighty and Power, And in the 
Thirty Sixth yeare of the Reigne of Our Soveraigne Lord Charles the Second by 
the Grace of God King of England Scottland France and Ireland Defender of 
the Faith &c : BK'I WEENE the Honoble Sr Christopher Musgrave Kot Liev- 
tenant Generall of his Majts Ordnance On the behalfe of his Majtie his Heires 
and Lawfull Successors on the one part AND the Honoble Edward Lord Mor- 
peth OP the other part. WITTNESSETH that he the said Edward Lord 
Morpeth hath Received into his Charge and Custody the Particulars Ifereafter 
mentioned belonging to his Majtie in and about his Majties Citty and Castle of 
Carlisle. AND the said Edward Lord Morpeth doth hereby Covenant to and 
with the said Sr Christopher Musgrave for and on the behalfe of his Majtie his 
Heires and Successors, that hee the said Edward Lord Morpeth shall nor will not 
att any time dispose of any of the said Particulars otherwise than for his Majties 
Service, but render a just Accompt thereof when therevnto duely required. 


In the Inner Court 
of the Castle 

In the Bame 

In the 

i Leaden > 

fExtree, Trundle and \ 
Cogg Wheele for a - 
Horse Mill ^ 

Pieces of Timber for Swape 

Spurrs for Swape Posts ... 
Oaken Plancks 
) Mill Stones for a Horse 
< Mill 

Servble Bepble 







In the Cole house 

In the first l^w 
Kuom next the 

In the 2nd low 

In the Celler 

In the 
Wine Celler 

In the Celler 
vnder the Hall 

In the 
Brew house 

In the 


In the 



In a 
Clos&et wthin 
the Kitchin. 

In the Little 

Larder at the 

Stair foot. 

In the Room adjovn- 

ing to the Great Hall 

In the Pastery 

In^yc'gnreat Room 
vnder .the Dining 

Stock Lock and Key 
/Timber belonging to two \ 
' Horse Mills i 

j Hoppers for Ditto 
j Stares for Ditto 
j Mill Rims or Dust Hoops 
VLock and Key 
t Old Bedstead 
i Tables 


(14: Long ... 
Gantrees -j 13 : Long 

I 7: Long ... 
Bolt to a Doore with g Iron 
\ Gantree 1 2} : foot Long 
( I^ck and Key 
f Timber belonging to two 
-j Horse Mills 
[Lock and Key ... 
Brewing Leads 

Masse Fatt ... 
Stone Trough 
Wooden Trough for con- 
veying Water 
Cooler with a frame 
FireGi-ate with 5 Barrs ... 

Leaden Cisterne with a 

Brasse Cock fixt in itt 

Brasse Cock at the end of 

a Pipe ... 
Dresser Table 17 : foot 
/Little Cubbert with 4 
Shelves ... 

6 foot Long ... 

9 foot Long ... 

J Cubbert with one Shelve I 
I Lock and Key ) 


1 Leaden Cisternes made ) 
Anno Dom : 1649 ) 
Gantree: 10 foot long ... 
j Table 

* Wainscoat Setle 
(Lock and Key 
Iron Grate with 4 Barrs ... 
Cubbert with one Shelve... 
Ditto with two Shelves ... 
Livery Table ... 
, Shelves 



57 peeces 




57 P« 










Edward Lord Morpeth Capt 
William Feilding Lievtenant 
Francis Sanderson Ensigne 

— Dodson 
Francis Chamley 

Thomas Waller ] 

Thomas Allison |- Corporalls 

John Ballard j 

I Serjts 

George Blamire 
William Barton 
John Blalock 
Henry Bell 
George Bowman 
Robert Bowman 
Robert Boustead 
William Brunskill 
Thomas Bunting 
John Chamley 
Thomas Crosland 
Thomas Dawson 
'J*homas Dixon 
Silvester Dodsworth 
Aubony Dodson 
Patrick Duers 
Stephen Dent 

Henry Barton, Drummer. 
Charles Duckett 
Richard Fetherston-haugh 
Andrew Frazer 
Ralph Garth 
William Goffe 
Ja : Gilchrist 
Richard Hanby 
William Holmes 
William Hudiesse 
Edward Hutchinson 
Thomas Hutton 
Francis Jackson 
Edmond Johnston 
John Kennedy 
Ja. Ladley 
John Litle 
1 homas Lowden 

John Lowden 
Thomas Mattison 
Edward Mjwe 
William Nicholson 
John Pattison 
Richard Salkeld 
John Sarginson 
Robert Scott 
Thomas Simpson 
John Smithson 
J homas Taylor 
John Thompsen 
Edward Nicholson 
Thomas Waller 
Juhn Waggett 
Jonathan Wright 

Richard Lethatt Master Gunner: 

Ja : Maxwell> Miles Sutton, Gunners. 

Carlisle September 13th 1684. 

Six and Forty of the Private Soldiers afore named are vpon duty every fourth 
Night ; The other foure are exempted from duty, as being Servants to the 
Comission Officers. Vizt : Thomas Lowden and John lowden Servants to my 
Lord Morpeth. John Thompson Servant to Lievtenant Fieldmg. Patrick 
Duers Servant to Ensigne Sanderson. 

The Persons hereafter named are allowed by my Lord Morpeth to hire 
sometimes their fellow Soldiers to doe duty for them Vizt : 

Serjeant Dodson 
William Hudlesse 
Henry Bell 
John Smithson 

Andrew Frazer 
Silvester Dodsworth 
John Kennedy 

Attested By 




AN ACCOM PT of what Gunpowder I have received from Captaine Feilding. 

November 5th 1680 
February 26th 1681 
May agth ... 

July 28th ... 
September 12th 1682 
Aprill 22th ... 
May 29th 
Au^rust 15th... 
November 5th 
May 29th 1683 : 
Aug-ust 14th... 
October 9th... 
November 5th 
May 29th 1684: 
Aug^ust 4th ... 
August iSth... 

Received in Match 

Received i Pickaxe, 1 Spade, 
I Shovel for the Kings's vse. 

Receipts of Gunpowder. 
Barren* Rerd. 


... 42 







i i 


1 ^ 



u 1 


P. J5 

^ *5 

ii 1 ^^ i i j -^ ■ 

^ "* 

.« 1 - 

.? , "" 1 ® - 


'• I - 1 - 1 - 

Novembr 5th : 1680 

•. 13 

I >* , •» 3 


February 26th ... 

For my Lord Carlisle 23 
For my Lord Arundells comeing 

1 3 ; I ' 3 

7 1 2 5 1 


to Carlisle ... ... 9 

1,1 t* M 

I I 4 < 1 

March 14th 

For his goeing from Carlisle 7 

>» ' If ' >t t* 

3 1 >f 4 .1 

July 5th : 1681 ... 

Fcr Sir Joseph Williamson's 


comeing ... ... [sic^g 

* 1 I* »f 

1 j I 3 1 

Ditto 9th 

For his eoeing from Carlisle 7 

l« »* 1 l» .f 

3 ». 4 ,. 

August 2d 

For the Earle of Thanets comeing 9 

„ 3 » .. 

4 1 i i » M 

Ditto: 2d 
Ditto :4th 

For the Judges comeing ... 9 
For the Earle of Thanets goeing 7 

» 3 r> 

4 1 I ' » 
4:1 1 „ 

Ditto : 6th 

For the Judges goeing ... 7 
For my Lord Prestons goeing 9 

M 1 ' ,. 1 M 

4 ' I 1 I 1 ., 

Scptembr 2d 

I 1 t ' » 1 M 

; 1 4I I 

Ditto :9th 

For my Lord Scarsdell ... 7 

3 M 4 » 

Ditto :14th 

For my Lord Arundells goeing 7 

>t l» » ', If 

3 f> 41 >f 

Ditto : 2ith 

For Sr : Christopher Musgrave's 

comeing ... ... 9 

f> 3 MM 



1 «> 

October 4th 

For Sr : Christopher Musgrave's 


goexng 7 

ft 2 „ ,, 



I ,, 1 

Novembr 5th 



Aprill 2d : 16S3 ... 
Nlay 29th • 

For the Earle of Carlisle comeing 9 

,! '3 1 ;; ;; 

4 » 
3 I 

4 : ' 

August 15th 

For the Judges comeing ... 9 
For the Judges goeing ... 7 

„ 2 1 „ 1 s 

>» _ * 

„ 1 ,. ' » 5 

>f ' ^ 

* ' »» 1 

May 29th 1683 ... 


,1 1 

3 >t 

4 1 * 1 

August 14th 

For the Judges comeing ... 9 

M ' 3 ,. » 

5 I ,» 

' >» 

For their goeing ... ... 7 

On the Thanksgiving day... 9 

M 1 I 

5 1 » 

'* 1 

October yth 
Novembr 5th 
Decembr 23th 

1 I 

»t •> 


1 1 

Att Thomas Taylors Funerall 6 


» t* 





May 29th 1684 ... 

, 19 







July 9th 






August 4th: 16S4... 

For Sr : Christopher Musgrave's 

Ditto 3d 

comeing ... ... 9 

For the Duke of Norfolk's 







comeing ... ^ ... 9 

f> 1 3 

>» 1 >f 



Ditto 6th 

For the Judges comeing ... 15 

• ' 3 

*> • » 




Ditto 9th 

M : C : J : returne from Scot- 


land 7 

»» 1 »♦ 







Ditto nth 

For the Judges goeing ... 15 
For the Duke ofNorfolk's 







Roeing 9 


2 „ 






• Royal Oak Day. 










28th July 1681 z) 
from Mr: Basil 


Come Powder 

48 Barrels 

To the Gunner 16 



ist October ' 





20 Barrels 

To Corporal Waller 3 

froin Berwick ^ 


Round Shott for Ordnance of several 

Natures : 1941 ... 


r Skeens. 

To the Gunner 32 { 
iTo Corporal Waller 220 ) 



... iTs: 



Musquett Shott ^. 

... 130 

3 barrels 


More Loose 

Match Ixick Musquetts 

... 625 




...^ 103 





... 60 




... 176 





... nl 


Spades and Shovells 

•• 35 




... lOI 




... 18 







Iron Crows 





... 80 



(Backs ... 


... nl 


Armour • Breasts ... 









... 600 



Mascovia Lights ... 




Dark Lanthornes ... 




Lanthornes Ord'nary 




Tann'd Hides 

... 6 



Granado Shells 

... 160 

To the Gunner ... 6 




Art. XWU.— Church Bells in Leath Ward, No. III. By 
the Rev. H. Whitehead. 

[For previous papers on Cumberland Church Bells see anUt vi, 
417; vii, 221 ; viii, 135 and 505 ; ix, 240 and 475 ; and xi, 127.] 


JEFFERSON, in his History of Leath Ward, in a foot- 
^ note to his account of Great Salkeld, says : — 

Dr. Todd states that in his time it was reported that Sir Richard 
Whittington, knight, thrice Lord Mayor of London, was bom of 
poor parents within this parish ; that he built the church and tower 
from its foundation ; and that he intended presenting three large 
bells to the parish, which by some mischance stopped at Kirkby 
Stephen on their way to Salkeld. A similar tradihon is still current 
in this neighbourhood {Leath Ward, p. 268). 

The church, being **of Norman date" {ante^ ii, 53), was 
certainly not built by Whittington, who was born circa 
1358 and died in 1423. He was, however, contemporary 
with the period, *' about the close of the 14th century ", 
within which the remarkable fortress tower was probably 
added to the church (16, p. 56). 

The tradition about the bells is still current at Kirkby 
Stephen as well as at Great Salkeld. Mr. Robert God- 
frey, in a paper on Westmorland Bells, speaking of Kirkby 
Stephen, says : — 

It is a local tradition that the original peal was intended for Great 
Salkeld, as a gift from Whittington of immortal fame ; but that from 
some cause or other (probably seized for stowage) they were delayed 
in transit at Kirkby Stephen, and never got forward to their destina- 
tion {ante, vi, 83). 

" And 


"And there," viz, at Kirkby Stephen, says another 
writer, " if tradition be truthful, they still remain " 
(White's Northumberland and the Border, p. 31). Tra- 
dition has a way of not verifying its references. Nicol- 
son and Burn (i, 540) say that in their time (A.D. 1777) 
there were four bells at Kirkby Stephen. These four 
bells, three of which were re-cast in 1877, ^^^ known to 
have been .dated 1631, 1658, 1693, and 1749 (ante iv, 239), 
and were therefore cast from two to three centuries after 
the time of Whittington. They may, however, have had 
predecessors dating from that time. Whether those pre- 
decessors were the gift of Whittington, and by him 
intended for Great Salkeld, I do not undertake to decide ; 
nor whether he built the Salkeld tower. But I may 
remark that his alleged benefactions to Great Salkeld 
must not be attributed to regard for his native parish, 
seeing that he was born at Pauntley in Gloucestershire. 
If, for whatever reason, he proposed to present a ring of 
bells to Great Salkeld, let us hope he never knew that 
they failed to reach their destination. 

What bells, then, did find their way into Salkeld church 
tower? Edward VI's Inventory, Great Salkeld being 
among the missing names, gives no help in this inquiry. 
Nor does Bishop Nicolson, though he was rector here for 
twenty years. The terrier of 1749 mentions 

Two Bells with their Frames the first thought 
to weigh about one hundred and a half; 

which may have been identical with those taken in 1882 
as part payment for the present ring, cast at the Lough- 
borough foundry by Messrs. Taylor; who, in answer 
to inquiry, write : " We have no particulars of the two 
old bells except their weights, viz, 3 qr. 15 lbs. and i cwt. 
o qr. 13 lbs." I am indebted to Messrs. Taylor for the 
following description of the bells now in the tower : — 









2ft. 3 in. 

4i cwt. 

No. 2 

• Eb 

2ft. 5 in. 

5 cwt. 

No. 3 


2ft. 7iin. 

6 cwt. 

No. 4 


2ft. 8iin. 

7 cwt. 

No. 5 


2ft. ii^in. 

9 :cwt. 



3ft. 3iin. 

12 ;CWt. 

A report of "the ceremony of opening the new bells 
placed in the battlemented tower of Great Salkeld 
church " contains the following particulars : — 

Of late years the church has undergone great alterations, com- 
menced under the late rector, and followed up by the Rev. Canon 
Butler, who originated the undertaking of furnishing a set of bells, at 
a cost of about jC400, of which some ;£'35o resulted from a bazaar 
held at Penrith. The treble bell was presented by Mr. C. R. Saun- 
ders, of Nunwick, and bears the inscription: Laus Deo, Upon the 
second bell is inscribed the name of the maker, Mr. Taylor, of 
Loughborough. Bell No. 3 bears the inscription Gloria in Excelsis ; 
and the motto Agimus tibi gratias Omnipotens Deus is appropriately 
inscribed upon the fifth. On the sixth is inscribed : These bells were 
plaud here by money collected by the Rector and his family. Upon the 
remaining bell are the names of the rector and churchwardens. — 
Carlisle Journal, Sept. 19, 1882. 

On the opening day '' a sermon was preached by Dean 
Oakley from Zechariah xiv, 20 ; and on the conclusion of 
the sermon the office for the dedication of church bells 
was gone through *' (ib). This office is a revival with 
considerable modifications of a very ancient ceremony ; 
for an account of which see EUacombe's Devonshire Bells 
(p. 272). The same office was used three weeks later at 
Crosthwaite, Keswick. An earlier instance of a religious 
service on the occasion of the first use of a new bell in this 
diocese, viz, in 1828 at Cumwhitton, is recorded in vol vi, 
p 427, of these Transactions. 
The tenor is rung at Great Salkeld on Sunday at 9 a.m. 




The church is dedicated to St. Mary. The terriers of 
1749 and 1777 mention 

Two bells each weighing about one Hundred weight. 

There are still two bells here, in a cot on the west gable : 
Treble : 17J inches diam., weight about i cwt. i^ qr. 
Tenor : 18^ inches diam., weight about i cwt. 2\ qrs. 

The treble, a long bell, but not after the fashion of 

mediaeval long-waisted bells, is inscribed 

Wm. Mason 1736. 

A bell at Corsenside, Northumberland, is inscribed WM 
1747 F (fecit ?). — Newcastle Antiquarian Proc, iii, 228. 
The tenor bears only a date : 1826. It has a " helmet 
shaped crown", which points to the Cockpit Smithy, 
Carlisle, then in the hands of Burgess and Insall, as the 
foundry where it was cast {ante viii, pp 528-9). 
The bells here have no " peculiar usages ". 


Hutton church, dedicated to St. James, had in 1552 

ij probe belles ij litill belles. 

Bishop Nicolson, who was at Hutton on August 14, 1703, 
says (p 58) :— 

They have a Couple of Bells ; ill hung in a Crazy wooden Frame. 

The church, which was re-built in 1714, still retains the 
bells seen by the bishop in 1703, now very well hung in a 
double cot on the west gable. They are 

Treble : diameter 18 inches, dated 1588. 

Tenor: diameter i8f inches, dated 1653. 
For their dimensions and inscriptions I am indebted to 
the Rev. W4 F. Gilbanks, rector of Great Orton. 




The treble has, on its shoulder, in Roman capitah, 
with a crown and clipped arrows (fig. 32) as intervening 
stop, this inscription : 


The figure 5 in the date is, as I have represented it, up- 
side down. The arrows and crown of St. Edmund, king 
and martyr, are the town mark of Bury St. Edmund's ; 

FIG. 32. 

FIG. 33. 

and Dr. R^ven, speaking of Thomas Draper, says that 
** the arrows in his stamp are cut short, as though to 
signify a past connection with Bury St. Edmund's'' 
(Cambridgeshire Bells, p 66). His initials occur, in con- 

FIG. 34. 

junction with the name in full of Stephen Tonnie, a Bury 
founder, on the second bell at Whatfield in Norfolk, dated 
1575. "Thomas Draper's foundry, which thus seems to 
have originated from Bury, was finally established at 
Thetford. He was apparently a man of substance and 
character, and mayor of the town in 1592, on which occa- 
sion he presented a treble to St. Cuthbert's church" (ib). 



' The tenor has, round its shoulder, the following initials 
and date, with a fleur-de-lis (fig 33) as intervening stop, 
and two rectangular oblong stamps, one of conventional 
foliage (fig 34), and the other containing four segments of 
circles, surmounted by fleurs-de-lis at their connected 
points (fig. 35) ; 

CH A R - A S - I H 1653 -WS[Z3LAILWM. 

It is not unlikely, as Hutton is only nine miles from Pen- 
rith, that this bell was cast by Thomas Stafford of 
Penrith, who in 1630 re-cast the Cartmel tenor {Annales 
CaermoeUnses, p 61), in 1631 cast the old Kirkby Stephen 
treble {ante iv, 239), and in 1639 or thereabouts cast a bell 
for Penrith (Bp N's Miscellany Accounts, p. 152.) 

There is in the parish chest a book of accounts, relating 
to the " church stock", beginning at 1646, which contains, 
subjoined to the account for 1653, this memorandum : 

Pd in as appeares by the 16 men 

£ s. 


Pd in by Antho: Robinson 

..... 2 10 

pd in more by WilL WiUson ..... 

...« I 10 

More by Hugh Barker 

„... 10 

More by Tho: Goodbourne 

— 10 

More by Widdow Jackson 


More by Jo: Jackson 

— 10 

totill 5 ^5 o 
This money wch appeares taken out and disbd was for a bell. 



The '* sixteen men *\ it seetns from this riiemorandum, 
having ** taken out" the purchase money for the bell from 
the capital of the " stock ", refunded it by means of a 
private subscription. The names of the sixteen men in 
1653 are not recorded. But in 1652 they were : 

William Sanderson William Willson 

Anthony Sanderson Anthony Robinson 

Richard Stevenson John Howson 

Lanclote Allisson Edward Hutton 

Robt. Becke John Henderson 

Robt. Watt ffrancis Nellson 

Hugh Barker William Stantton 

Nicholas Barker Thomas Goodbume 

By the help of this list we may identify Anthony Robin- 
son, Anthony Sanderson, John Henderson (or Howson ?), 
Wilh'am Sanderson, and Lancelot Allisson, as five of the 
seven men whose initials are on the bell. W M may 
stand for William Murthwaite, who, though not one of 
the " sixteen ", occurs in 1653 as one of the borrowers of 
the stock. The remaining initials, I L, must rest un- 
appropriated. Anthony Robinson, it will be seen, is the 
only collector of subscriptions whose initials are on the 
bell, though three of the other collectors, William Will- 
son, Hugh Barker, and Thomas Goodburne were among 
the "sixteen men". The last name in the list of collec- 
tors, John Jackson, is that of the minister who had super- 
seded the rector Thomas Todd. The date of Todd's 
ejection is not given by the county historians, nor by 
Walker. It must, however, have been before August 6, 
1651, on which day Charles II, on his way to Worcester, 
passed through Hutton, when 

Mr. Todd, the rector, had the honour to wait on his Majesty, and 
informed Charles that he had been ejected from his living and im- 
prisoned at Carlisle for his allegiance to his Majesty and for the 
private exercise of the functions of his sacred office. — ^Jefferson's 
Leath Ward, p 424). 



In a footnote Jefferson states that he quotes this story 
from Dr Todd's MS History of the Diocese. Whellan (p 
565)1 referring to the same incident, erroneously says it 
took place when Charles was " on his journey to Scot- 
land ", and makes the further mistake of representing Dr 
Todd as himself the person who ** had the honour to wait 
on his Majesty", whose visit to Hulton, as a matter of 
fact, occurred nine years before Dr Hugh Todd, vicar of 
Penrith, and historian of the diocese was born. Unfor- 
tunately Dr. Todd's history of the diocese, which was 
seen and largely used by Jefferson in 1840 (Preface to 
Leath Ward, p vii), cannot now be found. He (Dr. Todd) 
"assisted Walker in his 'Sufferings of the Clergy'*' 
{Leath Ward, p 481), and is therefore doubtless responsible 
for the statement that Jackson was " a brawling illiterate 
fellow, who held this and another parish during the whole 
of the Usurpation" (Walker, p. 375). The omission of 
his initials from the numerous company of initials on the 
church bell, for which he, and perhaps his mother (Wid- 
dow Jackson), collected subscriptions, seems to imply that 
he was not held in much account by the parishioners. 

The purchase of this bell in the first year of the Protec- 
torate may to some persons be a matter for surprise. Thus 
a church newspaper, in a notice of Chrswick old church, 
says : 

There are six bells, five of them dated 1656, which is very remark- 
able, as that is the time of the Commonwealth, when churches were 
losing rather than increasing their property. — Church Bells, May 9, 

Mr. Daniel Tyssen-Amherst, referring to church bells 
cast during the Commonwealth, says : 

During the civil war few bells could be recast. Between 1642 and 
1648 there is only one bell in the county, viz, at Shipley, 1646. So 
that all bells which broke during those years must have waited to be 
recast until peace was restored. Accordingly during the Common- 


wealth more business was done than might have been expected 
considering the disrepute in which bells were held by the Puritans 
{Sussex Church BeUs, pp 21-2). 

It is worth while here to notice that the treble of Carlisle 
cathedral is dated 1657, the tenor 1659; and No 4, recast 
in 1R45, was originally dated 1658 {ante, viii. 147). 

The death knell was formerly tolled at Hutton, but has 
been discontinued for many years. One of the bells is 
tolled after, as well as before, an interment, but not 
slowly, so that it may be more correctly said to be rung. 
There was formerly here the usage of the early Sunday 
morning bell, at nine o'clock ; but this has of late years 
been discontinued. 


The terrier of 1749 has this item : 

Two Bells with their frames the less 
thought to weigh about one Hundred and 
the Bigger about a Hundred and a half. 

That of 1777 has no inventory of church goods. 

There are still two bells here, in a double cot on the 
west gable : 

Treble, diam. 17} inches, weight about i J cwt. 
Tenor, diam. 2ii inches, weight about 2^ cwt. 

I am indebted for the diameters to the present vicar, the 
Rev A. Edwards, who reports both the bells as blank, 
except that on the tenor is scratched with a nail 

QT 1779. 

Whatever the letters Q T may be supposed to mean, the 
figures probably signify the date of the hanging of the 
tenor ; the weight of which seems to show that it was not 
one of the bells described in the terrier of 1749* 



I obsen'ed, when our archaeological society visited 
Kirkland in 1884, that the trebfe, as seen from the ground, 
appears to be the older of the two ; and, judging from its 
weight, we may identify it with "the bigger" of the two 
bells in 1749. It is long-waisted, and may therefore be 


The list of " Kirkozewold " church goods in Edward 
VI's Inventory is partly worn off on the right hand side, 
and among the missing items are the parish bells. But 
the following items remain : 

One Santus bell vi litill belies. 

The number (vi) of little bells, an unusual number for 
Cumberland, may be attributed to the church having been 
made collegiate in 1526 ; a misfortune, as matters turned 
out, since it theieby came to pass that 

about the year 1545 the King, Henry VIII, seized upon the property 
of the collegiate body, and also upon the rectory, allowing only £S a 
year for the performance of the parish duties (Whellan, p 571). 

The patronage of the living thus became vested in the 
crown, and continued so for more than 300 years. Nor 
until 1725 was there any endowment of the vicarage be- 
sides the £8 above mentioned. 

Bishop Nicolson, who visited Kirkoswald on February 
25i 1704, says, speaking of the church : 

The situation is inconvenient ; being in such a hole that their Belfry 
(with three pretty good Bells in it) stands at a distance, on the Top 
of a neighbouring Hill. 

Of the " three pretty good bells" seen by the bishop two, 
as presently will be shown, were destined not to survive 
for another quarter of a century; and one of their succes- 
sors has recently been recast* 




The belfry, which is the only example of a campanile in 
this county, was rebuilt in 1893. The accompanying 
sketch of the old belfry has been made from a photograph 



sent to me by the late vicar, Canon Ransome. A news- 
paper report of the opening of the new belfry says : 

It is believed that the tower was built in the time of Henry VIII, 
and it was badly repaired in 1742. As a memorial to the late Canon 
Ransome, a committee of parishioners decided to restore it, and if 
possible to bring it back to the original design. They collected 
subscriptions amounting to about £zoo^ and from designs prepared 
by Mr. C. J. Ferguson, F.S.A., Carlisle, Mr. A. Watson, Kirkoswald, 
carried out the necessary building work. The whole of the upper 
storey is new, and the tower is now a battlement with a small turret. 
A new base has also been built, and a spiral staircase placed inside 
the tower. All the whitewash on the outside has been carefully 
removed, and the tower now looks almost like new. It contains 
three ancient bells, one of which was cracked and broken. This bell 
has been re-cast and, together with one of the others, re-hung. The 
work in connection with the bells has been carried out by Messrs. 
John Taylor & Son, Loughborough {Carlisle Journal, November 14, 

I am indebted to Messrs. Taylor for the following par- 
ticulars concerning the three bells :. 






Smallest (old) 
Middle (old) 
Largest (new) 

ift. 73in. 
iff loiin. 
2ft. i|in. 

icwt. 2qr. 3lb. 
2cwt. iqr. gib. 
3cwt. 3qr. gib. 

They also state that *' the new bell is F ; but the old ones 
are of such bad tone that it is impossible to say what they 
really are, and no attempt was made to put the bells in 
tune together. Each is an odd bell apart from the others ; 
the smallest is retained only for its associations, and is 
not hung for ringing "• 

I will now describe the trio as I saw them before the 
rebuilding of the tower and the recasting of the tenor : 




No. 2 

igl inches 
22I inches 
24 inches 


A. Pecver 
W. Land 
A, Peever 

The terrier of 1749, signed by " John Mandeville, vicar", 
describes them as 

Three bells with their frames and wheels, the least thought to weigh 
about one hundred and half, the second about two hundred and one 
quarter, the greatest about three hundred. 

Which estimate is nearer the mark than is usually the 
case with terrier weights. 

The treble has, in Roman capitals, with a cross as 
intervening stop, this inscription : 

C + WARDINGS + 1729. 

The traditional number of churchwardens at Kirkoswald 



is four ; and it appears from the transcripts in the 
bishop's registry that the fourth churchwarden in 1729 
was Christopher Hudson. The warden described on the 
treble as i lowranc was John Lowrance, whose name 
occurs nine times as a churchwarden during the period 
1696-1729. But there may have been two, if not three, of 
this name, grandfather, father, and son, as the transcripts 
at Carlisle have these entries : 

1706 Sept 30 John Lowrance buried 
1726 Ma}' 26 John Lowrance young man and 
Hannah Wilson widow married. 

The Kirkoswald transcripts begin with the year 1663. 
But there is only one other transcript (1666) extant until 
1673 ; after which year they continue with greater regu- 
larity. It would be well if they were to be mounted and 
bound, as recommended by the Diocesan Conference 
committee in 1887, since transcripts often contain infor- 
mation not to be found elsewhere. Thus there is pre- 
served among these transcripts the following letter : 

Mr. Gibson. — ^These are to lett you know that there are severall 
neglects of presentments by the churchwardens of the parish of 
Kirkoswald which they ought to present in this court that trans- 
gressors be punished according to Law but more especially within 
this 2 or 3 years past therefore it is but proper that the church- 
wardens should be examined that the truth be discovered that 
Justice may be done. 

I told the churchwardens I wold writ to you of these neglects for 
they are insufferable So I hope you take notice. 

I remain Sr 
May 20 Your most Humble Servte 

1729 John Scott. 

The letter is endorsed 

ffor Mr Fetter Gibson of Carlisle at the Chapter Court there. 

Mr Scott evidently did not regard the zeal of the church- 
wardens for the bells in that year (1729) as any palliation 



of their " neglects of presentments'*. Whether Mr. Gibson 
" took notice " and stirred them to greater severity with 
" transgressors ", there is nothing to show. 

The tenor, with lettering and cross (illustrated below) 
identical with those on the treble, was inscribed : 


The canons had been broken off, and it was fastened to 
the headstock by four iron bolts passing through its 
crown. It was cracked about thirty years ago, and a 
piece broken off from the rim, by a boy striking the death 
knell. The letters fa are of course a contraction of 
facit; and the inscription seems to sho^ that the 
founder, Aaron Peever, lived at Kirkoswald. But there is 
no tradition of any bell foundry there ; nor does the name 
of Peever occur in the parish register. In 1724 he cast 
two bells for Caldbeck, and one for Kirklinton, which is 
now at Blackford {anief vii, 226) ; each of which bears 
no cross, and has a double semi-colon as intervening stop. 
In 1728 he cast a bell for Addingham (ante, ix, 476), and 
one for Corbridge in Northumberland (Newcastle Anti- 
quarian Proceedings, iii, 142) ; on each of which, as at 
Kirkoswald, he placed his cross as intervening stop. It 


would seem that it was in 1729 that he first learned how 
to spell his christian name, which occurs in 1724 as]Aron 
at Caldbeck and Blackford, but in 1729 as Aron at 
Addingham and Aaron at Kirkoswald and Corbridge. The 
above inscription has been placed on the new tenor. 



Mr. John Rumney, vicar of Kirkoswald in 1729, is thus 
commended in 1704 by Bp Nicolson : 

The Register- Book begins at 1577, and is carefully 
enough preserv'd by Mr. Rumney, the honest Curate. 

He was also curate of Renwick in 1704. Complaining of 
certain persons who had "the chief of the prescriptions 
for Corn-Tithe", and yet neglected to repair the chancel 
of Renwick church, the bishop says : 

Perhaps the Curate Mr Rumney^ haveing a share of ye said prescrip- 
tions, would not (poor as he is) decline the throwing in his Mite, tho' 
twere barbarous in the others to exact it from him. 

It was not at all uncommon in those days for a Cumber- 
land clergyman to be a pluralist, and yet a very poor man. 
The living of Renwick, owing to the impropriation of its 
tithes, was so impoverished that, prior to its augmenta- 
tion in 1748, it was difficult to find a clergyman to serve 
the church (Nicolson and Burn, ii, 436). Nor was this 
difficulty any less at Kirkoswald (t6, p 428). Mr. Rum- 
ney died in 1739. He signed the transcripts as " minister" 
as far back as 1688 ; in which year he presented 24 
persons as " dissenters ". In the same year he writes : 

We doe present the chancell as insufficiently repaired though lately 
repaired yet in some rpt ready to fall unless speedy care prevent it. 

In subsequent years he often repeats this presentment, 
and in 1705, doubtless encouraged by Bp Nicolson's 
animadversions on the impropriators, he says : 

We doe present Timothy Featherstonehaugh Esq and George Lowry 
Gent for neglecting to repair the chancell. 

In that year the churchwardens describe themselves as 
** church masters ". 

The second bell has this inscription, in Roman capi- 
tals, with the two middle strokes of the letter W bisecting 
each other : 




The stamp before and after the word ** made " is worn 
away and unrecognizable. William Land, whose exact 
place of residence has not been ascertained, is supposed 
by Dr. Raven {Cambridgeshire Bells, p 62) to have hailed 
from the eastern counties. " At Wattisfield, Suffolk, and 
at Halstead, Essex, his initials occur in connection with 
T D for Thomas Draper " (j6, p 24). The Halstead tenor, 
bearing the initials WL and TD, is dated 1378 (C. 
Deedes' Church Bells of Halstead, p 6). It is worth while, 
by the way, to notice that, besides W. Land's Kirkoswald 
bell, the only other ancient Cumberland bell as yet known 
to have been cast by a distant founder, i.e. more distant 
than York, is the treble at Hutton-in-the-Forest, cast by 
Thomas Draper in 1588. William Land's initials occur 
in conjunction with the name in full of Stephen Tonnie 
on the fourth bell at St. Edward's, Cambridge, dated 
1576 (Raven, p 127); on the Landbeach third, dated 1577 
{ib, p 155) ; and on the Wicken fourth, dated 1582 {ib, p 
177) I from which Dr. Raven infers that for several years 
he was perhaps a foreman of Tonnie, whose foundry was 
at Bury St. Edmund's {ib, p 62). At some time before 
1613 he seems to have begun casting bells on his own 
account, as his initials occur alone on the Petcham tenor, 
dated 1613 (Stahlschmidt's Surrey Bells, p 158). His 
name in full and alone is found on the Barnes treble, 
dated 16 16 {ib, p 129) ; on the silver bell, dated 1624, 
which hangs in the south-west turret of the principal 
gateway of St. John's College, Cambridge (Raven, p 131), 
and on the tenor at Dulwich College chapel, dated 1633 
(Surrey Btlls, p 152). Mr. Stahlschmidt, noticing the 
long period covered by W. Land's work, was of opinion 
that there were two of the name, father and son {ib, p 96). 
Mr. Deedes says that "there seem to have been three 
William Lands at different times " {Halstead Bells, p 5). 
The initials W B, found in connection with this name at 




Kirkoswald^ may be those of a foreman who cast the bell. 
The only known founder in the earlier years of the seven- 
teenth century whom they fit was William Brend of 
Norwich, who died in 1634 (North's Lincolnshire Bells^ p 
loi) ; but he was unlikely to be a foreman of William 
Land. W B, whoever he was, may have been sent by 
Land to Kirkoswald in 1619 to cast the three bells seen 
there nearly a century later by Bishop Nicolson, two of 
which were supplanted by Aaron Peever's bells in 1729. 

There are here the usages of death-knell without 
"tellers", after-burial bell, and eight a.m. Sunday bell. 


Two bells hang in a double cot on the west gable of the 

Treble : diam. 13J inches, weight about 7olbs. 
Tenor : diam. 14^ inches, weight about loolbs. 

A vestry and porch were added to the west end of the 
church in 1836 ; and the bells, which were formerly rung 
from the floor of the nave, are now rung from inside the 
vestry. . 

The treble is blank, and I pronounce no opinion as to 
its probable age. 

The tenor has round its shoulder a Lombardic inscrip- 
tion ; no initial cross or maker's stamp ; two roundlets as 

intervening stop throughout ; the letters A and L re- 
versed; M, N, P, and R, upside down ; and E once (in ave) 




placed sideways on its back. The accompanying illustra- 
tions of the words avb and plena show the character of 
the lettering. The inscription runs thus : 

AVE I : I MARIA I : I QRACIA | : | PLENA | : | 

IN I : I HONORE I : I s I : I iohas. 

The letter H is Roman ; on which point Mr. Stahlschmidt 
said in a letter to me : 

The Roman H is of course an earlier form than the Lombardic, and 
is found in MSS as late as a.d. 500. But I have never found it used 
in fourteenth centur>' Lombardics on a bell ; and I am inclined to be 
suspicious that the use of it points to the bell being of early sixteenth 

Stilly even so, the bell will be of respectable antiquity, the 
oldest possession of the church to which it belongs, older 
by two or more centuries than the church itself, which 
was rebuilt in 1718 (Whellan, p 574). 

The church is stated in Bacon's Liber Regis and Ecton's 
Thesaurus to be dedicated to St. Peter. But Whellan (p 
574) says it is " dedicated to the Blessed Virgin " ; appar- 
ently assuming that, because not otherwise mentioned in 
Henry VIIFs Ecclesiastical Survey, it must be identical 
with what is therein described as ** the chantry of St. 
Mary in Edenhall" (Hutchinson, I, 257). Does the bell 
inscription help us to decide between these authorities ? 
Well, the angelic salutation, even when standing alone, 
occurs too frequently on ancient bells to be accepted as 



evidence in favour of the dedication of a church to St. 
Mary ; and it is here followed by words which, if bearing 
at all on the point in question, would rather lead us to 
infer that the patron saint of the church was St. John. 
But it must not be assumed that a bell inscription does 
necessarily bear on the point in question. 

The churches of Langwathby and Edenhall have long 
been held, as now, by one and the same vicar; which 
circumstance, together with the fact that Langwathby is 
not mentioned in either of the valuations of Pope Nico- 
las, Edward II, and Henry VIII, has led to the inference 
that " Langwathby was anciently a part of the parish of 
Edenhall " (Nicolson and Burn, ii, 448) ; and it has been 
conjectured that " the church or chapel here was probably 
first erected for want of a bridge over Eden, whereby the 
inhabitants were often hindered from repairing to divine 
service ; but by length of time it hath gained parochial 
rights " {ib). If, however, as Dr. Todd is reported by 
Whellan (p 574) to have said, " the parishes of Edenhall 
and Langwathby were united in 1380 by Bishop Apple- 
by", they must originally have been separate. An old 
MS document, preserved in the parish chest, says : 

Item wee doe present that we have a Church in our parishe and that 
it is no chapell but hath been allwaies a church without memorye of 
man and is a parishe of itselfe as appeares by record 24 Elizabeth. 

By us 
October i Lancelot Hodgson clerke 

1650 John Steele 

Thomas Carlton, Mr. 

What the ecclesiastical arrangements of these parishes 
may have been in such an exceptional time as 1650 there 
is no knowing. But this would not affect the contention 
of the above document, which is that Langwathby was no 
more a chapelry of Edenhall than Edenhall was of Lang- 



The old church, as already mentioned, was rebuilt in 
1718 ; and of its goods there remain only the register, 
which begins at 1576, the parish chest, and the ** Maria" 

This bell is tolled for a death, but without " tellers." 
It is rung quickly after a burial whilst the mourners are 
leaving the churchyard. 


Edward VFs commissioners found at " Melmorby ** 

ij prche belles. 

*' Melmorby was the habitation of Melmoty a Dane, who 
first improved and cultivated the country, about the ninth 
or tenth century" (N. & B. ii, p 441). 

The church, dedicated to St. John Baptist, has now 
two bells, easily accessible, in a turret. Each of them is 
i6i inches in diameter, therefore weighing about ij cwt., 
and has on its waist, in a rectangular oblong stamp, with 
a fleur-de-lis fringe, the word Wiggan, preceded by a bell 
in outline ; three birds above in oblong stamp ; and the 
date 1715. 

A bell in outline between initials R A is found on the 
Dalston treble, dated 1704 (ante^ x, p 243), and on the 
Kirkbampton tenor dated 1705, for an illustration of which 
see antCf ix, p 249. The same initials with bell between, 
accompanied by the word Wiggan, are on a bell at Skel- 
ton, dated 1717. The Caldbeck treble, dated 1726, is 
inscribed Luke Ashton Fecet Wigan. It follows 
from these data that the Melmerby bells were cast by R. 
Ashton of Wigan. 

The Rev. Theodore Owen, rector of Wood Walton, 
Peterborough, informs me in a letter that he '' found R A 
with bell between, dated 1703, at Llanfernien, Denbigh- 
shire ", and that " Luke Ashton made the undated tenor 
of Urswick, Lancashire, somewhere after 1714". Mr. J. 

S. Remington 


S. Remington, of Ulverston, supplies these other in- 
stances of bells cast by the Ashtons : " Pennington ist 
K A 1719; Claughton 2nd L A 1727 ; Rushen Castle, Isle 
of Man, one bell, L A 1728 ; Gersingham (one bell) L A 
1740 ". In an account of Wigan assessments for the 
relief of the poor in 1720 he has found " in the division of 
the Scoles the names of Ralph Ashton and Luke Ash- 
ton ". R A then is Ralph Ashton, probably the father of 
Luke. In a document written the ** 2 October in the 
sixteenth year of Lord {sic) George second ", i.e. 1742, Mr. 
Remington finds that ** the two Serjeants of the Corpora- 
tion of Wigan were William Rogerson and Luke Ashton". 
Mr. Owen also says that " the second bell of Bolton-le- 
Sands was cast at Wigan in 1694". It may not, however, 
have been cast by the Ashtons, since Mr. Remington 
says : " The Scott family were bell-founders at Wigan for 
many years. The original firm was that of James and 
John Scott, who were bailiffs in 1627 ; and in 1653, 1688, 
and 1701, members of the family were mayors of Wigan. 
The Wigan parish church accounts have these items : 

Paid Mr. Scott the Bell founder for casting the Bell aforesaide, 
and for one hundred and twelve pounds of mettle, ;f 18. 

1677. — Paid unto William Scott for kasting the first bell ;f 10 los. 

The Scotts never gave their names in full on their bells, 
but only their initials ". 

The Melmerby bells are rung by levers. There is here 
the usage of death knell without " tellers". 


The church, dedicated to St. Mungo, and rebuilt in 
1756, has in a cot on its west gable one bell, izi inches in 
diameter, with no inscription but the figures (Arabic) 
1490, supposed to have been the date of a former bell, 
which when cracked about thirty years ago was sent to 
Sheffield to be recast. 




The earliest mention of the bells of this church occurs 
in the terrier of 1729 : 

Two Bells with their frames thought 
to weigh about nine stone each. 

There are still two bells here, in a double cot in the west 
gable, viz : 

Treble : diam. 29J inches, weight about 88 lbs. 
Tenor : diam. 29 inches, weight about ijcwt. 

They are rung by levers, the ropes descending inside to 
the floor of the church. 

The treble, which is blank, must be of later date than 
1749, as it could never have been supposed to be of the 
same weight as the tenor ; which, though about a stone 
heavier than the weight assigned to it in the terrier, was 
undoubtedly here in 1749. 

The tenor has round its shoulder, in small black letter, 
with plain initial cross, this inscription : 

* B'c'a m'rta mafl&alena ora pro nobis* 

There is no intervening stop. The cross and first word 
are here illustrated full size. The date of the bell, while 


not later than the Reformation, is not earlier than the 
fifteenth century, at the beginning of which black letter 
first appeared in bell inscriptions. It 


It may occasion some surprise that, notwithstanding 
Puritan zeal for the destruction of " monuments of super- 
stition *\ so many ancient bells retain their invocation to 
saints ; and indeed in some places such inscriptions have 
been defaced. Mr. L'Estrange, in his book on Norfolk 
Church Bells (p 6), mentions " more than a dozen old bells 
the inscriptions on which have been either entirely or in 
part cut off". That such defacement was exceptional is 
probably due to ignorance of what the inscriptions were. 
In Cumberland, where most of the church bells are in 
gable cots, and therefore difficult of access, I have some- 
times found that church authorities did not so much as 
know whether their bells bore any inscriptions at all. 
Elizabethan and later iconoclasts, then, may often not 
have known that the gable bells were inscribed. Still, 
the fact remains that, even where they might have known, 
as in the towers of Cumrew, Burgh-by-Sands, Scaleby, 
Dacre, Edenhall, Greystock, and other Cumberland 
churches, the inscriptions are not defaced. 

Newton Reigny church is said by Ecton to be dedicated 
to St. John ; but whether to the Baptist or the Evangelist 
he does not state. Canon Venables, in his paper on 
Church Dedications in Cumberland {ante^ vii, p 144) leaves 
the Newton dedication blank ; nor is it noticed by Bacon, 
Browne Willis, or the county historians. 

The death knell is tolled here, but without " tellers *• ; 
and there is the usage of the after- burial bell rung quickly. 
The tenor, when under the influence of a strong west 
wind, has the peculiar usage of tolling itself ; which when 
heard for the first time at dead of night, as by myself 
when rector of Newton, is somewhat startling. 

Edward VPs commissioners in their report of " Ullis- 
bie " church goods mention 

ij prche belles. 



The name of the parish is variously spelt : " Ulnesbie '* 
on the communion cup ; " Ulnesby " in the will of Sir 
Richard de Ulnesby, rector in 1361 {Testamenta Karleo- 
lensia,jp]^o). Denton (pp 120-1) says : 

Vlnesby als. Ousby but rightly Vlfsby, Habitatio Vlfi vel Olavi Dani, 
was the seat and mansion of one Olave (whom the people commonly 
called Vlf), a Dane or Norwegian, that after the spoil of the country 
by the Danes (before the conquest of England by the Normans) 
seated himself there under the edge of the east mountains. He was 
one of the three sons of Haldan, the other two were Thorquel and 
Melmor: Melmor and this Vlf were placed in this part of the country, 
and Thorquell at Thorquellby near Keswick. 

In the name, as now written, ** Ousby ", the spelling has 
followed the local pronunciation. 

There are two bells here, in a double cot on the west 
gable, both blank, as reported by a friend who examined 
them for me, but forgot to measure their diameters. The 
terrier of 1749 mentions 

two bells with their frames the least thought to weigh 
about six stone and a half and the bigger about eight stone. 

The bells now in the cot, which I saw when at Ousby 
with our Archaeological Society in 1884, seem of somewhat 
larger dimensions than would accord with these weights. 
Either then the terrier is inaccurate, which is not at all 
unlikely, or the present bells have been put up since 1749. 
The dedication of the church is doubtful. The county 
histories give it as St. Luke; but in Bacon's Liber Regis 
and in Ecton's Thesaurus it is given as St. Patrick. Sir 
Richard de Ulnesby's will does not help to decide this 
point, as he was buried at Carlisle. 


Art. XVIIL— TA^ Denton Manuscripts. 

By the President. 
Communicated at Arnside, September 25/A, 1893. 
TITHEN the Royal Archaeological Institute visited Car- 
lisle in 1859, the late Mr. Hodgson-Hinde read a 
valuable paper in the historical section On the Early 
History of Cumberland. In it he dealt with the inaccura- 
cies and misstatements which abound in the generally 
received accounts. Alluding to these inaccuracies and 
misstatements, he said : — 

Many of them originate with the Chronicon Cumbriae, but these 
are amplified and augmented by succeeding compilers, especially by 
two persons of the name of Denton^ whose manuscript collections have 
been the main source from whence the modern historians of the 
county have derived their information as to the early descent of 
property, and the genealogy of its possessors. The contents of these 
storehouses of errors must be discarded by the future topographer, 
or used only to compare with more authentic documents. — Hodgson 
Hinde, Archaological Journal, vol. xvi, pp. 217, 234-5. 

The two persons of the name of Denton are John 
Denton, who wrote an account of Cumberland about the 
year 1610, and Thomas Denton, who wrote an account in 
1687-8. Of the John Denton MS. several copies, or 
rather editions exist, for many persons edited and brought 
up John Denton's original MS. to their own dales, until 
we come to the edition known as the Milbourne-Gilpin 
edition, being an edition made in 1749 by William Mil- 
bourne, Recorder of Carlisle, from an edition made in 
1687 by Richard Gilpin, of Scaleby Castle, Deputy 
Recorder of Carlisle. This edition is now my property, 
and was published in 1887 by the Society, as No. 2 of 
their Tract Series, with an introduction in which I 
enumerated all the known copies of John Denton's MS. 



In that introduction, I went on to deal with the Thomas 
Denton MS., and said : 

Of the Thomas Denton MS. history of Cumberland, no copy is 
known to exist, unless one be in the muniment room in Lowther 
Castle : Messrs. Lyson's, in their history of Cumberland, p. 2, posi- 
tively state that it was lent to them by the Earl of Lonsdale. They 
state that it was " written in the years 1687 and 1688 by Thomas 
Denton, Esq., barrister-at-law, recorder of Carlisle, and lord of the 
manor of Warnell Hall in Sebergham/* But in those years John 
Aglionby was recorder of Carlisle, and William Gilpin deputy 
recorder,* and in 1687 Mr. Deputy Recorder William Gilpin re- 
arranged John Denton's MS. history of Cumberland and produced 
No. 4, the Gilpin or Scaleby Denton MS. Thomas Denton had been 
recorder of Carlisle prior to Aglionby, but had retired in 1679:! 
he died in 1695 ; his portrait and that of his wife Letitia Vachell are 
in the Town Hall at Carlisle. The precise account given by Messrs. 
Lyson's of the MS. histor}' of Cumberland, which they attribute to 
Thomas Denton, forbids the conjecture that they have accidentally 
substituted Mr. Recorder Denton for Mr. Recorder Aglionby, but it 
is a curious coincidence that in 1687, Mr. Ex-Recorder Denton, and 
Mr. Deputy Recorder Aglionby, and Dr. Todd should have all com- 
piled histories of Cumberland based on that of John Denton. 

Messrs. Lyson's also state that the Earl of Lonsdale 
lent them a copy of John Denton's MS. Repeated 
searches in the muniment rooms at Lowther and White- 
haven Castles have failed to bring to light any copy of 
either John or Thomas Denton's MS. But in 1892 the 
late Mr. Alleyne Robinson, principal agent to Lord Lons- 
dale, found in his lordship's house in Carlton Gardens two 
vellum bound folios containing MS. accounts of the 
County of Cumberland. Knowing my interest in such 
matters, Mr. Robinson informed me of the find and ob- 
tained Lord Lonsdale's permission to entrust the two 
folios to me for examination, so soon as a box could h^ 
made for their safe custody. Mr. Robinson's sudden and 

* Municipal Records of the City of Carlisle, pp. 312, 314, 315, 322. 
t/hrf, p. 3M,3i5- 



lamented death prevented this from being carried out. 
After waiting for some time, I wrote to Lord Lonsdale, 
and he at once had the two folios sent to me. I immedi- 
ately recognised them as the John and Thomas Denton's 
MS. histories of Cumberland. It is then quite clear (see 
Lysons' Cunfberland, p. 2) that these two MS. volumes 
found in Carlton Gardens are the copies of John and 
Thomas Denton's MSS. lent by the then Earl of Lons- 
dale to Messrs. Lysons for the purposes of their history of 
Cumberland,-'^ and that they were returned to Carlton 
Gardens, and have remained there, overlooked and for- 
gotten, until the late Mr. R. Alleyne Robinson came upon 
them in 1892, and thus brought to light Thomas Denton's 
MS., which had for the last seventy years totally disap- 

The copy of John Denton's MS. found at Carlton 
Gardens is contained in a thin folio stitched in a dingy 
vellum cover,t the leaves measuring 12J inches by eight. 
Some blank leaves at the beginning have been cut out, but 
sufficient margins are left to show that they have been 
used for recording some rules of arithmetic with exam- 
ples : these are in a much more modern handwriting than 
that in which the history is written : some loose sheets of 
paper in the book contain in an antique hand copies of 
various deeds, and also in the same handwriting as the 
rules of arithmetic, sundry directions for qualifying 
gangers, dated 1698. 

The John Denton MS. itself presents no unusual fea- 
tures: originally written in 1610, this copy includes in 
the list of Bishops, Snowdell (Snowden bishop 1616 to 
1621). It is prefaced by a title page in a more modern 
hand thus — 

* Published in 1816. 

t This vellum cover appears to have originally belonged to some other book. 













BY A.H. 

The following is an extract from a letter in the muni- 
ment room at Lowther, kindly furnished me by W. Little, 
Esq. : — 


Last Monday I paid my Coroplim^ at Lowther and carried with 
me the Ancient Manuscript History of Cumberld From the Conquest 
to the Beginning of King Ja^ I [Found amongst the Ancient Title 
Deeds, Evidences, and Records of the Manor of Hutton John] w^^ I 
left with Sir Ja* for his perusal '^' * and do not hear wh*" Sir 

Ja* has as yet made any application to Capt Gilpin for his Father's 
Copy of Denton's Manuscript (wc»» as far as I can remember confirms 
mine in every particular) 

=:: >:: :;: ^.i 

I am Sir, 

Your very obliged and obed* Serv* 
Hutton John And Hudleston 

17 October 177 1 

The letter is addressed to — 

William Wordsworth 

Attorney- AT- Law 

Cocke RMOUTH. 



Within the same vellum cover, but at the end, and not 
stitched in, are some sheets of folio paper, containing ex- 
tracts relating to legal proceedings about lands at or near 
Kendal, and also the directions for qualifying gaugers 
mentioned before. Two more loose sheets contain ex- 
tracts from the Dodesworth Collections, viz., copies of a 
Fleming pedigree and two deeds relating to Skirwith in 

Thomas Denton's MS. is contained in a vellum covered 
folio, tooled with gold, whose leaves, measuring 12 inches 
by 8 inches, are gilt edged. The first page contains the 
dedication : 

" To the hon"« S' John Lowther of Lowther Bart 

Custos Rotulorum of the Countie of Westmorland. 
Noble Sir, 

As the Greatness of the Grecian Heroe's " etc. etc. 
etc. From it we learn that the description of the County 
of Cumberland was undertaken at the request of Sir 
John Lowther and that, as the description left several 
blank pages in the book the writer filled them up with an 
account, which he confesses to be imperfect, of Westmor- 
land, with an appendix on the Border Tenant Right : he 
also added " A Description of the Isle of Man with its 
Customes," and ** A Description of Dublin Cittie and of 
the Province of Ulster." Altogether, as the writing is 
small, and the lines close together, the book is packed as 
full of information as it possibly could be. It contains a 
map of Cumberland and Westmorland, printed "Amstet- 
odami Apud Joannem Jansonium." 

The title is " A Perambulation of Cumberland and of 
Westmorland, containing the Description, Hystory, and 
Customes of these Counties, written in the yeares 1687- 
88," by T.D. The words " And of Westmorland " are a 
subsequent addition, written above the line, and the words 
" these Counties " have been altered from " the Countie." 

• These are now fastened into the cover. The 


The Perambulation of Cumberland commences with its 
boundaries, the origin of its name, the history of the 
early inhabitants, and of its division into baronies, wards, 
parishes, with an account of the diocese, and a list of 44 
bishops. The writer then embarks upon a particular 
account of each place in the county ; taking it by baro- 
nies, and following very much the plan of his predecessor 
John Denton, but being much fuller in detail, and parti- 
cularly in statistics as to the value of the various manors, 
fisheries, mines, etc. mentioned, and also as to the 
number of inhabitants. 

At the end of the perambulation of Cumberland, two 
pages are devoted to an account of the Picts' Wall. The 
history of Westmorland follows, but is very imperfect, 
consisting mainly of a detailed account of the several lords 
of the barony of Appleby, and a long account of the Border 
tenant right. The accounts of the Isle of Man and of 
Dublin and Ulster finish the book. It is desirable that 
the account of Cumberland at any rate should be printed 
and published, and it is to be hoped that this Society may 
be able, with Lord Lonsdale's permission, to do the work. 


Art. XIX. — On two Roman Inscriptions recently found at 

By F. Haverfield, F.S.A. 

QHANGKLLOR FERGUSON has lately sent me 
photographs and squeezes of two fragmentary inscrip- 
tions recently found in Cai lisle. The first, a largish block, 
53 inches long by 17 high, was found during some building 
operations on the London Road, close to the spot where 
the tombstone of Flavius Antigonus Papias was found 
last year {Proc. S.A., 2nd series, vol. xiv, 262-7), and 
has been presented by the finder, Mr. Dudson, to the 
museum at Tullie House. The lettering, in the first two 
lines 2^ inches high, is (see illustration given herewith). 


^ — DOM 

At the end of line 3 I think to see STR, but the letters 
have been purposely erased, and are not clear. The 
general form of the inscription, no doubt, resembled that 
of a stone found at the neighbouring fort at Plumpton 
Wall (C. vii, 3i9^Lapidarium, No 797) which reads 
Deabus matribus tramarinis ei n{umini) itnp{eratoris) Alexan- 
dri Aug{usti) et IuUcb Mammece matr{is) Aug{usti n{ostri) et 
Casirorum toti [que] domui divince erected by some [vexill] 
atio of soldiers. So in our new stone we may read Deo 
Marti Ocelo et numini imp{eratoris) A lexandri A ug{usti) et 
Jul\iae Mammeae matr. casirorum &c, totique] dom [ui divince y 
but it is impossible to be certain whether the supposed 
STR at the end of line 3 belonged to nostri or to casirorum. 
As is often the case, the name of Alexander and his 
mother were erased after their death. 
















The god Mars Ocelus appears to be unknown, but 
Ocelum as a place-name is not uncommon. It occurs on 
the east coast of Britain, in Spain twice, in the Alps,* and 
a probably cognate form may be found in Tunnocelum, 
the name of a Roman fort mentioned in the Notitia Dig- 
nitatum {Occ. xl), which is to be located either near the 
western end of the Wall or, as I should prefer, further 
south in Cumberland. What Ocelus means I cannot 
conjecture or get anyone else to conjecture.t I will only 
say that it need not bear a meaning which would suit the 
Roman God of War. When the natives of the provinces 
identified their local gods with those of Italy, they did not 
always strictly consider the attitudes of the latter. Thus 
Apollo Maponus seems to have been a child ; the Keltic 
Silvanus is wholly unlike the Latin ; the Mars Thingsus 
of Housesteads seems to have been a protective deity, and 
even Juppiter appears in Gaul with a wheel and other un- 
classical emblems.^ 

The second inscription consists of part of two lines 
round the base of a statuette, of which only the foot 
remains. It was found buried at a great depth in English 
Street, Carlisle, some years ago, but has only lately been 
noticed and added to the TuUie House Museum. The 
material is a local sandstone. The illustration shows it 

The completion of the fragment is not easy, but some- 
thing may be conjectured. The word after deo may 
perhaps have been cavti. A god Cautes is mentioned 
several times on inscriptions found at Rome, at Aquileia, 
at one or two places in Germany and elsewhere, and 

• Ptolemy, ii, 3-A, ii, 5-7, ii, 6-22, and c.l.L.V. p. 810. 

t As I have saia elsewhere, I doubt if the names in the Notitia (I.e.) which 
follow after Aiiibog:lanna are the names of the stations on the Wall west from 
Birdoswald. Certainly this Tunnocelum seems not to have been per lineam 
yalli, i he sequence of names in the list is Aballaba, Cong-avata, Axeludunum, 
Gabrosentum, Glannibanta, Alione, Bremetenraco : Aballaba and Axelodunum 
were at Papcastle and Maryport, Bremetennacum was at Ribchester, and Tun- 
nocelum would naturally be one of the various intervening forts. 

X Hirschfeld IVestdeutsche Zeitschrifl, viii., 137. 



appears to be identical with Mithras.* On some of the 
monuments he appears as a youth with a Phrygian cap 
and inverted torch : whether our statuette was of this 
character, cannot now be determined. 

The two letters after CAvri which may be traces of iv 
contain probably the initial letters of the dedicator's name, 
say Julius.f The second line is harder to explain. Dr. 
Zangemeister, whom I have consulted about the whole 
inscription, suggests that the letter before e is an L im- 
perfectly cut and perhaps completed (as in other cases) by 
colouring: : he would then read arch(itectus) l(a)etus \libens 
solvit. This seems the most plausible of several conceiv- 
able supplements, but it is not certain. 

* See fTestdeutsche Zeitschrift, xiit. (1894), 89; C.I.L. vi. 86, Deo Caute 
Flavins Antistianus vfirj efgrej^iusj etc.; Henzen 5848-5S53. The name, like 
the kindred Cauto^ates, is probably oriental, but the derivation is unknown. 

t The two bits of letters visible are too far apart to be fragments of a M, other- 
wise we might guess Deo Caiiti M[itkrae, though the usual order or words would 
be Deo Mithrae Cauti. 

( 227 ) 

Art. XX. — Extracts from the Records of the Privy Council 

relating to Cumberland and Westmorland in the Reign of 

Queen Mary. By T. H. Hodgson. 
Communicated at Lake Side, Windermere, June 13, 1894. 
TN continuation of the extracts from the Acts of the 
Privy Council laid before this Society at their meeting 
in September last* I now submit further extracts relating 
to the Reign of Queen Mary. These are somewhat 
voluminous as warfare on the Borders was incessant, 
becoming in 1557 so serious as to demand not only the 
levy in the midland counties of a strong force of 
** demilances," but also the employment of a body of 
German mercenaries. 

Much trouble seems to have been given throughout this 
period by that turbulent race, the Grahams of the 
Debatable Land, the settlement effected or supposed to 
be effected by the Commissioners appointed in the late 
reign having apparently but little result. The Surveyor 
of Berwick was directed to prepare estimates for a fort to 
be built at Netherby probably with the object of keeping 
them in check, but it does not appear that the project was 
proceeded with. Some of the Liddesdale men made over- 
tures of alliance with the English but they seem to have 
been regarded as rather dangerous allies, Lord Dacre 
being more than once cautioned to be heedful in his 
dealings with them. 

Private quarrels not unfrequently occupied the attention 
of the Council — the old quarrel between Lord Wharton 
and Lord Cumberland being still active notwithstanding 
the reconciliation which was supposed to have been 

* Fide ante, p. 69, for Extracts in the reigns o£ Henry VIII. and Edward V. 



effected. The relations between Lord Dacre and his son 
Sir Thomas appear to have been somewhat strained, the 
latter making complaint of his father's behaviour to him, 
while Lord Dacre himself got into the meshes of the law, 
being defendant in a suit instituted by one Hewitt, 
Alderman of London, apparently a creditor. Both were 
bound over before the Council to abide the issue of the 
suit, Leonard Dacre and Bartram Anderson, a prominent 
citizen of Newcastle, being securities for Lord Dacre. 
No sureties appear to have been taken for Hewitt, his 
own recognizance being deemed sufficient. During Lord 
Dacre's absence on this business Leonard Dacre took 
charge of the West Marches as his deputy, 'and proved 
himself a capable and efficient officer. 

In at least one case, the imprisonment by Lord Cum- 
berland of one Francis Marr in the Castle of Skipton the 
Council interfered with commendable promptitude to 
check what seems to have been a grievous case of 

The religious troubles of the reign appear to have 
little affected the Border counties. We find, however, 
one case in which two prebendaries of Carlisle bearing the 
names still familiar to us of Kirkbride and Sewell were 
summoned before the Council. The cause does not appear 
but it was probably heresy. Nothing is said as to their 
fate, but as they do not appear in Foxe's list we may hope 
that they escaped the stake. 

Again we have to regret the fragmentary way in which 
notices occur — we get a glimpse of an incident with 
nothing to show how it began or how it ended — while 
many entries which promise to be of the highest interest 
conclude with the words " according to the minute 
remaining in the Council chest," a repository which 
undoubtedly contained a mass of documents of the 
greatest historical value but none of which unfortunately 
are at present known to exist. With this preface we 



leave the extracts to speak for themselves. I have not 
thought it desirable to condense them, but leave the 
entries for the most part as they stand in the Registers, 
preserving the curious spelling and quaint forms of 

1553* There are no entries relating to the reign— if it may be so 
called— of Lady Jane Grey. The first entry we find relating to 
the Borders seems to imply that Lord Wharton, who was 
Lord Warden of the East Marches, had shown some inclina- 
tion to support her, as on 29 July, 1553, there is an entry, 
•* Letter to the Lord Wharton " for the qualifying of the 
former letters sent unto him (these are not recorded) touching 
the rumour for the raising of his force against the Lord Dacre 
in the defence of the usurpers quarrel. As usual the Whartons 
and Dacres seem to have taken opposite sides. 

i553» 25 August. The Deputy Warden of the West Marches for 
anempst Scotland (Lord Ogle) is thanked for his pains, required 
to continiie therein, and to see good order among the inhabi- 
tants of the late Debateable ground now known to be mere 
English. Also Richard Greme (Graham) and other then inhabi- 
tants there are required to shew themselves conformable. 

3 Sept. Richard Wharton's measures for the discharge of the 
superfluous labourers and the employment of those that remain 
about the amendment of the (Scots) dykes are approved, and 
he is referred as to his proceedings touching the Scots doings 
to the answer given to the Warden of the West Marches. 

g Sept. Lord Evers (Captain or Governor of Berwick, is in- 
structed that if George Hall who stroke (? struck) the 
English outlaw at the Day of March ought by the law of 
the Borders to die he should cause him to be executed in 
example of like disordered persons. 

10 Sept. Instructions were sent to Sir Thomas Dacre and the other 
Commissioners for the Survey of Church goods within the 
county of Cumberland. 

I553-4' On the 2nd January commission as Warden of the West 
and Middle Marches for anempst Scotland were sent to Lord 
Dacre. The following day instructions were sent to him and 
Lord Conyers for the apprehension of an Italian named Marco 
Anthonio Erizo who was supposed to be attempting an escape 
into Scotland. 

22 Feb. Lord Dacre is informed as to money here delivered to John 



Hall (Sergeant of Ridesdale and Tynedale) and Cuthbert 
Musgrave (Keeper of Ridesdale) "in trust towards the dis. 
charge of such money as is due unto them in the North for 
the entertainment of their several offices.** 

Appendix, 1553. 28th July. A letter from the Queen addressed to 
Lord Wharton to continue in his office until he shall know 
further of the Queen's pleasure (from the entry above it is 
evident that he was superseded by Lord Dacre) and the 13th 
August Lord Evre is directed that as certain persons have 
offered themselves to object things against Lord Wharton he 
should send them up well instructed with such matters as they 

1554, 16 April. A letter to Lord Wharton requiring him to deliver 
such cattle as are come into his hands which were taken by 
the English Borderers from the Scots, to Lord Evre, to be by 
him delivered over to the Scots according to the order given 
by Sir Thomas Comwallis and Sir Robert Bowes, late Com- 
missioners in the North Parts, and to signify to John Hall 
and Cuthbert Musgrave to do the like with such cattle as they 
had received. The like instructions to the Lords Dacre and 

22 April. A letter from Lord Wharton complaining of certain 
wrongs done to him by Lord Dacres is sent to the latter, 
'* praying him to leave all their particular suits and griefs 
to the determination of the law. 

27 April. Lord Conyers is directed to take the musters of all the 
able men in his boundary in such form and manner as was 
used in the time of Henry VIII., so that the horsemen be at 
all times ready to defend the frontiers and the footmen to be 
sent into Bei*wick, Warke, and Norham if they shall want aid. 
Instructions to the same effect were sent to Lord Dacres, and 
Sir Robert Bowes was despatched to Berwick " for the better 
taking of the said Musters." The Receivers of Yorkshire and 
Northumberland each had orders to pay Sir Robert Bowes £^0 
for this service. 

Sir Thomas Gray and other gentlemen of Northumberland 
were warned to shew themselves " more forward in service 
than they have erst done, whereby they shall well redubb their 
former slackness." 

18 May. Lord Dacres is informed that the Queen is pleased to 
pardon Thomas Gybson and that the ten persons remaining in 
Carlisle Castle may be released on bail. Also that his request 
to leave the Middle Marches shall be considered. A dispute 



between John Brisco and Cuthbert Musgrave is referred to 
Lord Shrewsbury (President of the Council of the North) for 

27 August. A letter to the Lord Dacres signifying unto him that his 
Patents and Commissions for his Wardenry shall be renewed, 
with also such news as the Queen's Highness hath received of 
the proceedings between the Emperor and the French King's 
camp and touching Petro Strozes overthrowen in Italy. 

15 Deer. This day the Earl of Cumberland and the Lord Dacres, 
between whom and the Lord Wharton much variance and 
strife hath of long time depended, were convented before the 
Lords and having good exhortation given them to remit all 
iormer grudges rancours and displeasures and to continue in 
unfeigned amity and friendship they promised faithfully so to 
do and in token thereof took one another by the hand in the 
presence of the Lords. A similar reconciliation between 
Lords Dacre and Wharton had been effected in March 1551-2, 
as may be remembered but seems to have been only short- 

1554-5* 15th January. Richard Greyme, Peter Greyme, and Wil- 
liam Greyme (Grahams of the Debateable Land) of Cum. 
berland are bound in recognizances of ;£'20o each *' to be of 
good abearing towards the King's (Philip II. of Spain) and 
Queen's Highness' subjects and shew themselves in all points 
of their Majesties' service in the Borders obedient to the 
Warden of the Marches and other officers there for the time 
being and moreover do what lieth in them from time to time 
to bring in the rebels and such others of their surname as 
lately fled into Scotland to be answerable to the law." 

19 January. A letter to my Lord Conyers writing him from hence- 
forth to give answer to the Scotch that they can have no more 
letters for post-horses, the country is so continually troubled 
therewith that ** unnethes " (scarcely) post-horses can be 
gotten for the Queen's Majesty's special affairs, and also 
requiring him to certify hither particularly the state of the 
town of Berwick and what number of soldiers remain there at 
this present or how many of them or the town dwellers be 
Scots or suspected so to be. 

4 & 5 February. Lord Conyers is warned of warlike preparations of 
the Scots, and that a French force has been embarked as 
suspected for Scotland. He is to take precautions accordingly. 
Sir Robert Bowes received orders to repair to Berwick and in 
conjunction with Lord Dacres to survey and report on its 
condition. 19 


19 February. A letter to Lords Dacres and Conyers with copies of 
correspondence between the Queen of Scots and the Queen's 
Highness, with instructions to concert measures for redress of 
things mentioned at their next meeting with the Wardens of 
the opposite March. Lord Conyers is also directed to forward 
the Queen's letter to the Queen of Scots, instructing the 
messenger to '* note what conformity he findeth in the 
Queen of Scots for the delivery of Pelham, Menville, and 
others — ^apparently prisoners in Scotland. If this Menville 
is as is probable one Ninion Menvyle we shall meet with him 
again. He seems to have been a notorious character on the 

1555* 30 March. A letter to Lord Wharton signifying to him his 
appointment to the Captainship of the Castle of Berwick (on 
the same page, however, follows a notice of the appointment 
of Sir William Vavasour to the same office), and also of his 
appointment to be 'Warden of the Middle Marches with the 
** offices" (qy. Captainship) of Alnwick and Hexham. An 
entr>' on the nth May shews that it was arranged that he 
should take over the charge of the Middle Marches from Lord 
Dacres on the 18th of that month, but the next day Lord 
Dacre is directed to continue in charge of the Middle Marches 
until he shall hear from Lord Wharton who had accidentally 
broken his leg, of his recovery and amendment, the latter 
being instructed to take over the charge on his recovery. Sir 
George Conyers, Sir William Vavasour and Mr. Norton, 
Captain of Norham, were appointed Commissioners to be pre- 
sent at the entry of Lord Wharton with his charge. 

2 1st May. A letter to Lord Dacres to report what was the first 
occasion that the Gremes — ^Grahams of the Debateable Land 
— fled into Scotland, how they have demeaned themselves 
since being there, what answers they have made to his 
messengers, and what his opinion is touching reformation to 
be had in this matter. Lord Wharton, Sir Richard Musgrave 
(Qaptain of Bewcastle) and Robert of Collingwood were also 
called on to ** signify their knowledge in the premisses hither 
and to keep the same close to themselves." Lord Conyers, 
Deputy Warden, was instructed to use caution with regard to 
the Laird of Goldenknolls, who as it would appear was 
expected to take refuge in England, this however was not 
to be permitted, it being suspected to be a plot. 

31st May. A proclamation was issued touching the disorders of 
the Grahams, of this we have the frequent but disappointing 



notice that it was " according to the minute remaining in the 
Council Chest.*' Lord Wharton was notified of this pro- 
clamation and exhorted *' to forget all private displeasure and 
join with Lord Dacre in the service of the King's and Queen's 
Majesties.*' By a letter to Lord Dacre of the znd June it 
appears that Mr. Maxwell was desirous to meet him for 
reforming the matter of the Grahams, Lord Dacre however 
is required in no case to suffer the said Maxwell to enter the 
English Borders. 

13th June. The Wardens of the Marches were cautioned to have 
their forces in readiness and to keep a vigilant eye on the 
Scots doings — it appears that a Scotch invasion was appre- 

23rd June. A letter was sent to Lord Wharton thanking him for 
his report of the submission of the Grahams. The znd July 
a further bill was sent to him of thanks for his dealing in the 
matter of the Grahams, also forwarding complaints from the 
Queen of Scots of disorders on the Borders, again according 
to the Minute in the Council Chest. 

13th July. The Wardens were directed ta learn by their best 
espials what time the ships of Denmark came into Scotland, 
and with what intention, with such other information as they 
can gather. 

26 July. A letter of thanks to Lord Shrewsbury (President of the 
Council in the North) '* for his diligence and travail in the 
planting of good order upon the Borders, and as touching his 
Lordships repair to Carlisle the 6th of the next month to see 
good order there their Majesties well liketh the same and for 
the better order of the country and the matter of the Greames 
his Lordship willed at his coming to Carlisle to cause pro- 
clamation to be made that so many of the Greames which are 
yet abroad as will come in by some certain day by his Lord- 
ship to be limited shall be pardoned four of the chief offenders 
only to be excepted by his Lordship and named at his Lord- 
ships discretion in the Proclamation." > 

iftt August. Further instructions were sent him *'to take such 
order for the due administration of justice to the Greymes as 
they may be satisfied of the wrongs done to them for that they 
are bound to answer the wrongs by them done to others, 
whereby they shall be the better able to answer the same and 
to do their Majesties the better service." 

*' As for the Scottes of the surnames of Johnsons, Irwens 
and Belles to be suffered in the wastes of Tynedale in case 



they be pursued, to use that matter as he thinks best, so as it 
be not known to be done from hence or officers there." 

1 6 August. The Bishop of Durham, Lord Wharton, and Lord 
Conyers are warned to be at all times ready with their force 
to withstand all attempts as shall be offered by the Scottes. 

28 August. The Wardens of the Marches are informed of the 
intended departure of the King (Philip H. of Spain) for 
Flanders, and to have regard to the good rule of the country 
and cause spreaders of false rumours to be punished. 

II Sept. William Phelipps, yeoman, of Buckingham, was bound 
in recognizances to appear and answer the charge of robbing 
one William Briskoo or Brisco, clerk. This may have been 
one of the Briscos of Cumberland, but there is no clue by 
which he can be identified. 

20 Sept. A letter to Richard Musgrave, whom Sir Rise (sic) Mus- 
grave, knight, deceased, left his deputie at Beau Castell 
(Bewcastle) signifying unto him the King and Queen's Majes- 
ties pleasures for his continuance still in the said charge untill 
a new officer be thereunto appointed and requiring him in the 
meantime to have a diligent eye to the good order of the 
country thereabouts. 

20 October. The Lords thought good that for the office of Bew- 
casteli the Queen's Highness is to be moved that the same 
office be appointed to some such gentleman as will dwell 
thereupon and he to have ;f 100 fee by year by patent 'vith 
Plumpton Park in lease during the time he is officer ; provided 
that he let and sel the said Park to such as will serve with 
horse and harness and none other and to pay for the same 
Park as the rent is now and the certainty of the rent now to 
be known, and to put out no tenant that will dwell upon it nor 
none such as have the Queen's lease. 

23 October. Hugh Sewele and Barnaby Kirkebred (Kirkbride) Pre- 
bendaries of Carlisle, appeared in answer to summons. On 
the loth November the matter was committed to Sir Edward 
Hastings, Master of the Horse, and Bourne, one of the 
Secretaries, for examination, with power to commit them to 
prison if they think good till the matter be further examined. 
Nothing more is heard of them, however, and it does not 
appear what they were accused of. 

i6jNovember. A compromise was arranged with Lord Wharton 
who was claiming arrears of pay due to him while as it 
appears he was himself largely in arrear as a Crown tenant. 
It was agreed that on his paying the rents he owed for the 



year ended at the preceding Michaelmas he should have full 
payment for the residue of his fees. 
10 December, A letter to Lord Dacres desiring him to aid with his 
good will and favour Symon Musgrave, Captain of Beaucastell 
in the execution from time to time of his office and charge 
these so as by his Lordships favour towards him the King and 
Queen's Majesties may be the better served in those parts. 

Another letter to the Sheriff of Cumberland (according to 
the County Histories Thomas Sandford) and to Albany Fether- 
stonhaugh requiring them in the King and Queen*s Majesties 
names that at such time as the said Simon Musgrave shall 
enter into the said charge, not only to be there present with 
him themselves and to be aiding and assisting him therein 
but also taking a perfect view of the state of the house of 
Heaucastell and the rest of the office to certify the same hither 
by their letters, declaring in what sort he findeth the same at 
the time of his entry thereunto. 

26 December. A letter to Lord Dacres (Warden of West Marches) 
with a Statute book for the Enclosures upon the Borders for 
anempst Scotland wherein he is willed to signify his opinion 
and what men his Lordship thinketh meet for the execution 
of the said Statute. The Council were evidently impatient to 
have this scheme carried out as on the 2Sth a list of Commis- 
sioners was sent to Lord Shrewsbury, President of the Council 
of the North, with instructions to consider by what means the 
Statute might be most readily executed. They were specially 
amongst other things " to consider the breadth and deepness 
of the ditches to be made, in what places the new dwelling 
houses may to all purposes be best placed for safeguard, 
defence and annoyance, what decayed houses and castles are 
to be chiefly first repaired, to cause the dwellings to be placed 
as near the frontiers as may be, and to consider the making 
of highways." 

31 December. Serjeant Browne (Anthony Browne, afterwards Lord 
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and a notorious persecutor 
of heretics) and the Solicitor General, John Gosnold, were 
called on for their opinion of a claim of Sir Thomas Newen- 
ham to the office of Receiver of Cumberland and Westmorland. 
There is no record of the decision as to his claim. 

1555.6, 19 January. Orders were given that all letters for the North 
** shall be pacquetted with thread for the more safer con- 
veyance thereof." 

9 February. A letter was written to the Lord Treasurer touching 



Bewecastell, Plumpton Park and the other parts of the North, 
with the tantalising addition " according to the Minute in the 
Council Chest." 

15 February. A dispute between the Captain of the Citadel and the 
Mayor and Citizens of Carlisle for the keeping of the keys of 
the postern gate, the new gate, and the cross wall was referred 
to Lord Dacre for his decision. 

20 February. Lord Wharton was informed that the Commissioners 
for Enclosures on the Borders shall only meddle with the 
counties of Northumberland, Durham, and the East and 
Middle Marches. As we shall shortly come to some long 
entries respecting the Debateable Land I think it probable 
that there was a separate Commission for Cumberland. 

28 February. In a letter of instructions to Lord Wharton chiefly 
as to Berwick he is reminded to ** rectify the fort of War- 

2 June. An entry of instructions to Lord Wharton, though relating 
chiefly to the East Border is of interest as it records the 
practice at Border meetings, which is said to be '* that both 
parties being come to the edge of the Borders the Scots do 
first send over to the Englishmen certain gentlemen of theirs 
to demand assurance for their company which being granted 
them we send over others to demand the like assurance, the 
same being granted the Eftglish party do thereupon go first 
over to the Scots and in the open fields treat upon the causes 
of their coming together and agree upon the next place of 
meeting upon English ground in some convenient tent or 
house for that purpose and so afterwards interchangeably to 
meet one day in Scotland and another day in England.'* 

5 June. A letter to Lord Dacres that the Lords have considered 
his letters and the plotte touching the fort to be built at Black 
Bank and although they do not mislike but that it were 
requisite a fort should be there yet forasmuch as the Scottes 
do yet build in no other place but in Langholm and Annandale 
and for that these Borders are presently in good strength it is 
not thought necessary any new fortification should begin there 
unless the Scottes should build more near hand which if they 
shall do upon advertisement of the same hither order shall be 
forthwith taken either in fortifying that Bank or otherwise as 
may stand best with the Queen's Majesties service, he is also 
required to confer more often with the Lord Wharton touching 
the state of the Borders. 

19 June. A letter to the Lord Dacre that whereas the ancient law 



of the Borders is that such as fly out of England into Scotland 
and commit any offence there and after he return hither he 
shall be answerable in the same Marches where he first 
toucheth which order his Lordship hath not observed for 
having been sent unto from the Lord Wharton for dyvers like 
offenders who returning into England after their offence com- 
mitted in Scotland and touching first in the Middle Marches 
be nevertheless kept in the West March and cannot be 
brought to justice, which is taken here to be very strange, he 
is therefore willed and commanded in the King*s and Queen's 
Majesties names both to send all such whose names are con- 
tained in a schedule sent herewith, as all others that the said 
Lord Wharton shall from time to time send for. 

22 June. A letter to the Lord Wharton that when it is advertised 
here from the Lord Dacres that certain English Borderers 
making raids into Scotland use commonly to return home 
again but with part of their booty leaving behind them the 
residue with such of the Scottes as do keep the same colour- 
ably to their uses and yet nevertheless the Scottish Wardens 
at their meetings do demand the whole the said Lord Dacres 
is written unto to signify the said Lord Wharton before the 
next day of meeting what their names are that use this 
practice with other particulars touching their doings to the 
end his Lordship may at his meeting with the Scottish 
Commissioners signify the same unto them and thereupon 
to take further order with them. 

A letter to Lord Dacre to the same effect, with a postscript* 
that where (as) Lamplewe*s brother hath been here to make 
suit for his libertie it is signified to his Lordship that no 
comfort is given him herein and for that he is determined to 
obey his order it is hoped that his Lordship will by his 
discretion restore him to liberty ; and touching the ground 
enclosed by Lamplewe, whereof the question now is, it is 
informed here that in the time of King Henry the VIII. 
when the Citadel was built the townsmen of Carlisle were 
sufficiently recompensed for the same ground and the houses 
built upon the same so that it cannot be theirs but the Queen's 
Majesty's ground. 

4 July. A letter to the Lord Dacre touching the meeting with the 
Warden of the Middle March in Scotland, at Kyrsopp 
(Kershope) or that part of Liddesdale that adjoineth on the 
West March of England, according to the Minute in the 
Council Chest. 

19 July. 


19 July. A letter to the surname of the Grames, that where (as) 
they have in a skarmouche of late taken certain Scottishmen 
prisoners they are all commanded upon their allegiance to 
deliver all the same prisoners to the Lord Dacres to be by 
him further ordered according to the laws of the Marches, 
which they have already promised to do, and also to use 
themselves obedient toward him and his officers in all other 
matters besides wherein he shall direct them and their doings 
for the better conservation of amity and quiet. 

A copy was sent to Lord Dacre *' whom he is willed to have 
such consideration of (the doubtfulness of the time considered) 
as his wise and discreet administration of justice may serve 
to preserve the number of the Queen's Majesty's subjects. 

26 July. A letter to Lord Dacre eftsones requiring him on the 
Queen's behalf to cause all such Scottishmen or their goods 
as shall be found to remain in the hands of any Englishman 
within his Wardenry to be immediately restored according to 
justice and as shall presently be prescribed unto him by her 
Majesties Commissioners presently upon the frontiers wherein 
he is required to use the more diligence for that it is alleged 
by the Scottes that certain of his own servants were at some 
of the spoils and robberies committed upon the Scottes. 

28 July. Letters to the Lord Dacres signifying the receipt of his of 

the 2ist and 23rd hereof and the Queen's good acceptation of 
his diligent advertisements therein and as touching the Scottes 
complaints against the Grames and other subjects although it 
was signified to him by several letters the last being of the 
25th (26th ?) hereof, that his Lordship should cause the Greames 
and all other Englishmen to restore all Scottish prisoners or 
their goods according to justice for which purpose the Lords 
wrote also their letters to the said Greames commanding them 
to follow such order as should be prescribed unto them in this 
behalf either by the Queen's Commissions on the Borders or 
his Lordship's yet because it was not advertised hither from 
his Lordship that they have followed this order their Lordships 
have eftsones written a letter in this closed to them charging 
them to see restitution made immediately or else his Lordship 
to force them by strong hand and to use herein his wisdom. 
A letter to the Greames according to that effect. 

29 July. Orders that the Posts between this and the North should 

each of them keep a book and make entry therein of every 
letter that he shall receive, the time of delivery thereof unto 
his hands with the parties names that shall bring it to him, 



whose handes he shall also take to his book witnessing the 
same note to be true which order was also commanded to be 
given him at the Court and the Wardens of the Marches 
towards Scotland were required to do the like. 

8 August. Letter to Lords Wharton and Dacres respecting the 
disorders of the Greames and other Englishmen upon the 
West Marches, according to the Minute in the Council Chest. 

II August. A letter to the Lord Wharton with copies of the 
Dowager of Scotlands letter and the Queen*s Majesties answer 
thereunto, wherein the said Dowager complaineth of sundrie 
disorders committed upon the West Borders and because 
Rosse the herald brought the particularities of those dis- 
orders written in Instructions, his Lordship is willed to 
conceive like instructions of the beginning of this matter and 
the continuance of the same, and chieBy to declare how that 
about 12 months past the Greames having committed an 
offence in the West Marches fled into Scotland and there were 
received and maintained and could at no time by that means 
be brought to justice which hath been the greatest and only 
cause of these disorders which he is willed to alledge as the 
ground of all inconveniences and nevertheless to signify the 
Queen's Majesties good minde to continue the amity between 
both realms and to see things redressed, for which purpose 
she hath presently written to the Lord Dacres a copy of which 
letter is herewith sent unto him which he (is) willed to shew 
to the Commissioners if he think so good, signifying also unto 
him that the Lord Dacres is likewise written to to see things 
brought to good quiet and to be contented to be directed by 
his Lordship in these matters and notwithstanding he seemeth 
to claim redress at the Scottes hands first and useth that for 
a means to put of the redress of the last attemptates com- 
mitted by the Englishmen yet considering the qualities of the 
offences are not like and that which the Scottes complain of 
was committed since the Commissioners meeting the said Lord 
Dacres is required to cause that to be first answered according 
to justice and the laws of the Borders, the Scottes doing the 
like for the attemptates committed against this realm within 
the same time. 
A letter to the Lord Dacres of the effect aforesaid. 

I4 August. A letter to the Lord Dacres that when the Commis- 
sioners on the B.irders have written several times unto him to 
see redress done and to follow such direction for the con- 
tinuance of the peace, a (sic ; ? and) reformation for disorders 



within his Wardenry as should be prescribed unto him from 
them, forasmuch as by the copy of his letters seen by the 
Lords here it appeareth that it doth not follow their said 
directions, neither hath he repaired himself to them nor sent 
three or four sufficiently instructed to answer for him in these 
things that should be treated of before them the loth of this 
present August and alledging excuses of no importance hath 
done neither the one nor the other, their Lordships do much 
marvel thereat and not knowing what inconvenience may 
fellow thereof have good hope that his Lordship hath been 
better advised since and hath kept the da3's prescribed unto 
him by the said Commissioners or else there remaineth great 
oversight in him, for as on the one side there is no disorders 
on the Borders but in his Wardenry but remain in quiet to 
the satisfaction of both sides so hearing that the Scottes do 
levy men pretending the lack of justice at his hands their 
Lordships do signify that if they must needs witnesse if any 
inconvenience should follow that they have sundry times 
written unto him not only to see justice done and restitution 
to be made unto the Scottes of any attemptates in disorders 
committed upon them by any of their Majesties subjects 
within his Lordships rule, but also for that purpose to follow 
all such orders as should be to his Lordship prescribed by 
their Majesties' said Commissioners and eftsoons he is hereby 
charged to have better regard unto the said commandments 
from hence and not only follow the direction of the said Com- 
missioners in all other things but also in sending to them such 
as they shall write for and to repair himself to them if they 
shall so require him and to stand upon his guard and have his 
force in such arredynes as if the Scottes upon this occasion 
would attempt any enterprise his Lordship might be able to 
meet with the hame in time. 
A copy of this letter was sent to Lord Wharton. 

4 Sept. Letters of thanks to Lord Dacres, Lord Wharton, and the 
Commissioners on the Scottish Border for " their advertise- 
ments and towardness shewed in the execution of justice.** 
Also a parcel of letters from the French Agent in London was 
sent for delivery to Mons. Dissell (probably Doycelleor D'Oysel.) 

i6 Sept. A letter to Lord Wharton and the Commissioners with 
thanks for their pains taken in the matters committed to their 
charge, and where (as) it appeareth that the Scottish Commis- 
sioners have resisted to come to an end for the Greames-and 
disorders of the West Borders until they may understand the 


EXTRACTS 1?R0M records OP 1>RIVY C6uKClL. ^4! 

opinion of the Scottish Council at Edinburgh the said Com- 
missioners are willed in case the answer that shall be returned 
from the Scottes shall seem reasonable then to take such end 
with them in that matter as they shall think convenient but if 
their offers shall not seem fit to be embraced then to ask time 
to know the Council's resolution thereon here as the Scottes 
at the first demanded respite to make their Council privy to 
the motion made in that matter to (sic) our Commissioners. 

It may be noted that in the rough copy of the proceedings 
of the Council which for this period happens to be still existing 
the following entry, which has not been transferred to the fair 
copy, occurs under date 26 July. 

A letter to Dr. Oglethorpe, Elect of Carlisle, requiring him 
in the Queen*s Majesties name that forasmuch as the gift of 
his promotions belongeth now to her Royal Highness by her 
prerogative royal by reason of his election to the Bishopric of 
Carlisle he should forbear therefore in any wise to resign any 
of his said promotions and leave the same to be bestowed by 
Her Majesty. 
13 Oct. A letter to the Lord Dacres thanking him for his advertise- 
ments of the proceedings of the Scottish rebels and liking well 
his motion for the placing hereafter of able and serviceable 
men to be the Queen's Highness tenants within his rule in the 
counties of Cuniberland and Westmorland the Lords have 
promised after the general survey to remember the. same 
specially and to give order for it. 

16 Nov. A letter to therle of Cumberland towching certain wronges 

offered by him to the Lord Wharton his servants and tenants 
in the County of Westmorland, according to the mynutc re- 
maining in the Counsaill Chest. 

17 Nov. A letter to the Lord Wharton and the rest of the Commis- 

sioners upon the Borders touching the aunswere by them to be 
made unto the Scottish Commissioners for the Greames' bill, 
according to the mynute. 
23 Nov. A letter to Lord Wharton that when it is written hither 
from the Lord Dacres that the billes filed and redresseable on 
the West Marches whiche the Scottes demand amount to 
mUiij ciiij "" and that that is to be receyved of them not above 
c^* his Lordship is willed to take ordere where they are most 
charged as sone as they shall receyve the like and participate 
his doings herein to the Lord Dacres so as their doings on al 
partes maye be equall towching the delyverie of recompences. 
A letter to the like effect to the Lord Dacres. 

19 Dec. 


19 Dec. Lettres to the Lord Wharton and the Lord Dacres for the 
doinge of justice upon the Borders, in suche sorte as is agreed 
by the Commissioners as well from the Queen's Highness as 
from the Boord, according to the mynutes remayning in the 
Counsaill Chest. 

1556-7. 31 Jany. A letter to the Lord Dacres requiring him that in 
case the Lord Flemyng, being eftsones by him required to 
appoint a newe daie of meeting for redresse of disorders shall 
refuse to aunswere his expectation in that behalf and by that 
meanes be occasion of delaie of justice to signifie the matter 
himself to the Dowager in Scotlande and so to learne what is 
ment thereby, and further requiringe his Lordship to keep and 
perfourme the ordre taken by the Commissioners of bothe 
realmes for the deliverie unto the said Lord Flemyng either 
Riche Greyme, Fergus or Thomas Greyme, if it shall appere 
unto him by aunswere from the Lord Wharton that the ordre 
was so in dede that cone of them three shuld be delivered and 
none elles, as the said Lord Flemyng alleageth. 

23 Feby. Lord Whaiton is required to cause the Scottes that are 
taken to be proceaded with according to the auncient lawes of 
the Borders, and to cause Noble, the Englisshe rebell taken 
with them to be ordered without delaye according to justice, 
that his punishment be a terrour to all such as shall attempte 
the like. (The ** English rebel Noble" may perhaps have 
been, though the circumstances do not quite agree, the un- 
fortunate Hobbie Noble, whose fate is the subject of the well- 
known ballad). 

1557* 31 May. The Lord Treasurer (Marquis of Winchester) is 
directed to cause searche to be made in the exchequiet to 
whome the abbey and Manour oi Holme Coltram, in the 
countie of Cumberland, is now leased, for what terme of yeres, 
and what fine was paid to their Majesties for the same, and to 
retourne the certentie hereof with speed hither. 
2 June. A letter to therle of Westmorland (Lieutenant of the 
North) the Bishop of Durham (Cuthbert Tunstall) and other 
the Commissioners upon the Borders, sending unto them a 
copie of a lettre sent from Sir Thomas Dacre, knight to the 
Lord Dacre, his father, towching an enterprise attempted by 
the Scottes of Annerdale upon the King and Queen's Majesties 
subjects upon the West Borders, and albeit the booty by them 
taken was reskued and many moore of the Scottishe men 
slaine than of the Englisshe yet bicause this enterprise was of 
great consequence and committed sins th appointment of the 



Commissioners they are willed to set fourtbe the matter moore 
ernestly and to let it be the first thing they move at their 
mealing and to require redresse of the same to the ende that 
like as the Scottes have allwaies hitheninto pressed the case 
of the Greames bicause it was during the time of the late Com- 
mission 90 by their example they may presse this matter of 
the Scottes of Annedale for the same respecte as earnestlie as 
the Scottes do the matters of Greames. 

8 June. A lettre to Kidgewaie, Surveyor of Barwicke, to consider 
what the charges will be of building a forte at Netherbie and 
for the repairing of the great dongeon at Carlisle and the late 
Freer House there for the keping of the munition and ordinance 
and conferring with the Lord Dacres herein to signifie hither 
what the same shall ammount to. 

A lettre to Simon Musgrave esquier to repaire fourthwich to 
Bewcastell whereof he is Capitaine and to make his contynuall 
abode and attendaunce upon his charge there for the better 
defence and salvegarde of the same. 

A lettre to the Lord Oacre with the letter enclosed addressed 
to Simon Musgrave towching his repair to his charge in Bew- 
castell which he is willed to deliver unto him and if he shall 
not accomplishe the contents of the same then to cause him to 
be removed from that charge and to see that sum other trustie 
personne have the charge of the said Castell. 

13 July. A lettre to the Lord Dacre wylling him to forbeare to entre- 
meddle either with Sir Thomas Dacres servauntes or tenaunts 
or with any other of the Queen's Majesties subjects to the 
intent to sende them to any other place of service from those 
Borders withowt her Highnes* speciall commaundement. 

15 July. A long entry occurs of insthictions to Lord Dacre and the 
Earl of Shrewsbury, President of the Council in the North, 
but as a marginal note shews that these instructions were 
cancelled, it is not reproduced here. 

2 August. A lettre to Sir James Crofts signiBeing unto him the 
sending down of therle of Northumberland in which matter he 
is willed to breke with the Lorde Wharton and to perswade 
him to be satisfied herewith and to signifie his inclynacion 
towching the same hither with spede. (Sir James Croftes was 
Marshal of Berwick, l^ord Northumberland was appointed to 
be Joint Warden of the East and Middle Marches, at which it 
seems to have been thought probable that Lord Wharton 
would take offence). 
A lettre to the Maiour of Rye with foure Frenchmen sent 



hither from the Lorde Dacres whiche he is willed either to 
use for the redemyng of such as have byn taken by the Frenche 
of that towne orelles if they shalbe thought not mete for this 
purpose thenne he is willed to suffer them by vcrtue of the 
passport sent herewith to passe into France. 

A lettre to the Lord Dacres towching the fortifications of 
Carlille, &c., according to the mynute in the Counsaill Cheste. 

i8 August. Like Icttres to therles of Shrewesbury, Northumberland, 
and Westmorland, the Lords Dacres and Wharton, signiBeing 
the taking of the Constable of Fraunce and others, &c. (This 
was the battle of St. Quentin. The first letter, to which these 
were similar, was to the Bishop of London for orders for 
rejoicings in London. Special orders seem to have been sent 
to the Borders, probably that the English might crow over the 
Scots for the defeat of their allies the French.) 

II Oct. A lettre to therle of Shrewsbury signifieing unto him that 
the Lordes do well like the staienge of the Border according to 
his lettres of the Vlth of this present and also the staieng at 
home of the Lord Dacres and Leonard Dacres for the better 
service on the Borders, for which respecte ordre is alredie 
given here for the staye of the process out of the Court of 
theschequier upon the condempnacion against him. (Lord 
Dacre, as it appears, was sued for debt by a citizen of London. 
We shall hear more of it.) 

21 Nov. A lettre of thanks to the Lord Dacres for his advertisements 
of thinnerode made by him of {sic) into Scotland, according to 
the mynute remaining in the Counsaill Chest. 

4 Deer. A lettre to the Lord Dacres that where he desireth to 
knowe the Queen's Majesties pleasure towching such Lyddes- 
dale men as offer to become Englisshe and to serve her 
Majestie against the Scottes he is willed to receyve them and 
to appoynte them to sum service as maye annoye the Scottes, 
whereby they shall declare thiere good affection and devotion 
towards this State; forseing nevertheless that he do not put 
them in trust in such service wherein they might do hurte and 
deceyve him whiche ordre he is willed to observe with all 
other that shall offre the like. 

8 Deer. A lettre to the Lord Dacres signifieing the receipt of his 
lettre of the last of Novembre and as towching the assuraunce 
made by the Gremes with the Scottes, for (asmuch) the same 
is to be misliked and met withall in tyme as before the Queen's 
Majestie do proceade to any extremitie towardes them it is 
thought good to procure to call them backe and wynne them 



(if it maye be) by fair meanes and for that purpose it hathe 
been devised that the Erie of Pembroke shuld write his pryvate 
iettre unto them declaring thier faulte and perswading them 
to give upp thier assuraunce as by the copye of the said Iettre 
whiche together with the originall is presently sent unto him 
he maye at better length perceive, whiche Iettre he is willed to 
cause to be delivered either by sum oone of those Borderers 
that is towardes the said Erie or by sum suche other personne 
as maye do the same with least suspition and untyll it may be 
perceived what the said Greames meanynges shalbe he is 
willed to use them with as moche gentlenes and indifferencye 
as he maye, procuring rather to wynne them by gentlenes 
than to stir them to any further disordre untill they shall 
shewe themselfes to be utterly broken and unhable to be 

23 Deer. A Iettre to the Lord Dacres of thankes for the diligence 
used by his two sonnes in the inrode by them made into 
Annerdale, and towching his request to repaire hither at the 
next Terme, bothe to declare the state of the Borders and to 
aunswere an accion against him in theschequier, he is willed 
in no case to departe from that his chardge untill he shall 
further the Queues Majesties pleasure ; and as for the state of 
the Borders he maye signifie the same by his lettres from tyme 
to tyme hither, and for the aunswering of the accion he maye 
appointe his learned counsaill and attorney, to aunswere the 
same, so as his oune presence is not so reqnisite thereat, who 
shalbe harde with justice and favour. 

1557-8, 7 Jany. Thre lettres to therle of Northumberland, the Lord 
Dacres and the Lord Evre signifying to them thaproching of 
the Frenche to Callays, wherfore they are wylled to have the 
more care, foresight and dylligence to their severall charges 
according to the truste reposed in every of them, and to signify 
hither from tyme to tyme what they shall learne by their 
spialles of the Scottyshe attemptates. 

(The Council had received a report that a French fleet was 
sailing northward, as was suspected for Scotland. It seems, 
however, to have been a false alarm.) 

4 Feby. A Iettre to the Lord Dacres signifiyng unto him thorder 
taken with Sandy Armestrong, according to the notes of the 
conclusion with him remayning in the Counsell Chest, and 
where the saide Sandy feareth that if he shall do any annoy- 
aunce to the Scottes, he shalbe in some daunger of suche 
Englishemen as the Scottes as (sic) allyed with, his Lordship 


is wylled to forsee that he incurre no damage for hys good 
servyce, but that all suche as shall attempte any thinge 
agaynst him herein may be sharpely punisshed according to 

4 Feb. A lettre to Sir Richarde Sowthewell (Master of the Ordnance) 
to call thoflicers of thordynance to him, and to consyder 
whither one James Spencer, having been commended hither 
from the Lord Dacres and the Mayour of Carlisle to be a fytt 
man to be Master Gunner of that towne, be mete for that 
rowme or no, and thereuppon to geve order for the placinge 
of him accordingly. 

24 March. Where informacion hath been exhibited unto the Borde 
by the Lorde Wharton, conteyning sundry heynous and 
grevous disorders committed heretofore against him and his 
tenantes by therle of Cumberlande, the Lords, having respecte 
to the present tyme of servyce in which they thinke it not 
mete to call for either of the parties out of their cuntreys 
taunswer the sayde matters, have this day resolved to differ 
the hearing of the same untyll the begynning of the Parlya- 
ment in wynter nexte, untyll which tyme bothe parties are 
commaunded, therle by speciall lettres and the Lord Wharton 
by mouth at the Borde, to remayne in their present and 
severall possessions quietly without any disturbaunce thone to 
thother, the saide Erie being also required to forbeare from 
henceforth from the committing of the like dissorders either 
towarde the said Lord Wharton himself or any of his saide 

1558, 27 March. A lettre to therle of Westmorlande touching cer- 
tein supplyes of ordinance and munytion for the Citadell in 
Carlysle, &c., according to the mynute remayninge in the 
Counsell Cheste. 

I May. A lettre to the Lord Dacre desyring him to advertise 
by his lettres the Threasourer of Barwyck, not only the names 
of the gunners which were lately sent from hens to Carlisle by 
the Master of thordynance here in the cumpany of one John 
Edwardes, but also of the very day when they arryved and 
came to Carlisle to serve there, praying his Lordshipp in lykc 
manner therof tadvertise also Mr. Brende, the Muster Master, 
to thende he may addresse furth his warraunt for their pays 

22 May. A lettre to therle of Westmorlande with a Supplicacion 
exhibited here by one John Man enclosed, wherin he com- 
playneth that ope Fraunces Man, his brother, was aboute 



Mif^helmas last taken by certein servantes and officers of 
therle of Cumberland and committed to prison in the Castell 
of Skipton, where he is still deteyned, and as is thought deade. 
His Lordship is wylled to examyne dilligently for what cause 
the saide Man was apprehended, and if he shalbe deade he is 
than wylled to cause all the parties named in the SuppHcacion, 
and all other that he shall fynde culpaple herein, to be appre- 
hended and committed to saf warde and furder examined, and 
to signifye hither what he shall have found oute herein; and 
if he shalbe found a lyve and matter wherwith to charge him, 
than to committ him to the common gaole to be furder pro- 
ceded withall according to justyce; if there be no matter 
against him than to put him at liberty and to punishe them 
that have so punisshed him without deserte, according to his 
Lordship's discrecion. * 

29 May. A lettre to the Lord Dacres of thankes for the good 

exployte done uppon thopposite Marche, requyring him seing 
he hath an augmentacion of force uppon the Marches, so 
temploye the same as the Quenes Majestic have no just cause 
to thinke her charges there yli bestowed, but that he use all 
the meanes he can to annoye thennemy. 
2 June. A lettre to therle of Westmorlande of thankes for his adver- 
tismentes of the exploite doone of late uppon the West Marches 
by the Lord Dacres bande, and for that he signifyeth that the 
Scottes hath withdrawen ccc speres from their West Borders, 
wherby the Lord Dacres hath good oportunytie tannoye them, 
his Lordship is wylled to write earnestly unto him herein and 
to pricke him forwarde to thexecucion hereof, so as the Quenes 
Majestic may thinke thaugmentacion of her charges there well 

30 June. A lettre to the Master of the Wardes requyring him to take 

such order furthewith as no processe be awarded out of that 
Courte againste the Lord Wharton, in his matter depending 
there, before the return of the Master of the Rolles out of the 
North, and before the same may be harde by him and others 
of the Counsell to whome the Quene hath committed the 
hearing therof. 
II July. A lettre to therle of Westmorland touching his bayling of 
therle of Cumberlandes servauntes and tenauntes in the matter 
of the conveyaunce of Fraunces Man to the Castell of Skipton, 
&c., according to the mynute remaying in the Counsell Cheste. 
The 23 July Lord Westmorland was again warned of a 
French fleet at sea, as supposed for Scotland. 

12 August 


12 August. A lettre to Leonarde Dacre signifyinge the Quenes 
Majesties well taking of the Lord Dacre his father's late enter- 
prise againste the Scottes, and bycause the chiefest tyme to 
annoye thennemyes by burninge and spoyling their corne and 
provisions before the same can be put in suertye is nowe, he is 
required, seing he hath now the charge of the West Marches 
during his father's absence, to devyse with the trusty and 
skylfuU persons under his rule howse (sic) to annoye the 
Scottes from tyme to tyme the best he may, having never- 
theles regarde not to hassard himself and those under his 
charge further then may stande with the suerty of the Borders 
and be agreable to the consideracion and good conducte that 
ought to be in one occupying the place and charge that he 

29 August. A lettre to Maister Let>narde Dacre of thankes for the 
- good exploite by him lately doone uppon the West Marche of 

Scotlande, uhich his good dilligence he is willed to contynue 
and to annoye thennemy from tyme to tyme as he maye. 

30 August. A lettre to therle of Westmorland of thankes for his 

advertisementes; he is also willed to call uppon Mr. Leonarde 
Dacres, Deputy Wardein of the West Marches, tannoye 
thennemy as moche as he maye, so as the Quenes Majestie 
may have cause not to thinke that the newe charge uppon 
that Borders be not vayncly imployed. 

3 Sept. This daye the Lorde Dacres being before the Lordes of the 
Counsell touching the 'matter in controversy betwene William 
Huett, Alderman of London, and him for certain leade, was 
contented to stande to suche order as shulde be taken herein, 
a swell for the pryncypall debte asfor all the costes and 
damages, by the Busshopp of Ely and the Master of the 
Rolles, and if they cannot bringe the sayde Mr. Huett 
tagree hereunto than to make reporte to the Lordes what 
they shall have doone herein. 

WilUlmus Dacre, miles, Dominus Dacre de Gray stoke, recog- 
novit se dehere Willelmo Hewet de civitate London, Aldermanno, 
tria vtillia Uhrarum, &c. 

5 Sept. The condicion of this recognizaunce is suche that if 
thabove-bounden William Lorde Dacre do stande, obey, 
perfourme, fullfiyll and kepe suche awarde, arbytrement and 
order to be taken betwene him and the saide William Hewett 
for and concerning a condempnacion in the Courte of the 
Exchequer agaynst the sayde Lorde Dacre, toguyther with 
Leonarde Dacre, his sonne, and Bartram Anderson of New- 



castell, at the sute of the sayde Hewett, by the Reverend 
Father in God, the Busshopp of Ely and the Master of the 
RoUes for the somme of mimUxH and do agre and stande unto 
suche ende and determynacion as shalbe by the saide arbitra- 
tours taken touching the same, so as the saide arbitrement be 
geven in writing before the first of October nexte to suche of 
the saide parties as shall demaunde the same, than this pre- 
sent recognizaunce to be voyde and of none effecte, orelles, 

WilUlmtts Hewei de civitate London ^ AldtrmannuSy recognovit 
se debere, Wilklmo Dacre^ milUiy Domino Docrc de, tria 
millia librarum, &c. 

The condicion of this recognizaunce is suche that if thabove- 
bounden William Hewett do stande, obey, perfourme, &c., ut 
supra pro Domino Dacre. 

21 Sept. A lettre to Leonarde Dacre, esquier, of thankes for his 
ryding in Annerdale, which his servyce is moche commended 
and he desyred to contynue the same, and albeit this sorte of 
receyving suche as yelde themselfes cannot be accoumpted 
otherwise in him than zeale of good servyce, yet the nature 
of those men being consydered here, and how falseley they have 
served after their submyssyon, and oftentymes put the War- 
dein to whome they have submytted themselfes in daunger, 
&c., he is required to forbeare hence forthe in receyving any 
more uppon assuraunce, and yet, neverthelesse, for that he 
shulde not seme to be touched or defaced in hys doinges, he is 
wylled to use thies that he hath alredy taken in suche sorte as 
he tbinketh best they may shewe their devotion and faithefull 
myndes to this state. Foreseing alwayes that he do not 
further truste them [than] he shall fynde himself hable to 
rule them if they shall goo aboute tattempt any thinge, and 
also to have specyall eye over them that shalbe suffred to come 
into this realme, least they come rather as spies than other- 
wise, and meane rather to espye tyme of advauntage whan 
they may easely hurte, than to do any servyce to this state. 

19 Oct. A lettre to Leonarde Dacres, Deputy Wardein of the West 
Marches foranempst Scotland, of thankes for using the servyce 
of some of those Scottishe men which came into him of late 
uppon promise to thannoyaunce of that realme, wherin he 
desyred to contyne and to kepe them occupyed to the servyce 
of the Quene and annoyaunce of thennemy; and being de- 
syrous tunderstande the Counselles opynion howe the pledges 
of those Scottyshemen are to be used that have layed in the 



same, and havinge had interteynement the laste warres, were 
syns discharged and therfore fynde themselfes burdened with 
the charges of their saide pledges, it is signifyed unto him 
touching that matter that the Lordes thinke it good the same 
pledges be by his discretion had further into the realme and 
disposed to dyvers gentlemen suche as bs of his acquayn- 
taunce and wyll aunswer for them, and that they see no cause 
here why the sayde Scottishemen shuld thinke themselfes so 
soore burdened with the charges of their saide pledges, con- 
syderinge that they are in that respecte specially forborne and 
spared from burninge and spoylinge, wherof otherwise they 
were lyke to stande in contynuall daunger from tyme to tyme. 

31 Oct. A lettre of thankes to Leonarde Dacres, esquier, Wardein 
of the West Marches foranempst Scotlande, for his good order 
taken with suche of the Scottes as uppon their snte of assur- 
aunce do come into the servyce of this realme, and for his 
wyse refusaill tadmytt the Larde of Maugerton and others 
therunto before they had declared by their dedes some good 
effecte of their devocion that waye, which order he is requyred 
to contynue. He ys thanked also for thexecucion he caused 
to be doone uppon certein disordred persons that were arrayned 
lately within that Wardenry ; and as touchinge the discharge 
of Captein Tuttyc and his bande, consyderinge that matter 
hath passed by some resolucion of the Lord Lieutenaunt, it is 
signifyed unto that the Lordes meane not to alter that 
resolucion before they shall have spoken with his Lordshipp 
in that behalf. 

4 Nov. A lettre of thankes to Leonard Dacre for his good servyce 
uppon the Borders, advertising him that the Quenes Majestic 
is pleased that the cc"* harquebusyers under the leading of 
Captein Tuttye shall for a longer tyme remayn uppon the 
Borders, which he is wj'Ued so to use as the Quenes Majestie 
have no cause to thinke that charge yll employed. 

This is the last entry relating to the Borders in the reign of 
Queen Mary, who died 17th November, 1558. 


Art. XXI. — A Grave Cover of Tiles at Carlisle. By the 

Communicated at the Isle of Man, September 24, 1894. 
XyHILE engaged at the Midsummer Quarter Sessions 
for this year [Julys, 1894] holden for the county 
of Cumberland, a note was handed up to me from the 
reporters* desk, informing me that a find of inscribed 
stones had just been made in Brook Street, Carlisle. 
Brook Street runs out of London Road to the eastward 
and is within the district, which I have shown to have 
been the principal cemetery of Roman Carlisle, of Lugu- 
vallium.* Not being able then to go myself, I asked our 
fellow member, the Rev. W. S. Calverley, to go to Brook 
Street and make what enquiry he could about the find, 
and the circumstances under which it was made : thi^ 
account is written from Mr. Calverley *s notes. 

The *' inscribed stones " turned out to be a barrow load 
of red roofing tiles of Roman date, of which only two were 
unbroken : these tiles measure each 18 inches by 12^ 
inches at the one end, and 12 inches at the other : the 
thickness is i^ inch: a ilange about an inch deep is 
turned down along the longer sides, and these flanges at 
the wider ends are notched out to receive the narrower 
ends of other tiles. Lengthwise on one of the whole tiles 
is the stamp 


that is Legio Secunda Augusta, the two I's being used 
instead of E : t portions of this stamp appear on other of 

* Transactions Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaologfical 
Society, vol. xii, p. 365. 

t See an instance in the Lapidarium Septentriotuile, No. loo, and see Wright 
The Celt, ike Roman and the Saxoih 3rd edition^ p. 233. 



the fragments : on one the two last letters of it are dupli- 
cated, the stamp having slipped. The other whole tile 
has on it, crosswise, 


that is Legio Vicesima Valeria Victrix : There is a trian- 
gular stop between the leg and the xx. The usual dog's 
pad, impressed on soft clay, is on one of the fragments. 
These tiles formed the cover of a grave, and were about 
three feet below the present level of the ground, the inter- 
ment was just in, not on, the gravel, and the space 
excavated for it was 7 feet 4 inches by 2 feet 5 inches. 
The darkish fine mould found under the tiles, and the 
presence among it of several iron nails would seem to 
indicate the use of a wooden coffin. The grave lay nearly 
east and west, and the western portion had been smashed 
a good deal by the labourers, who removed the material. 
The eastern end of the grave cover was seen in situ by 
Mr. Calverley: from it, it appears that the cover was 
constituted of three rows of tiles, the outermost rows 
being with the flanges turned upwards, and the centre 
row with them turned downwards over the inner flanges 
of the two outer rows. Only the middle row of tiles were 
stamped, and as five stamped tiles appear, we get five 
tiles by three as the length and breadth of the grave 
cover, unless the solitary tile marked leg ' xx vv belongs 
to another interment, but it is more likely that the 
legionaries of the Augustan Legion in burying a departed 
comrade had to eke out a deficiency in tiles by borrowing 
from Valeria Victrix. 

Several tombs covered with tiles have been found at 
York, and some of them are preserved in the York 
Museum,* the tiles bearing the stamps of the Sixth and 
of the Ninth Legions. The tiles, whole and broken, now 
found at Carlisle, have been removed to the Museum at 
TuUie House. 

* Handbook to the York Museum, Eighth Edition^ Nos. 70 to 73 d. 


Art. XXIL— i4 Grasmere Farmer's Sale Schedule in 1710. 

By H. S. CowPBR, F.S.A. 
Read at Lake Side, Windermere, June 13, 1894. 

THE following Sale schedule of the goods of a Grasmere 
yeoman is in the possession of Mr. Stephen Marshall, 
of Skelwith Fold, Ambleside. It is of interest in more 
than one way. To begin with it contains a great many 
obsolete terms (some probably quite local) for farming and 
domestic appliances. Many of these were quite new to 
me when I first saw the document, but by the aid of old 
farmers and local glossaries, I have been able to find out 
the meaning of most, •and they are explained in a glossary 
at the end. The next point of interest is that it shows 
the value of stock and farm produce in Lakeland a 
hundred and eighty years ago. There are also the prices 
realized for furniture, wardrobe, and the agricultural 
implements. It should also be noticed that the sale was 
not completed in several consecutive days, as at present. 
There were in all five auctions, held respectively on the 
17th, 24th, and 31st of October, 1710, and the 30th 
January and 8th March following. Although buyers 
below the value of ten shillings were to pay cash, those 
who purchased above that sum were allowed credit to 
November nth (Martinmas day) 1711. A few pages are 
missing, but at the end will be found a summary of the 
debts of the deceased, and also an account of the sale and 
funeral expenses. 

Unfortunately documents of this character are uncom- 
mon, even among bundles of title deeds belonging to small 
estates. For this reason I venture to bring this before 
the notice of the Society. 



A Schedule or Memorand of all such floods and Chattells as were 
sold at the late Dwelling House of W^ Hawkrigg late of under- 
helm in Grasmere, in the County of Westmorld yeo : Deceased, 
on Tursday the seventeenth Day of October Ano Domini 1710, 
in publick Sale : The order of the sale being as followeth, that 
is to say : Any who buy any goods whose price shall not amount 
to 10^ are to pay present money to Catherine the Relict and 
Executrix of the said William Hawkrigg : And Any who buy 
any Goods whose price shall amount to lo^, or upwards may 
have time for paymt, untill Martinmas Day come a year, Provided 
they enter into Security for paymt thereof accordingly, to the 
said Catherine Hawkrigg or her Assignes, for the use of Hannah 
Hawkrigg her Daughter, before they depart from the Sale, or at 
any time after upon Demand 

lib s d 

Imprimis John Park bought 

a Uttle Heifer ... 


14 6 

Mr. Robert Atkinson 

a Little Heifer ... 


16 6 

John Jackson de Wythbum 

a Little Heifer ... 


15 7 

Mr. Robert Atkinson 

a Uttle Heifer ... 


16 6 

William Sawrey 

a Little Heifer ... 

I 3 

James Dawson younger 

a Heifer 


I 15 6 

a Heifer 


2 5 I 

John Wilkinson Doctor 

a Heifer 


2 S 2 

William Brathwayte dc Wrey 

a Heifer 


2 8 4 

Edward Brathwayte 

a Heifer 


2 19 I 

WillUm Knipe 

2 Stears 


5 1 6 

John Ullock younger 

a Cow 


2 iS 3 

Christopher Cowpthwayte 

a Cow 


2 19 

George Mackreth de Throng 

a Cow 


3 8 3 

Mr Christopher Bethom 

the wtddows Cow 


3 14 4 

William Turner Taylor 

Robert Hawkrif g's 



Christopher Cowpthwayte 

a ffatt Cow 


I 13 

Edward Park 10 Lambs at 2s 4d. a piece & 3d further at all 

I 3 7 

John Hird 10 Lambs at 2s 2d a 

piece & 5d further 


I 2 I 

Solomon Benson 10 Lambs at 2s 8d a piece & 8d further ... 

« 7 4 

John Dawson 5 Lambs at 3s 3d 

a piece ... 


16 3 

Thomas Green 10 Twintersat 28 

8d a piece & 2d further at all 

1 • 6 10 

Edwin Green de Blintarn Gill 

3s 3d & 2d furthr. 

for to 



I 12 8 

Lanclutt Harrison 20 weathers 

... ... ... 



John Benson de Ambleside a final 


I 3 6 

Joseph Wood a Colt p Johannem Mackreth 


I 16 10 

John Benson dc Ambleside a M 


Totall is... 

3 14 2 

59 4 



Memorand that io the Sale aforemencond was sold one Cow 
called the widdows Cow came to 3lib 14s 4d and a Cow 
of Robert Hawkrigg's came to 3lib 6d. which amounts lib s d 
to 6Iib 14s lod which will Reduce the Sum to ... 52 5 6 

A Schedule or memorand of all such goods and chattells as were sold 
at Underlielm in Grasmere in the County of Westmorld on 
Tuesday the Twenty ifourth Day of October Ano Domini 17 10 
in publick Sale, f Terms as be/ore, Jbut credit given to those who 
buy above 10s, till the eleventh Day of November^ which will be 
Ano Domini 1711.^ 



8 d Ob 

Imprimis Edward Partridge 

a p of Breeches ... 


William Dickinson p'uxor 

a p of Breeches .. 

I 9 

Joseph Hawkrigg 

a p of Breeches ... 

7 6 

John Hawkrige 

a vest 


George Brathwayte p'uxor 

a vest ... 


John Newton de GiUfoot. 

a Coat 

2 8 

William Dickinson p'uxor 

a Coat 

7 10 

John Newton de GiUfoot 

a Coat 

5 7 

John Hawkrigg 

a Coat 

8 7 


a Coat 

7 2 

Wm Brathwayte de Saurey 

a p of Shoes 


John Newton de GiUfoot 

a p of Shoes 

2 5 

John Hawkrigg 

a p of Shoes 

3 5 



1 6 

William Walker her servant 


■ 4 

John Newton de GiUfoot 

a Shirt 

» 9 

Stephen Hawkrigg 

a Shirt ... 

1 10 


a Lin Shirt (2) '... 


weathers at 3s 4d apiece & 




'3 5 

John Jopson 10 Ewes at 3s 6d 

a piece & 6d further at all ... 


15 6 


lib s d ob 
William Brathwayte de Sawrey 9 sheep at 3s 7d apiece & 8d 

furthur ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 12 11 

Joseph Wood a Ram ... ... ... 041 

Idem one other Ram ... ... o 6 10 

John Newton a pack sadle ... ... 030 

* The small numbers in brackets (1), (2), &c«» are references to the Glossary. 






d ob 

William Jopson de Easdale 

a pack sadle 


John Preston 

a pack sadle 



Thomas Green 

a pack sadle 



Joseph Wood, a hive of Bees Robert Hawkriggs... 


John Ullock 

a gimer Hogg (3) 


John Preston 

2 Canns 


John Dixon 

a milking pale & a Can . 


Thomas Benson 

a barrell & a stand 


William Dickinson p'uxor 

Chees-Rums & fFatts (4) . 

3 i 

John Grave de Legberthwagte 

a wood bottle ... 


Thomas Benson 

a milking pale ... 


John Grave de Legberthwayte 

a wood Can 


Thomas Benson 

a mash flFatt (5) ... 


Thomas Benson 

a Chum 



a mash ffatt 




a milking pale ... 


Thomas Green 

a Daw Tub (6) ... 



John Preston 

a fflesh Tub 




a Chair 


John Ullock 

a Throwen Chair (7) 


James Dawson Broadrein 

a Throwen Chair 

7 \ 


a Throwen Chair 

7 i 

Thomas Benson 

a Throwen Chair 


Stephen Hawkrigg 

a pair of Ropes ... 



James Dawson Broadrein 

a pair of Ropes ... 



James Ullock 

a pair of Ropes ... 



Thomas Benson 

2 Rakes 



2 Rakes 

I i 

John Hawkrigg 

a Hackney Sadie 




2 muck fforks ... 

7 i 

Thomas Benson 

2 muck fforks ... 



a cole-rake (8) ... 



a Hack (9) 



Wm Sawrey 

8 Cowhands 

6 * 



9 k 



d ob 

John Ullock 

6 Cow bands 

7 4 

Thomas Sewart 

a p of Crooks (10) 


John Preston 

apof Hotts(ii) 

2 * 


a p of Hotts 

5 i 

Thomas Sewart 

a p of Hotts 

3 h 

Thomas Benson 

a p of Hotts 

I i 

ffrancis Rigg 

a p of Hotts 


John Richardson 

a peat hott 


Thomas Benson 

an oxe-yoak 








s d 



Swingle-Trees ... 



an iron Team (12) 



Tugg& Bands (13) 




a plow-stick (14) •• 



a plow ... 


John Grave 

a plow & irons ... 


John Partridge 

an iron mell 

I 6 

Thomas Benson 

aGavelock (15) ... 

3 6 


a Syth& Strickle (16) ... 


John Walker Goody4>ridge 

a syth & strickle 



John Walker ffidler 


I 6 


a p of Traces 


James Dawson 

a p of Traces 



apof Haims (17) 


James Ullock 



John Preston 

a wantyth & rope (18) ... 


John Hawrigg wright 

Some Girths 


John Preston 

a Leathern Girth... 


John Hawkrigg wright 

a Bridle 


John Hawkrigg wright 

a Sledge 


James Dawson de Broadrein 

20 shocks of oats on the Lower 


9 6 


II 10 

lib 8 d 

All Amounts to ... 12 14 10 

Memorand that in this note is a Hive of Bees charged at 8s lib s d 
belonging to Robert Hawkrigg which reduceth the sum to 12 6 10 

{A Schedule of goods sold 31 

Oct 17 10. Heading worded similarly 

to No I.) 


s d ob 

Imprimis Joseph Wood 

Some Dishes 

5 i 

fane Knott widdow 

Some Trenchers &c. 



a cbees fatt & Tunnell (19) 


John Mackreth cryer 

a Little Pan 


John Jackson de Wythburn 

2 Morters & a pestill 

4 1 

Debora Birkett 

a wood can 

3 i 


a Large Can 


Joseph Wood 

an iron spitt 


John Mackreth Cryer 

a flesh ffork & scures &c (20) 

6 i 

Joseph Wood 

a strikeing knife ... 


Thomas Benson 

a Tin pott 


Jane Knott widdow 

a Candlestick and a spoon 








Thomas Benson 

a Tin Candlestick 


Agnes Jackson 

a Dropping Pan (21) 


Thomas Benson 

a Chafeing Dish 




a Throwen Chair... 



a Throwen Chair... 


Edward Walker p*uxor 

a Throwen Chair... 


James Dawson junr 

a Throwen Chair... 


Thomas Benson 

a Throwen Chair... 


James Dawson junr 

a Throwen Chair... 


John Preston 

a Uttle Schreenge (22) ... 


James Dawson de Broad-rein 

a p of weights ... 


John Grave de Legberthwt 

an iron Team ... 



Thomas Benson 

a Throwen Chair... 


Edward Walker p*uxor a hack & plain stock & bitt (23) ... 


John Hawkrigigr smith 

a fflawing spade (24) 



Robert Hawkrigg 

a (Hawing spade ... 







James UUock 

a peat spade 


John Hawkrigg smith 

a fflawing spade ... 


Joseph Wood 

a garden spade ... 



a thwart Saw ... 



Thomas Benson 

3 Sickles 



John Hawkrigg smith 



Rowland Wilkinson p'uxor 

some Cow bands. . . 


John Jackson 

some Cow bands. . . 


Thomas Benson 

apof Bedstocks... 



Thomas Benson 

an iron wedge ... 



an iron wedge ... 


John Preston 

an iron wedge ... 



an iron wedge ... 


John Mackrcth 

a ffowling piece ... 



I'homas Green 

a Trunck 



a Chest 


Mary Green 

2 Carping Cushions (25) ... 


Robert Hawkrigg p'uxor 

a Blankett 


Robert Walley 

a Blankett 



Isabell Tompson 

a happing (26) ... 


John Grave de Legberthwt 

a Lin Sheet 



a Lin Sheet 



Robert Oatley 

a Lin Sheet 



John Grave 

a Un Sheet 



Edward Walker p'uxor 

a Pillow cover ... 


John Lowis 

a Pillow cover ... 


James Ullock 

a Sheet 


Agnes Jackson 

a Lin Sheet 



Robert Oatley 

a Sheet 




A grasmbrb sale schedule. 


lb s d. 

Rowland Atkinson 

a Feather Bed 

18 3 

John Grave de Legberthwt 




a Pillow 


John Mackrcth Cryer 

a t to ne of Black wool 


Robert Oatley 

2 stone of wool ... 


James Dawson junr. 

2 stone of wool ... 


James Dawson junr. 

2 stone of wool ... 

9 8 


2 stone of wool ... 


Catherine Hawknggr 

2 stone of wool ... 



30 sheep at 3s. 4d. apiece 



a pewter Duhler (27) 



a pewter Dubler . . . 



a pewter Dubler ... 


II 3 

Joseph Wood 

lb. s. d. ob 

Joseph Wood 

a p of pinsers 

I ... 

Catherine Hawkrigg 

a pewter Dubler... 

3 ... 


a pewter Dubler... 

I ... 


a pewter Dubler ... 


Joseph Wood 

ahing Lock 


John Preston 

2 Gimlocks 

002 i 

John Hawkrigg 

a nail box 

6 ( 

Thomas Benson 

a Dubler 

I 3 


a Dubler 

I 4 

John Mackreth 

a pewter Dubler ... 


Thomas Benson 

a pewter Dubler ... 

I 4 

John Grave de legberthwt 

a pewter Dubler ... 

1 4 

John Grave 

a pewter Dubler... 

1 6 

John Grave de Legbetthivt 

a pewter Dubler ... 

I 3 

John Hawkrigg 

a Cradle 


15 II i 

All amounts to... 

12 14 

{Schedule 0/ goods sold 30 Jan 17 10. 
credit till Martinmas Day next.) 

Buyers over los to be allowed 

Imprimis John Walker de Goody Bridge, a Blankett 
Anthony Harrison a Blankett 

John Mackreth Cryer a Rugg 

Idem a white Rugg 

John Walker de Goody Bridge a Happing 






John ^!ackreth 
John Preston 
John Mackreth 
John Preston 

a Boulster 
a Boulster 
a chaff* bed 
a Sack 

John Hawkrigg smith 

John Hawkrigg smith a racon-Crook (2S) 

Idem a p of Toners 

Thomas Green a pewter fflagon ... 

John Mackreth a pewter Tanckard 

John Preston a Riddle 

Idem an iron Pott 

Gawen Bateman de ffornside a Clock & Case ... 
James Dawson de Walethwt a Bay Gelding ... 
Thomas Green 20 Shocks of oats 

James Dawson de Bioadrein 20 Shocks of oats 
Idem 20 Shocks of oats 

John Walker de Goody Bridge 20 Shocks of oats 
John Park de Heald 20 Shocks of oats 

Robert Herd de Gtllside 20 Shocks of oats 

The rem : was 26 
John Park de Heald All the remainder of the Oats after the 

rate of 8s 7d p stone & soe proporconably be the same 

more or less ... ... ... is 

John Preston 20 Shocks of Bigg (29) ... 

John Preston 20 Shocks of Bigg 

John Hawkrigge 20 Shocks of Bigg 

Idem 20 Shocks of Bigg 

at los p score & soe proporconably for the rmnainder of the 

Bigg be the same more or less the rem : was 2 
Robert Tompson 20 stone of medow Hay at i^d p stone ... 
Idem 20 stone of medow Hay at i^d p stone 
Edwin Green 20 stone of medow Hay at id a stone & 6d 

further at all 
Thomas Green 20 stone of Hay at id a stone & 6d further 

at all 

John Park 20 stone of medow Hay ... 

Thomas Green 40 stone of medow Hay at id p &tone & 6 


Idem 20 stone of medow Hay ... 

Idem 20 stone of medow Hay ... 

Idem 20 stone of medow Hay ... 

George Walker a mow of Lea-Hay in the Low-End of Roger 


George Walker a mow of Lea-Hay Lying o*th scaffolds in 

the west end o*th Bam 

lb s 














lb s 













1 »7 


5 7 










































3 I o 

o 15 6 



lib s d ob 
John Walker 20 stone of Lea Hay Lying in the stable Loft 027 
Robert Hird de Townhead 20 stone of I^a Hay at t}d p 

stone & id further... ... ... ... ... 027 

John Oatley 20 stone of Lea- Hay at i(d p stone & id 

further ... ... ... ... ... o .2 7 

John Oatley All the remainder of the Lea-Hay on that mow 

lid p stone & a penny further at every 20 stone be the 

same more or less 
The remainder was 52 stone amounts to ... ... 068 

John Preston A mow of Hay and Straw in the Barn at home 080 

John Oatley 

»9 3 5 

lib s d ob 

John Oatley 20 stone of Lea-Hay in the Hogg house at 

ijd p stone and 9^ further at all ... ... ... 033 

John Jopson 20 stones of Hay ... ... ... ... 034 

dem 20 stone of May at lid p stone and gd further at all... 033 

Thomas Green 20 stone of Hay at 2d p stone ... ... 034 

Idem 20 stone of Hay ... ... ... ... ... 034 

And all the remainder at 2d p stone be the same more or 

less the rem : was 30 stone ... ... ... 050 

I I 6 

This Sale note amounts in all to ... ... 20 12 4 ^ 

{Schedule of goods sold 8 March 1710. Buyers of Goods over 10s in 
value to be allowed credit till 11 Noo next,) 

lib s d ob 

Imprimis John -Mackreth a Tarr kitt (30) ... ... 001 

Idem a Tarr kitt ... ... o o o } 

James Dawson Sen a Tarr kitt ... ... o o i | 

Idem aTarrCostrall (31) ... o o i } 

James Dawson de Wythburn aTarrCostrall ... ... 004 

Edwin Green de Blind Tarrn Gill 2 Harrows ... ... 001 

Catherine Hawkrigg a chees-press ... ... 004 

Robert Hawkrigg a Spinning wheel ... 017 

Isabell Thompson a Reeing Siefe (32) ... o o 2 ( 

Eadem a Ridle ... ... ... o o 2 i 

William Saurey a wood Peck ... ... o o 11 

James Dawson de Wythburn a Chair ... ... ... 006 

Edwin Green a wood Brisset (33) ... 012 




Thomas Newton, Ambleside a p of Gamaces (34) 
William Jopson 
Francis Bjnwn de (Told 
Edwin Green 
Robert Thompson 

lib s d ob 
a chizel! & paring iron ... 003 
2 ffell staffs ... ... o o 2 I 

a Chizell & Bauk^have (35) 0034 
an Axe and Backshave ... 006} 

10 6 4 

Edwin Green 




Edwin Green 

a rake wimble (36) 


Francis Benson de ffold 

a wimble 

4 i 

William Ullock 

a fishing pitch (37) 


Edwin Green 

an Axe ... 






2 iron scures 


Agnes Jackssn 

an iron scure 


1 k 


a brass Scumsr (3S) 

3 1 

John Williamson 

a p oF Bed-Stocks 

9 i 

John Oatley 

a p of Bed-Stocks 



I>orothy Mawkri^g 

a p of Bed-Stocks 

6 * 

Whoever buy the msdow Hay» they are to take it at one 
end, or Side from Top to the Buttom as agreed before 
the Sale , 

Wm : Fleming p*uxor 10 stone of Hay at 2d p st jne & 2d 

Francis Benson 10 stone at 2d p stone 

Idem 10 stone of Hay ... 

Thomas Newton 20 stone of Hay at 2d p stone & 2d further 
at all 

Francis Bsnson 10 stone of Hay at 2d p stone & id further 
at all 

Idem all the remamder of the Hay at 2d p stone the rem : 
was 15 

Robert Hawkrigg a Tedder rope ... 

Catherine Hawkrigg a Kettle 

Edward Walker 10 stone of Hay ... 

o I 10 
o I 8 
o I 8 


The totall of all the Sales 

The fiirst Sale amounts to... 
The Second Sale amounts tj 
The Third Sale amounts to 




























lb s d ob 
The (fourth Sale amounts to ... ... 20 12 4 ) 

The ffifth Sale amounts to ... ... 01 15 2 

Goods left in the Custody of Catherine Hawk- 

rig^g amounts to ... ... ... 02 10 10 

The totall of all amounts t3 ... ... ... io3 4 S } 

(2 pages are here torn out.) 

June the 5th 1712 
An Account of the debts that William Hjiwkrig^ late of under-Helm 
in Grasmere, in the County of Westmorld yeo : was owing at 
the time of his decease, and the charge of his fTuncral, and other 
Costs Laid forth by Catherine Hawkrigg his Relict & E.xecutrix 
and Tutrix to Hannah Hawkiigg his daughter 

Imprimis to Thomas Sattsrthwfc a debt ... 

Itm to John Wright a debt ... 

Itm to Alice Watson a debt ... 

Itm to John Atkinson a dsbt ... 
Itm to Antho : Harrison for Christopher Jackson . 

Itm to John Hawkrigg smith a debt ... 

itm to Joseph Wood a debt ... 

Itm to Sr William Fleming a debt ... 

itm to Thomas Fleming a debt ... 

Itm to George Ashburner a debt ... 

Itm to Edward Hird a debt ... 

Itm to John Dockrey a debt ... 

Itm to William Grigg a debt ... 

Itm Seryants Wages in Arrear ... 

Itm to Edward Walker a debt ... 

Itm to Henry Jackson & John Partridge a debt . 

Itm to Edwd Brathwt a debt ... 

Itm to Wm : Watson a debt ... 

Itm to Mrs Elizabeth Bateman a debt ... 

Itm to Edward Hird a debt ... 

Itm to Mr William Sawrey a debt ... 

Itm to Dr Askew * a debt ... 

Itm to Dr Atkinson a debt ... 

Itm to Dr EUeray a debt ... 

Itm to Margaret Mackreth a debt ... 

This amounts to 

lb s d 





5 5 

2 2 


I 4 


5 12 






















» 9 





20 00 





Itm Laid forth 

To John Mackreth for Boardinfr, goe'mg to'th Doctors 

attendance, & other necessaries in the time of his 

Sickness ... 
Itm money given to the poor, & his (Funeral both at Hawkes- 

head and Grasmcre 
Itm for his Burial in the Quire ... 

Itm to Mr Walker for a ffuneral sermon... 

Itm Engtossinf;: o*th Will in parchment & 2 Inventaries ... 

Itm Probat of Will, Tuicon, & a Mortuary 

Itm in Expences upon wittnesses at proving will ... 

Itm to John Mackreth for crying 3 first sales 

Itm to Mr Wm : Sawrey for writing 3 first Sale bills 3 days 

and their several Extracts ... 
Itm to Wm : Fleming for malt at Sales ... 
Itm for tobacco at Sales 
Itm to John P»1ackreth for Crying 2. last Sales 
Itm to Mr Wm : Sawrey for writing 2 last Sale bills; and 

their extracts and some notes 
Itm Q memrds for Sale money ... 
Itm transcribing all the Sale bills 
Itm in expences in collecting the Sale money 
Itm for drawing up the Accounts 


d ob 

a 2 3 * 

6 13 




lb s 




3 I 


















14 17 

II 1 

20 09 

35 06 II i 

AH the Sale bills, & goods left in the Custody of the 

Executrix amounts to the sum of... 
From which there's to be deducted the price of a gelding 

sold to James Dawson 
Itm the price of one stone of wooll to James Dawson more 

than was actually sold or delivered and some hay 

charg*d on John Otley which he had not ... 

lb s d ob 

102 4 8 } 

5 7 6 


5 15 I 

The Sale notes are... 
deduct as afore ... 














lb s d ob 

Then there will remain ... ... ... 9^ 9 7 i 

deduct debts &c... ... ... ... 35 6 ii i 

6i 2 S 

96 9 7 I 

Then .to make up this... 

Theres in bills & bonds at Sales 

She rec*d of Mr Robert Atkinson 

And to Receive of James Dawson 

The goods she had & bought came to ... 

John Park de nab 

lb s d 
Due to the widow i 12 10 if ali was got is ... ... 62 15 6 

(Further pages have been torn out.) 




















1. Ob: Oboli. 

2. A Lin Shirt : A linen shirt. 

3. A GiMER Hogg : A ewe a year old. 

4. Chees-Rums & Fatts : Cheese-rums (or rims) and fatts (or 

vats) were used together in the manufacture of home-made 
cheeses, and the two together seem to have formed the cheese 
press, but there is some confusion as to the exact meaning of 
the terms. In Ash's Dictionary of the English Language (1775) 
we find ** Cheese vat, a wooden case in which the curds are 
confined to be pressed into cheese/' and Halliweli and others 
explain the term much the same. The Rev. T. EUwood, of 
Torver, however, writes me that he believes the Cheese-rums 
or rims to have been circular wooden frameworks of coopered 
staves, without top or bottom, in which the milk was confined 
and pressed from above by a heavy weight of wood with a 
stone on the top of it. This piece of wood Mr. Ellwood be- 
lieves was the true **vat " or " fatt," which theory, however, 
hardly seems to agree with the above interpretations of Ash 
and Halliweli. 

5. Mash 


5. Mash Ffatt or Vat : A wooden vessel in which the malt 

was mashed in brewing beer. The vat which contains the 
malt in brewing. — (Halliwell.) 

6. Daw Tub: A dough tub. Daw: dough. — (Halliwell.) 

7. A Throwen Chair: A chair in >Ahich the balusters and per- 

haps part of the back were ** thrown" or turned on the lathe, 
in contradistinction to one which was roughl}' cut or sawn out 
of wood. 

8. A Cole-rake: An iron scraper for farm purposes. The first 

meaning seems to be a coal rake to rake ashes from the oven. 
(Halliwell.) Now pronounced variously "cou'-rake/* **co*rake," 
&c. There are other theories as to its derivation as from the 
word COAL, to scrape up. 

9. A Hack : A mattock. (Still in use.) 

10. A p OP Crooks : The crooks were chains ending in hooks which 

were suspended in the chimney to hang pans on. 

11. A p OP Hotts: Hotts are horse panniers for carrying peat or 

manure in. — (Halliwell, &c.) 

12. An Iron Team: A team — an ox chain in harness. — (Halliwell.) 

13. TuGG & Bands : The tugg was the chain or rope between the 

plough and swingle tree. 

14. A Plow Stick: Query: A stick to clean the plough share. If 

so, identical with plough puddle (Halliwell), and plu' pattle 
15.* A Gavelock : A crowbar. (Still in use.) 

16. Strickle : A sanded piece of wood to sharpen a scythe. 

17. A p OF Hames : The wooden parts of the horse collar to which 

are attached the traces ; now generally of iron. 

18. A Wantyth & Rope: The word wantyth or wanty was gene- 

rally used for ihe strap from shaft to shaft of a cart passing 
under the horse. It was also a leathern girth fastening a 
horse's pack. 

19. Tunnell : A funnel. 

20. Scures : Skewers. 

21. A Dropping Pan : A dripping pan. 

22. Schreenge: Syringe. 

23. Plain Stock & Bitt : i.^., plane, stock, and bit, the stock beinj^ 

the wooden part, the bit the iron cutting part of the tool. 

24. A ffLAWiNG Spade: A spade like the push plough but shorter, 

used for cutting the top on peat mosses, now called a flaying 
spade ; c./., flay speadd. — (Dickinson.) 

25. 2 Carping Cushions: I am unable to explain these, but Mr. 

Ellwood has favoured me with the following suggestion : — 

" Carping 

A 0RASM£RB sale 3CHBJbULB. 267 

'* Carping Cushions. — I am disposed to think they would be really 
what were commonly known as carding cushions. These were 
well known and used for carding wool or flax, being a pair of 
flat wood boards into which were inserted pieces of wire as 
teeth, and the wool was placed between these and they were 
rubbed back and forward to tease or card the wool. The Latin 
equivalent for this process would be Carpo, Inf. Carpere, Ferl. 
Carpsi Carptum, which Latin verb may have furnished another 
name for it, namely, carping cushions, though generally they 
were termed carding cushions. They were used in pairs, and 
the two mentioned in your sale list would doubtless imply a 

26. A Happing : A wrap or bed cover. To hap up is still in use. 

27. A Pewter Dubler : A Dubler or Doubler is a large dish, more 

generally of earthenware. 

28. A Racon-crook : More generally called ratten crook, the chain 

which hung from the rannel balk in the kitchen chimney for 
cooking purposes. 

29. Bigg: uc, barley. 

30. A Tarr Kitt : Kit, a large bottle or wooden vessel, or a small 


31. A Tarr Costrall : Costrel, a small cask (Ash), a wooden 

bottle (Halliwell.) The shepherd carried a "tarr costrall** 
with him to salve the sheep. • 

32. A Rbeing Siefe : A cane sieve to r^^or riddle corn with, used 

before the invention of the winnowing machine. 

33. A Wood Brissbt : I am entirely unable to explain this. 

34. Gamaces : Leggings or gaiters. 

35. A Backshavb : Now called a spokeshave. 

36. A Rake Wimble : A wimble or wummle is an augur for drilling 

holes. A rake wimble presumably one specially used for 
making holes in the rake head for teeth. 

37. A Fishing Pitch: The meaning is doubtful. Pitcher is an 

obsolete word for a pointed iron bar, which is retained in 
pitch fork, and also in the kindred pike, A Ashing pitch is 
therefore probably a sort of gafl*. Halliwell gives a pitching 
net : A large triangular net attached to two poles and used 
with a boat. This hardly seems the same with the true 
casting net used still in the East, but I am unaware if either 
were ever in use in the Lakes. The gafl* derivation seems the 
true one. 

38. A Brass Scumer: i,e,, a skimmer. 


I have to thank Chancellor Ferguson for looking out 
many of these words for me in Halliwell. I have not, 
however, thought it necessary to refer to this authority in 
all cases, in the glossary, as for many of the words I found 
identical explanations in local glossaries, or got them at 
first hand from old inhabitants. 

^htth J^iigm 0f six giwn^ 

ob. vita patris. 


of Kirkby, Knigrht. I 

received seizin of the | 
e5Ute,9 Hen. VI. (1430) 

(West). I 

Richard Kirkby«Annb Bellingham. 
of Kirkby, Lord of I 
Kirkby, living 35 I 
Hen. VI. (1456) I 

I I 

Thomas V 

Henry Kirkby 
of Kirkby, ob. s. p. 
16 Hen VlII. 

Richard Kirkbv= Dorothy Flemih 

of Kirkby, aet 40, Inq. 
D.m., his brother Henry. 
Must have d. 1 546, as his 
son John who d. 1551 aet. 
S, was 3 years old at his 
father's death (West). 

John Kirkby 
only son, ob. 5 Cd. VI. 
(1551) aet. S, therefore 
b. 1543. Not born till 
about 24 years after his 
sister's marriage. Query 
was he the issue of a 
second and unrecorded 
marriage ? 

(or Catherine, loaj 
visit. Cumb.) man 
c. 1509, see West 


Could not be b. prior to 
15 10, but married to 
Henry Kirkby in I5i9» »•'• 
9 years of age. Her eldest 
son Roger b. when she 
was about 20. 

Roger Kirkby 
of Kirkby, aet 36 at 
death of his father 9 
Eliz. 1566 (Inq. p.m.) 


(i)— Henry Kirkby, to consolidate the estates, m- A« 

his father was living till long after this (»^i 

(2)— John, the male heir, was born 24 years ^^^^rj 

(3)__Had the sudden death of John anything to do • 

&it Wihhb^si 0f l&trkbg Iwktlj. 


a guo 
Kirlcby of 

Rowland Kirkby-* Margaret Coupland. 
of Crosshouse [Flower's visit. 
Lanes. 1567J His descendants 
became extinct in male line 
temp. Hen. VIII. 

tKiRKBY » Elizabeth Richardson. 

I heir to his cousin 

kW. VI. (1552). He 

i VIII. (1519) setUed 
J and Crosshouse to 

I hb wife Anne, and 
i 50 years on death 
I therefore born c. 

1 19 years old at his 

ka only a child), lonj; before the birth of the male heir, but 
[Henry settle his manor of Kirkby as stated by West ? 
B aster. Was he by an unrecorded second marriagfe ? 
p of skulk at Kirkby Crosshouse ? 

( a69 ) 

Art. XXIII.— TA^ Homes of the Kirkbys of Kirkby Ireleth. 

By H. S. CowPER, F.S.A. 
Read at Kirkby Hall, June 14/A, 1894. 
T^HE two old houses of which this paper treats, were both 
residences of the ancient and knightly family of Kirkby 
of Kirkby in Furness, or Kirkby Ireleth as it is sometimes 
called to distinguish it from the numerous other Kirkbys 
which exist in the North of England. Of the history o{ 
this family it is not the place here to enter into detail, for 
all who are acquainted with the history of Furness must 
know the part they played in it. Of all the families once 
dwelling within the peninsula, who, settled on the land 
from remote antiquity, had received their name from their 
estates, the Kirkbys alone remained to modern times as 
residential lords. The Broughtons, the Lowicks, the 
Urswicks and the Sawreys, their neighbours of the same 
standing in early days, have long disappeared. But of 
the Kirkbys the reader of West's "Antiquities of Furness" 
will find the chronicles of no less than twenty-two genera- 
tions ending but a hundred years ago, and land was still 
held within the manor by members of the family at a later 

The family pedigree commences with a Roger de Kirkby 
who in the lime of Richard I. was Lord of Kirkby and 
married a daughter of Gilbert, son of Roger Fitz Reinfred. 
John, one of his sons, was a famous lawyer of the time of 
Henry III., being at different times a Justice Itinerant, 
a Judge of the Kings' Bench, Lord Keeper, and a Baron 
of the Exchequer. He was the author of the " Inquest 
of Yorkshire," named after him, which was taken in 1284. 
Among the ensuing generations we find many benefactors 
of the neighbouring Abbey of Furness, from which institu- 


tion indeed the manor was held by the family by knights* 
service. The seventh Lord, as given by West, was Sir 
Richard Kirkby, who lived in the reign of Richard II., 
and the fourth, fifth, and sixth Henrys. He had a younger 
son, Rowland, who appears in the Lancashire visitations 
of Flower and St. George, and is styled by West "of 
Crosshouse." The descendants of this Rowland became 
extinct in the direct line four generations later, in the 
time of Henry VIII. Rowland's elder brother Sir Roger 
Kirkby of Kirkby received seizin of the manor in 9 Henry 
VI. (1430) and of him we find a younger son named Roger, 
who, like his uncle Rowland, was of Crosshouse. Henry, 
the son of this Roger of Crosshouse, married his cousin 
Anne (or Agnes), who becoming the heiress of the Kirkby 
estates on the death of her only brother, the whole of the 
family estates became united and in possession of the 
descendants of this lady and her husband Henry Kirkby 
of Crosshouse.* There is every reason to believe that at 
this time Henry Kirkby added to the Crosshouse and gave 
it its present form. For not only do the details of the 
building point to this, but West states that by a deed ir 
Hen. VIII. (1519), he settled his estate of the manor of 
Kirkby and a messuage called Crosshouse to the use of 
himself and Anne his wife, and Richard his brother.! 

In the seventeenth generation of the pedigree as given 
by West, we find Roger Kirkby of Kirkby aged 12 at St. 
Georges' Visitation (1613). His eldest son Richard, after- 
wards Colonel Kirkby, was the relentless persecutor of 
Margaret Fell and George Fox. A younger son was 
William Kirkby of Ashlack, who was surveyor general 
of all her Majesty's Customs in all the Northern ports of 

* This Crosshouse is the old building now called Kirkby Hall, and it therefore 
appears that the orifsfinal home of the family was elsewhere in the manor. From 
tnis date, however, Crosshouse became Kirkby Hall and the manor house. ^ 

t There is, however, a genealogical difficulty here which is discussed in the 
Appendix (which see). 



England. This William, who was aged 29 at Dugdale*s 
Visitation (1664-5) married for a first wife Anne daughter 
of Anthony Locke of the Isle of Wight, and of this couple 
we have record in an inscription and some architectural 
features at Ashlack Hall. Beyond this, it is unnecessary to 
go into the pedigree. The family suflFered by its loyalty in 
the time of Charles I., and the estates became so encum- 
bered that they were never able to be cleared. The manor 
was mortgaged to a banker in 1719, who being the agent 
of the Duchess of Buckingham, and becoming bankrupt, 
the manor passed to that lady in part payment. She 
left it to Constantine Phipps, Lord Mulgrave, who sold it 
in 1771 to the Cavendishes, in which family it now is. 

An estate, however, remained for several generations in 
the hands of the descendants of William of Ashlack. It 
was, however, sold off bit by bit, and as far as I can now 
learn by enquiries, the ancient stock of Kirkby of Kirkby 
has at last entirely disappeared from among the land- 
owners of Furness. 


Kirkby Hall is situated on the summit of a gentle 
eminence at the base of that long range of ling capped 
fells which form such a conspicuous feature in the land- 
scape on the left hand of the traveller who journeys by 
train from Foxfield to Barrow. At Broughton-in- Furness 
about a mile above the former station the river Duddon 
having coursed through Seathwaite and Dunnerdale enters 
the broad estuary which forms one of the chief gaps in the 
outlying fells of the Lake District. The Duddon is 
crossed by a viaduct just before arriving at Foxfield, and 
on leaving that station the train makes a straight run of 
two miles till it reaches a smaller stream called Steers 
Pool or Kirkby Pool, which drains a small valley nearly 
parallel with the Duddon, which it eventually joins off 
MiUom. It is near the spot where the railway crosses 



this Stream that the old house we are about to describe is 


The site of Kirkby Hall is not, perhaps, the typical one 
for an old manor house. It is neither low, retired, nor 
particularly romantic in any way. But as the visitor 
makes his way up the short avenue, shaded with old oaks 
and other trees, he cannot fail to be at once struck with 
the massive formality of the old place with its arched 
door, its low mullioned windows, and its great cylindrical 
chimney stacks. The whole place looks what it was, — the 
residence of a family of powerful North Country squires. 

Let us examine it in detail. The front we are looking 
at presents a range about 80 feet in length, broken on the 
ground floor by four windows, one of which is a bay, and 
a flat arched door which is the front entrance. The east 
end of this frontage is set back at an angle from the rest, 
the reason for which I hope presently to make plain. In 
the second story there are four other windows of the 
same character as those on the ground floor. On the 
spectators' left there is an outlying, squarish building, 
unconnected with the main block and facing to a different 
aspect. The main entrance is through a depressed four- 
centred arch of red sandstone, the quoins of which are 
splayed externally and bear mouldings. There is no 
square head or drip moulding above the arch. This door 
gives entrance to a straight through passage leading to a 
great newel staircase, and on the left of which partitioned 
off is the hall measuring up to the partition about 25 feet 
by 24 feet. The partition appears to be modern, but not 
improbably replaces an older screen shutting off the pas- 
sage and kitchen wing from the hall. 

It will be noticed that the passage is narrower at the 
staircase end than at the entrance. This is due to the 
fact that the west wing is not at right angles with the 
remainder of the block. 

The great hall is a fine apartment lighted by two 


tHE HOMfeS 01? THE kIRKBVS. ±*Ji 

windows to the front, that at the dais end being a bay 
thrown out 5^ feet. This bay is not, as is the case often, 
carried up to the floor above. Another window now 
blocked has been in the north-east corner. The windows 
to the front of the house are of the same character all 
over the house. They are plain square-headed, with drip 
mouldings and scooped mullions. The lesser window in 


T ,1 t* li ' ' ft 

the hall has three lights and the bay six. Opposite to 
these windows is the great hall fireplace about 9 feet 
wide, crossed by a segmental arch rounded oflF at the 
junction with the impost, and with a cavetto at the angle. 
The details of this hall, with its bay at the dais end, no 
doubt give us the date of this part of the house, namely, 
about the beginning of the i6th century. 

From the hall a door opens into the chief parlour or 
withdrawing room, which is now cut across by a partition, 
but originally was 24 feet long and 12J feet wide. Its 


^74 *^^^ HOMES Ot^ THE KIRKBYS. 

front window, of the same character as those of the hall, 
was of four lights. Another in the west wall has now no 
dressings and is more widely splayed. From the north- 
west corner of the hall a diagonal passage, with a door 
with a hollow chamfer, leads to a small room gf by iji 
feet. It has been lighted by at least two windows, one 
only of which (in the north-west corner) retains its dress- 
ings. It is a single narrow aperture and is now blocked. 
This room is now the dairy, and was formerly in all pro- 
bability the lord's private room. The walls throughout 
these parts of the building are from 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches 
in width. 

The east wing is carried back to a length of about 69 
feet, and contains on the ground floor three rooms and an 
L shaped passage connecting them with the entrance 

The biggest of these rooms, which since the erection of 
the hall and west wing has been the kitchen, is a fine 
apartment 22 feet by 16J feet. Its great chimney, 11 feet 
wide at the north end, is now blocked with modern ranges 
and cannot be measured as to depth, but it seems to have 
been at least four feet deep. It has no mouldings. In 
the west face of this recess a small door opens into a 
curious closet, or hiding place 5 feet long by 3 feet wide, 
in the thickness of the wall beside the chimney. A small 
window, now blocked, has served to light this curious 
place.* There is also a blocked window in the west wall, 
and there was formerly a door near the fireplace leading 
into the added building, which abuts against this corner. 
Neither the existing door nor window of this kitchen have 
any dressings, but outside there can be seen in the north- 
west corner of this wing some red sandstone quoins with 
a plain round moulding at the angle. 

* The room above has also a straight closet about 9 feet long in the thickness 
of the wall immediately above this. 








Besides the small room (now called the coal cellar *) 
shown in this wing on the plan, there is an irregular 
shaped room at the front of the house measuring 13^ by 
i8i feet, and lighted by a three-iight window of the same 
character as those before mentioned. This was probably 
the buttery of the reformed house of the time of Henry 
VIII., that is to say, of the house as we now see it. The 
walls throughout this wing are four feet thick. 

Having now the ground plan of the house before us, we 
are in a position to understand better its history. We 

have noticed that 
not set straight 
block. It seems 
wing is the original 
plete probably of 
with which period 
cords. In this form 
erected by Row- 
or by his brother 
and my opinion is 

the east wing is 
with the main 
probable that this 
house almost com- 
15th century date, 
its plan well ac- 
it may have been 
land of Crosshouse 
Sir Roger for him, 
that the hall and 

west wing were added two generations later by Henry. 
Kirkby of Crosshouse, who eventually succeeded to the 
lordship of Kirkby by his marriage with his cousin. They 
were probably built at an irregular angle with the old 
part in order to front the high road, and to secure a 
better aspect. The complete plan of the old Crosshouse 
may have been like what is shown here. The great 
well staircase which still remains was probably con- 
tained in a projection or tower, and the only alterations 
which were found necessary when the new part was 
added were the slicing away of part of the west wall 
to get as good an entrance lobby as possible, and the 
paring away of two sides of the staircase turret so that 
they did not project into the hall. The well stair, an 

* This has two windows, one high up in the wall and oblique as if to cover the 


276 The Homes op the kirkbys. 

unusual feature in houses of the date of the newer part, 
was thus left to do duty for the whole house. The hall of 
the old house then became the kitchen of the new one, 
and the old kitchen (of the fireplace of which the recess 
can be traced) became the " buttery," while the little 
intermediate room, which was probably the old buttery, 
perhaps dropped out of any very special function. The 
building attached to the north end of this older building 
was of two stories, and was at one time accessible both 
from the kitchen and room over. It appears, however, 
to be a later addition. The upper room has a fireplace. 
Large barns and offices are again attached to this. 

The only other feature of the ground plan which 
requires notice is the outlying building at the south- 
west. It is now cut up for farm purposes, and is too 
modernised to make much of. It has, however, a drip- 
stone of a wide window remaining on its east front of the 
same character as the others. Its walls are only 2 feet 
6 inches in thickness. It is not easy to conjecture its 
special use now, unless it was for holding the manor 
courts in. 

The well stair, 8 feet in diameter, consists of broad 
steps of solid oak winding round a very plain wooden 
newel. It is lighted from the outside and there is, at the 
completion of its first half turn, a squint or narrow window 
opening into the old hall (or present kitchen) by which the 
lord could unseen observe what was going on. The first 
floor is at different levels because the new hall is loftier 
than the rooms in the adjoining wings. Near the stair- 
case head, and over the coal cellar, is a small apartment 
called the skull room, and some niches are pointed out in 
the wall in which some human skulls, of which the legend 
is now forgotten, are said to have formerly stood. 

From this passage is entered a bedroom above the room 
I have suggested was the old kitchen. It contains a 
depressed four-centre arched fireplace, over which is an 
ornate plaster panel, once containing among floral orna- 


mentation of vines and grape clusters, the atchievement 
of the Kirkbys. The mantling crest and cap of main- 
tenance remain, but the shield (hung cornerwise) and the 
helmet placed full faced or affronU have disappeared, and 
possibly were made of carved wood. It should be noted 
that the helmet put thus signifies that the atchievement 
was that of a knight or baronet. Now the last of the 
family who held such a title was Sir Roger (knight) who 
received seizin of Kirkby in 1431, and who I have already 
suggested may have built this the older part of Crosshouse. 
I cannot, however, think that the work of this panel is as 
early as the time of Sir Roger, and I am inclined to think 
that when Henry Kirkby added to the house he put up 
this atchievement as a posthumous memorial of his grand- 
father, and to show who built the older part. Mr. Holme 
Nicholson, however, suggests that it might be an error of 
ignorance, copied from some older work about the place. 
If the shield itself had been extant and had borne quar- 
terings it might have settled the difficulty. 

The space above the hall and entrance lobby is now 
occupied by two rooms and a passage from the stairs. 
These are divided by partitions now papered and plastered, 
but probably ancient, as fireplaces exist in both of the 
rooms. It is said also that some oak paneling formerly 
covered the partition between the rooms."*^ The fireplaces 
in these rooms are of the three-centred form, which is prac- 
tically a segmental arch, rounded off at the junction with 
the impost, and all have the usual hollow at the angle. In 
the corner of this room, above the passage from the hall 
to the present dairy, was formerly the doorway to the 
upper floor of the west wing, which contains the chapel. 
This door is now blocked, and the only means of access to 

* Some of the oak carvings taken from Kirkby to Holker perished, it has been 
suggested, in the Jire of 1S71. See Tweddell, Furness Past and Present, I. p. 



this room and that adjoining, is through a trap door in 
the ceiling of the passage mentioned, or out of the attic 
above the adjoining bedrooms. The chapel floor is now 

The chapel, which is above the withdrawing room, is a 
fine apartment 26 feet by 14 feet. The floor is now 
removed, and, in examining it, it is necessary to walk 
on the joists. It is in two bays, the truss or framing of 
beams dividing them, consisting of tie beam and king 
post. Similar trusses fixed against either end of the chapel 
serve to support the roof. At the south end there is a 
three-light freestone window of the usual character, and 
another small window in the west wall lighted the opposite 
end of the chapel. In the same wall, but near the south 
end, is a fireplace like those in the rooms over the hall. 
There are two doors which have been framed with oak, 
one of which led to the rooms over the hall, as before 
mentioned, and the other in the north wall leading to a 
room over what is now the dairy. There is also a curious 
mural chamber in the west end of this north wall, which 
now contains a seat, and the use of which is obscure. It 
may have been appropriated in some way to the accessories 
of private worship, or, as the wall here has plenty of room, 
it may be the head of a small blocked newel or private 
stair from the withdrawing room below. 

But the most remarkable feature of this room, if not of 
the whole place, is the peculiar mural decoration, con- 
sisting of panels with birds and animals, and texts and 
inscriptions, all of which were painted on plaster, and 
which will not be described here, as they form the subject 
of a separate paper. 

The room behind the chapel is dark and floorless. 
There does not seem to be any noticeable feature in it. 

This chapel has, as the roof shows, originally finished 
in a gable fronting down the avenue. Within quite 
modern times, however, it has (probably owing to damp) 




* • • .• 


been re-roofed, so that its western slope is continued 
straight up till it joins the roof above the hall, thus 
giving the front of the house an unsightly lop-sided 
appearance, and much marring the true proportions of 
the building. 

The traditional and doubtless true site of the cross from 
which the house took the name by which it was formerly 
generally known, is about forty-six yards straight in front 
of the main entrance. It is said to have been partly 
demolished by the order of Archbishop Edwin Sandys. 
In the yard outside the east wing is to be seen, placed 
over a water trough, a lion's head rudely carved in free- 
stone. This has probably been at one time a gargoyle or 
water spout in some part of the older house. Another 
curiosity consists in a small square carved stone, standing 
now on the wall in front of the house. It bears on two of 
its sides coats of arms, ist, 2 bars, and on a canton a 
cross moline, (Kirkby.) 2nd, 6 annulets 3, 2 and i (Lovv- 
ther.) The two shields are joined together at the angle 
by clasped hands. The third side is inscribed 

R • A 


and on the fourth we find 

I • K R • K E • K 

fo • K A • K AL • K 

R ® . K F • K W • K 

r M ' K D • K 

These sides show the match between Roger Kirkby and 

Agnes, daughter of Sir John Lowther, and the initials 

of five of their sons and six of their daughters. 



Roger Kirkby« Agnes Lowther. 
b 1601. I 

II I i I I I I I II It 

Richard Roger Christopher Jane Agnks Francis Dorothy 
John William Ellen Alice Margaret Mary 

The first initial in the second line is somewhat faint, but 
appears to be -j^o. In Baines's History of Lancashire,* 

it is given ^ o. As the four sons, John, Richard, Roger, 
and William are all represented in the inscription, and of 
the daughters the initials of Jane and Mary are alone 
omitted, this letter probably stands for Christopher, the 
fifth son. This stone, which is said to have been found in 
the farmyard, probably formed at one time part of a sun- 

Since writing the above, an account of Kirkby Hall of some length 
has appeared in " Furness and Cartmel Notes,'* by Henry Barber, 
M.D., just published. The author therein states that the house 
'* originally stood within a quadrangular court, three sides of which 
consisted of brew-house, barns, stables, slaughter-house, outbuildings, 
and other offices, the entrance being by a gateway in the south side.*' 
What Dr. Barber's authority is for this statement I do not know, for 
I have never heard any tradition to that effect, nor when planning 
the hall did I notice anything to lead me to suspect that such had 
ever been the case. The offices at Kirkby are all in rear of the 

In the same account Dr. Barber tells us that the floor of the 
present chapel is not at its original level "because the place is 
reduced to meanness in size, and the heraldic devices on the side 
walls representing the arms of the Kirkbys in the various quar- 
terings are nearly divided horizontally by the joists and plaster." 
With reference to this, I would only ask the reader to examine the 
photographs of the paintings, which accompany my descriptive 
paper on that subject, and he will scarcely find any difficulty in 
deciding if the designs are armorial and if they are cut in two by the 

• IV. 694. In the same work it is stated that " carvings in cement with arms 
of Kirkby ornament one of the chambers, many of which are wainscoated." 



In another part of the same account we are told that in the upper 
apartments are the remains of oak carvings. For these, visitors to 
Kirkby Hall may search in vain, for they do not exist. 

Dr. Barber is further of opinion that the house was ** built for 
defence rather than comfort,*' and that the bay window to the hall 
." probably may have been added during the time of the Stuarts." 
It need scarcely be pointed out that the house has nothing defensive 
about it, and that the bay window was a characteristic feature in the 
halls of houses of the time of Henry VIII. 

Most of the above statements are also to be found in Tweddell's 
'• Furness, Past and Present," published in 1870, but who is 
originally responsible for them I am unaware. It is to be regietted 
that most of these misstatements have just been perpetuated in the 
North Lonsdale Magazine, Vol. I, No. 3, edited by the Rev. L. R. 
Ayre, and published at Ulverston. 


Ashlack Hall is situated something over a mile north- 
east of the Crosshouse, on higher ground, and nestles 
snugly in a hollow in a base of the fells, which, rising 
almost immediately behind the house, extend up to and 
bound the western margin of Coniston Lake. It has been 
suggested that the name bears evidence of the existence 
of one of the numerous old iron smelting forges or 
*• bloomeries," which are known to have existed from 
early times in Furness. 1 am, however, informed that 
there are no heaps of iron scoriae in the immediate vicinity 
of the hall, and it appears more probable that the true 
derivation is the ** slack " or hollow among the ash trees. 
The present tenant (Mr. Irving) informs me that there 
were within a comparatively short time ago many very fine 
specimens of this tree here. 

The house is of a totally different character to Kirkby 
Crosshouse. So late as the beginning of the 16th 
century the old plan of a great hall occupying the centre 
of the house, jostling the parlours and sitting rooms into 
comparatively small room, still was much adhered to. 



But a hundred years later a great change had taken place. 
Houses of this period are more varied in plan, and the 
size of the sitting rooms is more evenly balanced, while 
in the larger houses a multiplicity of secondary apartments 
and parlours is found. Ashlack in its original condition is 
a fair sample of a smaller house of this period, but altera- 
tions at a later date make the original arrangement some- 
what difficult to follow in its details. 

The house as it now stands is cruciform, but the east 
limb consists of stables and byres, and the top or north 
limb, which is short and broad, is the result of alterations 
to the building, which apparently were carried out about 
the time of Charles II. 

The original building is therefore L shaped ; the length 
of the south limb measured to the interior angle being 
50^ feet, and that of the west limb 44 feet. All the win- 
dows on these two faces, as well as those on the south 
front of the longer limb, are original, and consist of 
openings with square heads, plain chamfered mullions, 
and dripstones coved on the under side. On the inner 
sides of the L all the windows on the ground floor are of 
three lights, as are also all those on the upper floor except 
one above the door in the middle of the south limb, which 
is of two lights. The south gable has two windows, 
each of three lights, but the upper one has now no drip 

The original entrance appears to be the one alluded to 
as in the middle of the south limb. It is a square-headed 
opening with a drip moulding ending in a square termina- 
tion, coved like the dripstones. Above is a plaster panel 
bearing the initials 

16 ^ 67, 

W- A 

a date considerably later than the architecture of this 








part of the house, and put up no doubt by William 
Kirkby of Ashlack when the additions were made to the 
back of the house. 

To understand the original plan of the house one must 
first understand the alterations which were made probably 
in the time of Charles IL These consist of the large 
kitchen (A) which, with the adjacent staircase, form the 



short north limb of the cross, and the south end of which 
with its huge wall containing the chimney occupy the 
centre. The remainder is probably much as it was before, 
except that the two inner rooms are abridged to a now 
unknown extent, and one of them (B) is cut up by thin 
walls. This was probably the hall, entered directly from 
the garden by the front door and lighted by only one 
window, and with the stairs leading straight up between 
two walls on the opposite side. The kitchen was probably 
the adjacent room marked C in the west wing, and the 
room terminating this block, and measuring 17 by 21 feet, 
is called the '' stone parlour," and is now the dairy (D). 
The wall betwixt these two rooms is eight feet thick- 


There are two other original rooms in the south block. 
One, terminating: it, is a fine room about 18 feet square, 
separated from the hall by a 6-foot wall. This was pro- 
bably' the withdrawing room. The other was only 13 feet 
square, and was probably a small parlour. Beneath this 
room and the stairs are cellars, lit by original two-light 
muUionod windows. 

It appears that William Kirkby considered that a larger 
kitchen was required, and to gain this object the Hall was 
sacrificed. A new front, 45 feet long and projecting about 
II feet from the west block, was thrown out to the north, 
and thus a new kitchen, 20J feet by 18J feet, was formed, 
and a small chamber containing a new staircase leading 
out of the old kitchen to the west of it. In doing this an 
enormous amount of space was lost by the immense 13-foot 
thick wall which was erected in the centre of the house to 
carry the great chimney and ovens. There is within this 
new portion nothing which merits notice except the 
entrance door pegged with oak studs, the great kitchen 
chimney, and the staircase, which is characteristic of the 
period, with its strong balusters of turned oak, and which 
winds right up to the attics above the second floor. 

Externally the projection is finished with a double gable, 
lit by tall windows with weak wooden mullions and tran- 
soms. There are the remains of blocked windows on this 
side of the west wing which are of this character, but in 
shape like those on the garden front, shewing that an 
attempt was made to make this side uniform in character. 
The additions can be traced by a casual glance at the roof, 
as they are loftier than the original part. The chimneys 
are of the usual cylindrical form of the district, adding 
not a little to the picturesque appearance of the house. 
In this house they are nearly all double, two joined 
together. There is one such over the centre of each 
block, and another over the thick central wall. A single 
one is over the gable of the small parlour which faces to 
the east. The 

TH& tiOM^S OP tHB kiRKBVS. 285 

The front door, like that leading to the kitchen, is old, 
of oak, but studded with iron nails. The walls of the 
original portion are mostly 2 feet 9 inches in thickness, 
those of the added part less : but a great amount of room 
is wasted by the thick walls dividing the rooms in the old 
as well as the new parts. The house is much modernised 
inside, and no old fireplaces remain. There is some 
paneling of the last century left in the large room over the 
kitchen, which is now divided by partitions, 

Ashlack is within the manor of Broughton and was the 
last possession, at anyrate as a residence, of the Kirkbys. 
It was bought from them about sixty or seventy years ago, 
and has passed through the hands of various owners since. 
Though of less interest than Kirkby Crosshouse, it is 
externally a very fair example of the residence of a family 
of smaller gentry of the period. 

About a mile south of Kirkby Crosshouse there is an 
old house called now Low Hall, to distin-ijuish it from 
Kirkby Hall or Crosshouse, (which is often called High 
Hall), but which was formerly known by the name of 
LfOW Barn. This old house was a farm-house till a few 
years ago, when a new farm was built close to it, and (he 
old place is now used for lumber and for storing farm 
implements, etc., in. It is a plain old place, with 
numerous square-headed windows of two and three lights, 
somewhat similar in character to those at Ashlack, but 
the place is too cut up by internal partitions and altera- 
tions to see the original plan easily. A stone is fixed in 
the wall near the front door inscribed 

R- A 

1639 - 

the same initials which are found on the stone at Cross- 
house. Another over the adjacent barn door has the same 
initials and the date 1637, and below, the Kirkby arms, 



boldly cut. These dates, no doubt, mark the erection of 
Low Hall by fioger Kirkby, by whom it must have been 
built for a junior branch of the family, or else for a farm- 
house. It is much inferior in size to the Crosshouse or 


The difficulty alluded to on page 270 is as follows : —Richard 
Kirkby of Kirkby (died 1546) whose daughter Anne married Henry 
Kirkby of Crosshouse, had also a son, John Kirkby, who died 5 Ed. 
VI. (1 551) aged 8, and was therefore born in 1543. Bat Henry 
Kirkby of Crosshouse, who married his sister, settled his estates of 
Kirkby manor and Crosshouse to the use of himself, his wife , and 
brother as early as 15 19, and that lady must therefore have been 
married at least 24 years before her brother's birth. As Richard 
Kirkby, the father of John and Anne, was married about 1509 
(West), it iollows that Anne must have been married about 9 years 
of age, and as her husband Henry was bom about 1501, he was then 
about 18 years of age. Mr. J. Holme Nicholson has suggested to me 
that John Kirkby was the issue of a second marriage, which is 
possible, but the difficulty is, that as Richard Kirkby the father was 
alive till about 1546, how was Henry in possession of the property in 
1 519 ? The best explanation seems to be that Richard's wife 
Dorothy (Fleming) died soon after the birth of Anne, and that Henry 
Kirkby married her as a child to consolidate the estates. On the 
birth of John in 1543, by the presumed second marriage, the entailed 
estate would have to be surrendered, but the early death of that 
child left matters as they were. It is not impossible, however, that 
there are some errors in West's dates. The sketch pedigree will 
explain the difficulty. 

Plate I. 



Art. XXIV.— H^att Paintings at Kirkby Hall. By H. S. 

CowPER, F.S.A. 
Read at Kirkby Hall^ 14 June^ 1894. 

THE space of wall between the floor and wall plate in 
the chapel at Kirkby Hall is about 7 feet, and pro- 
bably all this space, except where broken by windows, 
fireplace, and doors, was at one time painted. What 
remains at the present day is unfortunately very fragmen- 
tary. The paintings throughout are on the plaster which 
covers the rough walling of Silurian stone. The work on 
the east wall is best preserved. Here we find in the 
northern baj* (Plate No. I.) the Lord's Prayer above, 
and below two panels. The first contains in the centre 
a tree trunk, from which spread, palm-like, eight displayed 
peacock plumes. On either side of the tree below the 
plumes stand two strange looking birds, with tails like 
cocks, and with their long necks crossed. Behind them 
are distant trees, and beneath them what appears to be a 

The second panel like the first, and like all which are 
well enough preserved to make anything of, contains the 
tree of peacock plumes, and beneath it a strange double 
bodied monster biting with its two reversed heads its two 
uptwisted tails. The heads of this monster appear jackal 
like, and are affixed to very long necks, which are joined 
at the shoulder and encircled by one ornate collar. One 
of the bodies of this fearful beast is standing and the other 
seated, and both are four legged. 

Coming to the southern bay on the same side (Plate 
No. II.) we find the Ten Commandments * above, and 

• These begin " the commandments of God/' and the 

commandments then follow. 

The mnth commandment e worded ** Thou shalt not here m false wutnesse 
against thy neighbour." 


288 Wall paintings At kirkby hall. 

below there are the remains of three panels. In each 
the peacock plumes tree as before. The first also con- 
tains an eared and beaked head (apparently that of a 
griffin) holding in its beak a horse shoe. Its body is 
covered with feathers, and at the bottom of the panel 
can be discerned claws or feet. 

The principal object in the next panel is a large pigeon 
which stands at the foot of the tree. Another bird of 
smaller dimensions and shaped something like a heron 
stands on the sinister side of the tree, and stretches its 
head towards the back of the pigeon. It may be meant 
to be in the distance, but its head is in front of the tree 
trunk. In the bottom dexter corner and close in front of 
the pigeon are three houses, probably meant to be in the 
distance. In the third panel on this side nothing remains 
but the plumes. 

Each of these panels is contained within a sort of 
framing consisting of columns surmounted by ornate 
globe-like capitals, from which spring the two cusps of 
a trefoil arch, which is cut off by a border which separates 
it from the Lord's Prayer and Commandments above. 
The columns however which are ornamented below the 
capitals with a conventional pattern, are continued 
through to the border, where they are terminated with 
large lions* heads. Between the capitals and the lions' 
heads each of these upper columns are decorated with 
two or three oblong windows. Below all the panels is a 
continuous band of a sort of diamond cheque pattern.* 
This decorated bordering, dividing and enclosing the 
panels, seems to have been at one time continuous all 
round the chapel, and uniform, except in the colouring 
and in the size of the panels, as those in the north bay 

* This pattern is roodt like an imitation in colour of the Norman square biilet 


Hi ^^W?«S^ ^^^tfS. 






H 1. 


1 ^^cac::. 














measure about 4 ft. 7 in. by 2 ft. 4 in., while those in the 
south bay are only 3 ft. 8 in. by 2 ft. 2 in. 

On the south end of the room where the window is, the 
panels, if they ever existed, are gone. On a level with 
the other inscriptions is the Creed. 

On the west side all is obliterated. 

The north end has two doors in it, but faint traces 
of the panels are visible. Above is a long text much 
destroyed, but showing parts of 5th chapter of the Epistle 
of St. Paul to the Galatians, verses 16--21 (Plate No. III). 
Mr. J. R. Dore, of Huddcrsfield, informs me that the 
version is that of (Cranmer's) Great Bible of May, 1541, 
and has kindly supplied me with the unreadable parts of 
the text from that version. The only difference is in the 
spelling of some of the words, and in the use of ** by " 
instead of ** in " at the beginning of v. 16. This is, 
however, sufficiently indistinct to be doubtful.* 

The inscription commences with a few almost unde- 
cipherable words, which however seem to read " The 
Epistle to the Gala(tians) ? " Then follows : 

*' I saye walcke by (?) the spyrit (and fulfyl not the lust) of the fleshe. 
For (the fleshe lusteth contrary to the sprete, and the sprete con- 
trary to ye fleshe. These are contrarye one to the other so ye) 
cannot do whatsoeuer ye woulde. But yf ye be led of ye spyrite 
then are ye not under ye lawe. The dedes of ye fleche are manfeste 
whyche are these adultry fornicacion unclennesse wantonnesse 
worshypping of ymages wytchcraft hatred varyaunce zele wrathe 
(sedycyon sects) enuivng murdre dronckennes glottonie and soche 
lyke of the whych I tel (you before as I have told you in tyme past, 
that they which comyt such things, shal not be inherytoures of the 
kyngdo of God.) " 

The colours used in these paintings are not bright. 
The peacock plumes being black or slatey blue, with 

*Mr. Dore, who has most kindly searched his collection of old ver.^ions of the 
Bible to identify the passage, informs me that the following versions have not 
been examined : Tyndale, 1525, and Coverdale, 1535. 



brick red spots. The lions' heads are brick red, and the 
cusps of the arches alternately brick red and white. The 
animals and birds are left the colour of the plaster and 
the detail of feathers, &c.y outlined in black. The in- 
scriptions are in black letter, with some of the capitals 
in red * 

•In Tweddell*s "Furness, Past and Pre^nt,'* I. p. 153, it is stated that the 
chapel floor is not original. *' as the decorations upon the walls comprisinfi^ the 
arms 0/ the Kirkbm in their various quarlerines, are divided by joists and 
plaster." I leive the reader to judge for himself it these frescoes are heraldic. 
There see ns to be reason to suppose the floor level has t»een altered. 











Wednesday and Thursday, June 13th and 14th, 1894. 

11HE first meeting and excursion for 1894 of the Cumberland and 
- Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society was held 
on Wednesday and Thursday, June 13th and 14th, when part of thb 
Furness district between Cark, Lake Side, Windermere, and Kirkby 
was visited. The members and their friends met at Ulverston 
shortly after noon on Wednesday and proceeded to Cark. Amongst 
those present were the President, Chancellor Ferguson, Carlisle ; 
Mr. H. S. Cowper, F.S.A., Yewfield Castle; Mr. and Mrs. W. G. 
CoUingwood, Coniston ; Mr. S. S. Lord, Barrow ; Mr. J. H. Brai- 
thwaite, Kendal ; Mr. Pollitt, Kendal ; Mr. John Robinson, C.E., 
London; Rev, R. G. S. Green, Croglin Rectory; Miss Lucy Beevor, 
Carlisle ; Dr. and Mrs. Beardsley, Grange ; Rev. W. S. Calverley, 
F.S.A., Aspatria ; Mr. S. Marshall, Skelwith Fold; Mr. T. H. and 
Mrs. Hodgson, Newby Grange ; Mr. and Mrs. W. Robinson, Sed* 
bergh ; Rev. W. Lowthian, Troutbeck ; Rev. G. M. Townley, 
Grange ; Mr. T. Machell, Whitehaven ; Rev. L. R. Ayre, Ulverston ; 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Harrison, Newby Bridge ; Rev. B. Barnett, Preston 
Patrick; Miss Ullock and friend; Mr. T. Wilson, (hon. secretary) 
Kendal ; Mr. J. H. Nicholson and party, Wilmslow, Cheshire ; Mr. 
G. Watson, Penrith; Mr. Warden, Sedbergh; Mr. J. W, Weston, 
Enyeat, Endmoor; Rev. T. Ellwood, Torver, and Mr. W. O. Roper, 
Lancaster. Subsequently the party was augmented by Col. Hill, 
Mr. C. J. and the Hon. Mrs. Cropper, Miss Cropper, Mrs. Benson, 
Hyning; Mrs. Jacob Wakefield, Mrs. Weston, Mr. H. and Miss 
Alice Jones, Mr. Little and party. Chapel Ridding; Mr. and Mrs. 
T. A. Argles, Mrs. and Miss Poynting, Arnside ; and the Rev. W. 
Summers, Cartmel Fell. 

On the arrival of the party at Cark Hall, Mr. W. O. Roper made 
the following remarks 


Our earliest knowledge of the Cark Hall Estate is in the year 1582, when it 
belonged to Thomas Pickering, who settled Cark Estate on the marriage of his 
daughter with Robert Curwen, cup bearer to Queen Elizabeth. 



Robert Curwen died in 1649, leaviogr Cark Estate to his nephew Robert Raw- 

Robert Rawlinson, Jbarrister-at-Iaw, was a J. P. for the counties of Lancaster 
and Chester, and an active mafnstrate in persecuting^ the members of the Society 
of Friends. Georigfe Fox relates that in 1663 he was broogrht before the magis- 
trates at Holker Hall, where he says " was one Rawlinson, a Justice, and one 
called Sir Georg^e Middleton and many more that I did not know, besides old 
Justice Preston who li^ei there." After an altercation with Sir Geoi^ Middle- 
ton, the oaths of allegiance and supremacy were tendered to Fox, who refused to 
take them, and he was therefore bound over to appear at the Sessions at Lan- 
caster. Fox duly appeared, and amongst the magistrates, he says, was "old 
Rawlinson, the lawyer, who gave the charge, and was very sharp against truth 
and Friends." Fox offended Mr. Rawlinson by not removing his hat on coming 
into the Court, and entered into a lengthy argument on his reasons for refusing 
to take the oaths. In the end Fox was committed to prison, where he remained 
in close confinement more than two years. Robert Rawlinson died in 1665 
leaving a son, Curwen Rawlinsop, and several other children. 

Curwen Rawlinson married in 1677 the daughter of Nicholas Monk, Bishop 
of Hereford, and niece of General Monk, created Duke of Albemarie by Charles 
II. Curwen Rawlinson was M.P. for Lancaster, and died in 1689, having devised 
all his lands to his elder son Monk Rawlinson, who only survived his father about 
five years. On his death the estates passed to his brother Christopher Rawlinson, 
who erected a marble monument in the east wall of the south transept of Cartmel 
Church in memory of his grandfather, grandmother, father, mother, and brother. 
The epitaph on this monument describes Robert Rawlinson as "that most 
learned and honest counsellor-at-law . . . whose great integrity joined with 
a profound knowledge of ye Law made him esteemed and admired by all yt knew 
him . . . (he was) a great sufferer for his loyalty to King Charles II. . . . 
he lived beloved of all and so he dyed lamented. ... he married ye prudent 
Jane Wilson (of Heversham) by whom he left Curwen Rawlinson (who) was a 
most accomplished and ingenious gentleman and a true Patriot so succeeded his 
father in ye service and love of his country and dyed in it in 16S9 . . . Next 
R. R. lyeth ye remains of ye truly pious and religious Elizabeth Rawlinson wife 
of Curwen Rawlinson Daughter and coheir of ye loyall Dr Nichollas Monk, Lord 
Bishop of Hereford (a great assistant in ye Restoration to his brother ye most 
noble George Monk Duke of Albemarle *'....) She was a most dutyfull 
Daughter of ye Church of England as well as of a Prelate of it . . . 

Christopher Rawlinson, who erected this monument, claimed through his mother 
to be the last of the Plantagenets by the mother's side. He was skilled in Saxon 
and Northern literature, and he published a beautiful edition of King Alfred's 
Saxon Translation of Boethius. He was a great collector of manuscripts, 
particularly such as related to the history of Lancashire and Westmorland. He 
died in 1733 aged 55, having previously ordered his under coffin to be made 
of heart of oak and to be covered with red leather. At the north end of the 
north transept of the Abbey Church of St. Albans is a white marble sarcophagus, 
with a figure of History and an epitaph in memory of Christopher Rawlinson. 
As he died intestate the estates reverted to the descendants of his aunts, Ann 
and Catherine,' the sisters of his father Curwen Rawlinson, and remained un- 
divided until i860 when, at the request of Henry Wm. Askew, who had succeeded 
to a moiety and with the approval of the joint heirs, they were divided under the 
Enclosure Commissioners who awarded to 



Henry Wm. Askew one moietjr — 1001 a. 2 r. 18 p. 

Henry Fletcher Rigfire— 2/3 of one moiety— 656 a. including Cark Hall and 

Hampsfield Hall. 
Trustees of S. R. Moore — 1/3 of one moiety — 318 a.* 

The building itself will repay examination. The front, in which stands the 
door, may have been built by Christopher Rawlinson, the other side having been 
erected half a century earlier. 

The arms over the door are those of Christopher Rawlinson.— viz. 

Quarterly, First and fourth-— Gu. 2 bars gemelles between 3 escallops arg. 

for Rawlinson. 
Second — Arg. frett^ gu. a chief az. for Curwen. 
Third — Gu. a chevron between 3 lions' heads, erased arg. for Monk. 
Crest— a shelldrake proper, in its beak an escallop arg. 

Cartmel Church was the next place to be visited, and here Mr. W. 
O. Roper read the following notes : — 


A church so imposing as that of Cartmel tells to a great extent its own history, 
but in trespassing upon your time by drawing attention to its principal features, 
I may perhaps be allowed to supplement the tale which the architectural details 
cf the building tell by a few pieces of documentary evidence. Camden relates 
that the land of Cartmel with all the Britons in it was granted by Ecgfrith, King 
of Northumbria, to Saint Cuthbert late in the seventh century. And from various 
deeds of gift to the neighbouring Abbey of Furness being attested in the middle 
of the 12th century by Parsons of Cartmel, we may conclude there was a church 
at Cartmel before the foundation of the Priory in 1 188. In that year King John, 
then Earl of Moreton, granted to William Mareschal, Earl of Pembroke, lands 
in Cartmel for the purpose of endowing a House of Religion, and accordingly 
the Earl of Pembroke founded at Cartmel a Priory of Canons Regular of the 
Order of Saint Augustine, endowing the Priory with all his lands in Cartmel. 
The Earl directed that the house should be free and released from subjection 
to any other house and that it should never be made an abbey. This house 
— continues the foundation charter — have I founded for the increase of holy 
religion, giving and conceding to it every kind of liberty that the mouth can utter 
or the heart of man conceive ; whosoever therefore shall cause loss or injury to 
the said house or its immunities may he incur the curse of God and of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary and of all the other Saints of God, besides my particular 

The history of the Priory follows the usual course — gifts of land flowed in — the 
town of Kilross in Ireland, the land of Humphreyhead, rights of fishing in the 
Kent. Indulgences were granted to all who should relieve with their goods the 
building of the church at Cartmel, and in 1233 Gregory IX. issued a bull "to 
his beloved children the Prior of St. Mary of Karmel and his brethren present 
and future professing the religious life for ever," stating that having taken the 

* A fuller account of the descent, with wills and other illustrative documents, is 
given in the Annates Cacrmolenses, pp. 433-639. 



Church of the Holy Mother of God the Virgin Mary of Karmel under Papal pro- 
tection that church should enjoy certain immunities. After ordaining that the 
Order ol St. Augustine should be observed there he confirmed to the Priory its 
various possessions and granted licence to perform during a general interdict 
religious service provided it was done in a low voice without ringing of bells, 
those excommunicated and interdicted being excluded and the doors closed. 
Power was conferred to prohibit the building of any chapel or oratory within the 
limits of the parish, and any contravening the provisions of that bull were 
threatened with the terrors of excommunication. 

In 1322 the Scots, in one of their numerous raids into the North of England, 
marched forward unto Cartmel and, according to the Chronicler, "burnt and 
spoiled all the countrie about except a priorie of blacke chanons which stood 

More lands and privileges flowed in upon the priory, but with the fifteenth 
century the donations almost ceased. 

In the visitation of monasteries by Norroy in 1530 the arms of the priory are 
given as : Per pale or and vert, a lion rampant gules. 

When the Act passed confiscating to the Crown all the religious houses whose 
yearly revenue was less than ^200, the prior and canons petitioned for a new 
survey on the ground that a previous valuation varying from ^89 to ^124 was 
below the proper sum. Accordingly commissioners were sent down and the prior 
and canons shewed their possessions to be worth ^212 by the year. This income 
was chiefly derived from rents of land, tithes, and oblations " at the Relyke of 
the Holy Crosse " preserved in the Priory Church. 

In hunting through some old papers at the Record Office some years ago I cam: 
across a list of the canons and their servants at the time of this survey : The 
prior, Richard Preston, was 41 years old, the sub-prior, James Eskriggs, 36 years 
of age, and of the eight canons the oldest was 6S and the youngest 25 years. 
Then came two waiters, two woodleaders, two shepherds and one hunter, a 
brewer, a baker, a barber, a cook, a scullion, a butler of the fratry, a keeper of 
the wood, a miller, a fisher, a maltmaker and four other servants, with eight 
hinds of husbandry.* 

The muniments of the priory with the plate and jewels were placed in the 
*' coffer remaining in the treasury of the said house, the same coffer fast 
lokked with three lokks and the lokks sealyd, the oon key therof remaynyng with 
the Abbot there and the other two k eyes remaynyng with the said Comyssioners." 
The rest of the effects of the priory were left in the custody of the prior who was 
compelled to sign a document containing provisions as to the management of the 
estates, the custody of the plate, and the receiving of rents and tithes, which 
practically deprived him of any authority in his priory. 

Then the hand of the destroyer was laid upon the priory and the lead was 
being torn off the roof of the church when the parishioners interposed with the 
objection that the church was a parish church and should be left to them as such. 
The commissioners wrote up to London for advice on three questions : 

Itm for ye Church of Cartmell being the Priorie and alsoe Parish Church ^ 
whether to stand unplucked downe or not ? 

* For details see the account of Cartmel Church in '* The Churches, Castles, 
and Ancient Halls of North Lancashire," page 57. 

Answer ; 


Answer : Ordered by Mr. Chancellor of the Duchie to stand still. 

Itm for a suit of Coopis claymed by ye inhabitants of Cartmell to belonge to ye 
Church therof ye g^uift of oon Brig^jsfs? 

Answer : Ordered that the Parochians have them styll. 

Itm for a Chales a Mass Book a Vestyment with other thyn^es necessarie for a 
Parish Church claymed by saide Parochians to be customablie found by ye Parson 
of saide Church ? 

No answer. 

For eighty years the church remained almost roofless, but in 161S Mr. Georee 
Preston, of Holker, repaired the church, and according to the inscription to his 
memory in the south aisle of the chancel, " he beautified it within very decently 
with fretted platster work, adorned the chancell with curious carved wood worke 
and placed therein a pair of organs of great value." 

In 1623 it was ordered that *' the bodystead of the church bee decently formed," 
and in 1626 the present porch was erected and a wall built enclosing the church- 
yard. Down to the nineteenth century the fine appearance which the interior of the 
church now presents was marred by a gallery erected across the top of the screen, 
in which was placed in 17S0 a large barrel organ. Across the north transept was 
another gallery which extended under the first arch of the north aisle of the nave. 
The pulpit stood against the south-west pillar of the crossing and beside it was a 
large pew with a canopy belonging to the BiglanJs of Bigland. The chancel 
walls were covered with plaster, the triforium had been filled up, and the roofs 
were of fretted plaster work. The pillars were whitewashed, and the whole church 
looked bare and glaring. 

In 1830 the floor of the church was re-laid, in 1S49 and 1850 the plaster ceilings 
were removed and the whitewash scraped off the pillars. The work of restoratian 
was carried on, the galleries cleared away, the triforium opened, and in 1867 the 
whole was completed. 

The exterior, from the length of the choir and the peculiar position of the 
tower, presents a striking appearance. The building bears marks of adaptation 
to the various styles of architecture, the elevation of the transepts shewing dis- 
tinctly the earlier and perhaps ruder form of the original structure, and the 
windows in particular indicating the changes which have been made at various 
times. In the north transept are some of the original windows, all with one 
exception now blocked up. The east window is, of course, much later. The 
windows in the south aisle of the chancel known as the Town choir are beautiful 
specimens of the decorated period, and those in the transepts, nave, and Pyper 
choir are perpendicular. The principal feature in the exterior is the manner in 
which the upper part of the tower is placed on the lower, a square placed on a 
square diagonally to its base. 

The interior is lofty. The pillars supporting the tower are Norman (the square 
abacus being used in the capitals) with pointed arches. 

The choir is divided from the aisles by massive round arches, which on the sides 
fronting the choir are richly carved. Between these arches and the east window 
there has been on each side a lancet window, but both have been filled up with 
masonry, that on the south side having been partially re-opened to admit the 
Harrington tomb. Originally, therefore, the choir projected beyond the side 
The triforium arcade, which consists of 22 arches on each side springing from 



shafts haviiifir the square abacus, has probably crossed the east end between the 
original lancet windows, traces of which can be seen on the external wall. 

I'he monks' seats are of the perpendicular period, and under the seats— 26 in 
number — ^are the usual curious devices, including: 

South Side. North Side. 

The Trinity (3 faces.) A lamb at an altar. 

A Pelican in her piety. A hedgehogr. 

A mermaid with comb and mirror. Three dogs chasing a hare. 

A man standing on a dragon. An elephant and castle. 

The canopies are part of the restoration of the 17th century by Geoige Preston, 
of Holker, whose arms — arg. 2 bars and a canton gu., the last charged with a 
cinquefoil or, a crescent for difference, — appear on the south »de of the gates into 
the choir. The stalls are elaborately carved with emblems of our Saviour's pas- 
sion — the crown of thorns, the sponge filled with vinegar, the hammer and nails, 
the vesture and the dice, the ear which Peter cut off and the sword he nsed. 

A little stained glass still remains in the east window and much more existed at 
the commencement of the present century. The old glass, or a considerable part 
of it, is still preserved in the east window of Bowness Church. 

The Parish or Town choir is on the south side of the chancel. The windows 
are good specimens of early decorated work : their form is somewhat uncommon, 
for although they contain the usual geometrical figures, their arrangement is pecu- 
liar. The mouldings are exceedingly plain and of one order only. In the east 
window is some stained glass in which may be read the names of several of the 
descendants of King David. On the north side are two sedilia, the canopies of 
which are formed of a block of red sandstone. 

To the north is the Pyper choir, which still retains its groined roof. The win- 
dows here are perpendicular. A flight of six steps leads into the vestry, built in 
167S by a legacy left by William Robinson. 

The windows of the transepts present a variety of styles. In the south end are 
two perpendicular windows, and in the north end a perpendicular above two 
lancets. The latter are now blocked, but in one of them has been inserted a 
curious round arch with numerous mouldings. 

In the south-east corner of the south transept is a staircase (amilar to that in 
north-west corner of north transept) leading to the roof and communicating with 
the triforium. 

The nave is extremely plain, with windows of the perpendicular period. That 
at the west end formerly contained eflfigies of two knights — one bearing the arms 
of the founder, the other argent fret tee sable. 

In the ceiling of the crossing are four shields bearing 

1. The arms of the founder. 

2. The arms of Preston of Holker. 

3. The arms of the Province of York. 

4. The arms of the Diocese of Carlisle. 

The chandelier in the centre was the gift of Margaret Marshall, of Aynsome, 
in 1734. 

The interior of the lower part of the tower shews that from the centre point of 
each side of the lower, and perhaps earlier, tower, the canons raised four pointed 



arches, afad on these arches built their upper tower. The bells are four in number, 
two cast in 1661, one in 1726, and one in 1729. 

The monuments are numerous, but few of them are of earlier date than the 
middle of the 1 7th century. The principal one is that known as the Harrington 
monument. On a base of masonry carved with quatrefoils are the recumbent 
figures of a knig^ht and his lady, the arms on the heater shaped shield of the 
former being* a fret of five points. The shafts rising from the base and supporting 
the canopy are carved with curious figures. At the foot of the eastern shaft on 
the north side is a figure of John the Baptist holding in his hands an Agnus Dei. 
Above is a group shewing Mary anointing the feet of our Lord and wiping them 
with her hair. On the western shaft is a figure holding a long cross, possibly St. 
Gregory, and behind him is a figure, perhaps of St. Alphege. Above is a repre- 
sentation of the scene when the men who held our L.ord blindfolded him and 
struck him, saying ** Prophesy who is it that smote thee." The centre shaft bears 
three shields, on the uppermost is the fret, as on the knight's shield, and on one 
of the lower ones the Dacre escallops were formerly painted. At the apex of the 
arch on each side is a figure being drawn up in a sheet by angels— representin;; 
the passage of the soul to heaven. At the foot of the eastern shaft on the south 
side is St. Catherine with her wheel, and above her the Crucifixion. On the 
western shaft are figures, perhaps of St. Margaret and St Peter, and an angel 
with a large trumpet. Above, again, Christ being scourged by the Roman 
soldiers. Above the cross beam (which bears oak leaves and acorns) are various 
curious figures, and round the base are carved monks in various postures. Who 
the figures under the canopy represent it is difficult to say. The canons would 
hardly have suffered the monument to mutilate their sedilia, and as there is no 
mention of it in the church bo)ks it seems probable that it was placed in its pre- 
sent position between the dissolution of monasteries in 1537 and 1597 when the 
records of the twenty-fourty commence. Further, considering the marks of 
dislocation which the canopy bears and the few remains of bones found inside the 
base on being opened in 1832, the monument may have been moved from some 
distance at or after the dissolution. It may have stood in some other part of the 
priory, but there are suggestions that it came from Furness, from Gleaston Castle, 
or from Hornby Priory. The distance of these places is a strong objection to 
such suggestions, and it seems most probable that the monument was moved 
from some other part of the priory. Then again there is a difference in style 
between the effigies and the canopy. Further, if the painted shield of arms of 
Dacre is to be relied upon the canopy may have been part of a monument to Sir 
Thomas Harrington of Hornby Castle, who married Elizabeth Dacre, and who 
died from wounds received at Wakefield, or to his son John, killed at the same 
battle. The effigy of the knight, however, shews him in armour of an earlier 
date than the Battle of Wakefield. 

In the chancel is a slab of grey marble inscribed with a cross and inscription 
to the memory of William de Walton, Prior of Cartmel. Close to is a stone on 
which a small cross is carved, and southwards is a stone which bore the inscrip- 
tion : " Hie jacet Wills Br quondam P*or." 

In the Town choir is the recumbent figure of a canon holding a chalice in his 
hands. Here also are the monuments of the Prestons and the Lowthers of Holker. 
There are also stones to the memory of the Barrow, Michaelson, and Roper 
fomilies. Under the organ is an inscription to the " memory of Agnes Brown, 



the road by an ivy-mantled stone porchway, over which is placed 
the inscription " Leonard Newton, 1677." The building is perfectly 
plain and unpretending, whitewashed inside, and with benches of 
plain unpolished oak, and a simple raised portion for the elders, no 
" pulpit, drum ecclasiastick " for the itinerant preachers, who when 
they came to preach were lodged in a room above. *' Inaudible 
and noiseless time ** has worked few changes, and still, though 
rarely, do the successors of those old Puritans worship in their old 
'* meeting " placed high on the hills. The next and in some ways the 
most interesting of all the places visited was 


which, Mr. H. S. Cowper explained, was a fine type of the old 
Westmorland statesmen's dwellings. It is still kept up in its ancient 
form by the tenant, Mr. Taylor. It formerly belonged to a certain 
Philipson, alderman and tanner, who lies buried in Kendal Parish 
Church, but whether of the Crook or Calgarth Philipsons is unknown. 
It is now the property of Mr. Birkett, of Birkett Houses. Among 
the curiosities, attention was directed to a cradle of Christopher 
Philipson, 1663, a fine old oak kitchen table, a pillion, and the dog 
gates at the foot of the stairs to keep down the dogs that wandered 
about in the kitchen. Above the door is an interesting balcony with 
''vooden balusters, giving the house a very picturesque appearance, 
a house that bears the marks of a happy youth and whose old age 
is beautiful and free. 


was the last place visited. Of its history little is known. In 1604 it 
was held by an old " malignant," whom, however, it seems that it 

Fell. The earliest of such minutes relates to a monthly meeting held at Newton; 
it is written in the quaint handwriting of that date and is not easily to be 
deciphered : — '*The 14th of 5 Mo. 166S. attye monthly meeting of men ffriends 
at Newton to consider of tntngs relating to church affairs and for ye rieht 
ordering of all things according to truth and ye practise of our Brethern in other 
places." One of the earliest references I can find about Height is the following : 
— "Att our meeting at Swarthmore yc 12th day of ye I3th month 1678 it was 
agreed upon as followeth, etc." The nrst minute of any meeting held a Height 
that we have is found in some loose minutes : — '* Att our meeting at Height ye 
26th day of ye 7th month 1682, etc," the first minute of which meeting refers to a 
previous meeting held there, loth of 3rd month 1681. On a stone over the 
entrance to the Meeting House are the initials L. N. Anno Domini 1677, 
Lawrence Newton having by will, dated 19th of August, 1676, devised certam 
messuages &c., for maintenance of poor Quakers, members of the three 
meetings of Cartmel, Swarthmoor, and Hawkshead, and other purposes. 

Yours sincerely, 

Elizabeth Newbold. 



was not worth while to eject. It is dedicated to St. Anthony, 
probably by the basket makers and charcoal burners who used the 
hazel trees grown largely there, St. Anthony being the patron saint 
of such industries. In the east window, which consists of five lights, 
there is a strange medley of fragmentary portions of coloured win- 
dows, which probably came originally from Cartmel Priory Church. 
Chancellor Ferguson and the late Rev. Thomas Lees have published 
an account of The Ancient Glass and Wood Work at St. Anthony*s 
Chapelt Cartmel Fell, in the second volume of the Transactions of 
this Society. 

After tea at Strawberry Bank, the route was continued over Gum- 
mers, or Gunners How, and the party drove to Lakeside Hotel for 
the night, passing Staveley Church, which it had been arranged to 
visit. Papers were laid before the Society as follows : — 

The Homes of the Kirkbys of Kirkby in Furness. Mr. H. S. Cowper. 
A Grasmere Farmer's Sale Schedule in 17 10. Mr. H. S. Cowper. 
More Local Notices from Privy Council Records. Mr. T. H. 

A Tullie and Waugh Pedigree. Mr. H. Waqner. 
Local Chap Books. The President. 

Kirkoswald, Find of Incense Cup and Beads. The President. 
Touching for the King's Evil. Mr. H. Barnes, M.D. 
Hardknott. Rev, W. S. Calvbrley. 

At the meeting held in the evening the officers were elected as 
follows : — 

Patrons: — The Right Hon. the Lord Muncaster, F.S.A., Lord 
Lieutenant of Cumberland; the Right Hon. the Lord Hothfield, Lord 
Lieutenant of Westmorland. 

President and Editor:— The Worshipful Chancellor Ferguson, 
M.A., LL.M., F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents :— W. B. Amison, Esq., E. B. W. Balme, Esq., 
The Right Rev. the Bishop of Barrow-in-Furness, The Right Rev. 
the Lord Bishop of Carlisle, The Very Rev. the Dean of Carlisle, the 
Earl of Carlisle, James Cropper, Esq., J. F. Crosthwaite, Esq., F.S.A., 
H. F. Curwen, Esq., Robt. Ferguson, Esq., F.S.A., C. J. Ferguson, 
Esq., F.S.A., G. J. Johnson, Esq., Hon. W. Lowther, W. O. Roper, 
Esq., and H. P. Senhouse, Esq. 

Elected Members of Council:— Rev, R. Bower, M.A., Carlisle; 
H. Barnes, M.D., Carlisle; Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., Aspatria; 
H. Swainson Cowper, Esq., F.S.A., Hawkshead ; J. F. Haswell, 



M.D,, Penrith ; T. H. Hodgson, Esq., Newby Grange : Rev. Canon 
Mathews, M.A., Appleby ; E. T. Tyson, Esq., Maryport ; George 
Watson, Esq., Penrith ; Rev. H. Whitehead, M.A., Lanercost ; 
Robert J. Whitwell, Esq., Kendal ; Rev. James Wilson, M.A., 

Auditors: — ^James G. Gandy, Esq., Heaves; Frank Wilson, Esq., 

Treasurer : — W. D. Crewdson, Esq., Helme Lodge, Kendal. 

Secretary : — T. Wilson, Esq., Aynam Lodge, Kendal. 

The next meeting was fixed for September to be in the Isle of Man. 

The following new members were elected, viz: — Mr. J. Cowper, 
Penrith; Rev. D. Harrison, Cockermouth; Mr. W. G. Strickland, 
Dublin; Dr. Bowser, Musgrave Hall; Mr. Todd, Harraby ; Mr. C. 
W. Dymond, F.S.A., Ambleside ; Miss Amy Beevor, Carlisle ; Rev. 
A. Wright, Gilsland; Miss A. F. Walker, Whitehaven; Mr. A. 
Satterthwaite, Lancaster ; Mr. S. Marshall, Skelwith Fold ; Mr. W. 
Rawlinson, Duddon Hall ; and Rev. C. H. Lowry, Kirkby Ireleth. 

Considerable delay took place in making a start on the second morning 
owing to a want of punctuality on the part of some members, and 
further time was lost at Haverthwaite Station in waiting for a train, 
which was expected to, but did not, bring additions to the party. 
The first stop was made at Colton Church, of which the vicar, the 
Rev. A. A. Williams, gave an account. Mr. H. S. Cowper, F.S.A., 
then took the party in charge, and under his guidance they walked 
and drove to the Stone Circle at Knapperthaw, the Stone Rings 
Camp near Burney, and the British Settlement on Heathwaite Fell.* 
The wind on the fells was cold, and the members were pleased to 
descend into a warmer climate, and visit Kirkby Hall, which was 
described by \Tr. Cowper. Time did not permit the proposed visit 
to Ashlack Hall, and the meeting practically ended at Kirkby Ire- 
leth Church, which is close to Kirkby Station. 

Monday to Friday, September 24-28, 1894. 

The second meeting and excursion for the year 1S94 of 
the members of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archasological 
and Antiquarian Society was on a more extended scale than 
usual, and took the shape of a delightful excursion to the Isle 

* Accounts of these will be found in The Ancient Setllements, Cemeterie*, 
and Earthworks of Furness, by H. S. Cowper, F.S.A., printed in Archceohgia, 
vol. liii., p. 389. 



of Man. The party, numbering nearly fifty members of the 
Society and friends, left Barrow shortly before two o'clock on 
Monday, September 24th, and had a delightful passage across 
the Irish Sea in bright sunshine until nearing the Manx coast, 
when the voyagers began to recall the local legend that the magician 
Mannanin kept the island to himself by concealing it from the sea 
under a cloud of mist. The beautiful Bay of Douglas was much 
admired. The party was landed at the Victoria Pier at about a 
quarter to six. They were met and cordially welcomed by his 
Honour Deemster Gill, Mr. P. M, C. Kermode, F.S.A., honorary 
secretary to the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society, the Rev. S. A. P. Kermode, vicar of Kirk Onchan, and 
others interested in archaeological and antiquarian studies. The 
visitors included the following:— Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., pre- 
sident ; Mr. and Mrs. W. G. Collingwood, Coniston ; Mr. James P. 
Watson, Appleby; Miss Noble and party, Penrith; Mr. G. H. 
Nelson, Kendal; Mr. Swainson Cowper, F.S.A., Coniston; Rev. W. S. 
Calverley, F.S.A., and Mrs. Calverley, Aspatria ; Mr. W. H. R. 
Kerry, Windermere; Mr. W. L. Fletcher, Workington; Mr. J. H. 
Nicholson, Wilmslow ; Rev. B. Barnett, Preston Patrick; Miss 
Gibson, Whelprigg; Mr. and Mrs. Robinson, Sedbergh ; Miss Bow- 
stead, Sedbergh ; Rev. R. S. G. and Miss Green, Croglin ; Mr. and 
Mrs. Simpson, Kendal; Mr. A. Satterthwaite, Lancaster; Mr.'E. 
T. Tyson, Maryport ; Mr. W. G. M. Townley, Grange-over-Sands ; 
Dr. and Mrs. Little, Maryport; Miss Piatt, Kirkby Lonsdale; Mr. 
E. H. Banks, Highmoor, Wigton ; Mr. T. H. Hodgson, Newby 
Grange ; Mr. James Harrison, Newby Bridge ; Mr. George Watson, 
Penrith ; Mr., Mrs. and the Misses Wrigley, Seascale ; Mr. Pollitt, 
Kendal ; Mr. T. Wilson (hon. secretary) and Miss Wilson, Aynam 
Lodge, Kendal, and others. 

The Society's headquarters in the island were at the Castle Mona 
Hotel, an imposing building which stands in the centre of the 
crescent of Douglas Bay, and was formerly the residence of the 
Dukes of Athole, ** Lords of Man,'* by whom it was built at a cost 
of ^£'40,000. After dinner a meeting was held, the President, Chan- 
cellor Ferguson, occupying the chair. Mr. W. G. Collingwood, M. A., 
read an interesting paper on ** Manx Names in Cumbria," which will 
appear in the Transactions. 

A brief discussion took place upon the subject of Mr. Collingwood's 
paper. The President then gave a description of a figure, which had 
recently been found in or near Old Carlisle, which he believed to be 

The following new members (16) were elected:— Mr. R. G. Graham, 



Beanlands Park, Irthington ; the Rev. Samuel Barber, West Newton; 
Miss Catherine D. Holt, Windermere; Mr. W. W. R. Binning, Car- 
lisle; Mr. Wm. H. R. Kerry, Wheatlands, Windermere; Dr. Mason, 
Windermere; the Rev. E. P. Kimbley, Staveley Vicarage, Leeds; 
Miss H. M. Donald, Stanwix ; Professor Pelham, Brasenose College, 
Oxford; Mr. Samuel Taylor, Haverthwaite ; Mrs. Frederick Brock- 
Hollinshea<', Crosby Ravensworth ; Mr. J. R. Marshall, Keswick; 
Rev. A. J. Heelis, Borrowdale, Keswick : the Rev. George Rubie, 
Cartmel ; Miss Twentyman, Wigton ; and Dr. Manning, Kendal. 

The party was early astir on Tuesday morning (the 25th Sept.), 
and the weather being bright and fme the bay and its surroundings 
were seen to great advantage. The day's work lay in the southern 
district of the island, and extended as far as Port St. Mary. The 
first halt was made at Oatlands in Santon parish to view a stone 
circle, with cup and ring markings. By an unlucky accident only 
the first carriage, in which were the guides for the day, Mr. Deemster 
Gill and Mr. P. M. C. Kermode, got to the right place, the second 
carriage having taken a wrong turn of the road and led all the rest 
astray. A re-union was effected at Ballasala where the puzzling 
ruins of Rushen Abbey were inspected : they are so lumbered up 
with a modern hotel, stables, coach and cart sheds, a joiners' shop and 
garden walls as to be unintelligible without a good guide or a good 
plan, but neither was forthcoming. The tower which puzzles many 
people seems to have been the Abbot's culver-house or pigeon-house. 
The next halt was made at Ma lew church, where the party was 
received by the vicar, the Rev. S. H. Gill, and under his guidance 
and that of Mr. P. M. C. Kermode they made their first acquaintance 
with the Manx crosses, and saw the familiar representation of Sigurd 
toasting the dragon's heart from the Saga of "Sigurd Pafni's Bane." 
The Malew pre- Reformation chalice, assigned by experts to c. 1525, 
was also exhibited. 

At Rushen Castle, Castletown, the Society was received by Sir 
James Gell, the Attorney-General of the island, who, with the assist- 
ance of Mr. Keene» the superintendent of the Castle, courteously 
showed the visitors round the old fortress. Chancellor Ferguson 
pointed out that the Castle, as it at present exists, was of the 
Edwardian type of concentric castles, as distinguished from the solid 
square keep of earlier ages. It appeared, however, that an earlier 
fortress of smaller size had been in existence. The great thickness of 
the walls and the strength and solidity of the Castle and its defences 
were features that attracted notice. The vault under the eastern 
wall, opened in Governor Loch's time, and the sluice for flooding the 
moat were examined, as also the apartments formerly occupied by 


EXCURSIONS And proceedings. 305 

the Lords of Man, and the cell eroneously thought to have been the 
place where the Countess of Derby was imprisoned. Actually she was 
only living under surveillance in a house within the Castle walls. In 
the room used as a museum there were several interesting objects, 
including a bog-oak canoe from Santon, some querns, a cinerary urn, 
a Roman altar (at once identified by the Cumbrians as having been 
brought from Maryport)* and a number of plaster casts of Manx 
crosses. The castle clock, presented by Queen Elizabeth in 1597, 
was viewed with interest. At the close of the inspection of the 
Castle, a vote of thanks was cordially passed, on the motion of 
Chancellor Ferguson, to the Attorney-General and Mr. Keene for 
their kindness in conducting the visitors around. 

From Castletown the members of the Society drove to Ballaquin- 
ney, in Rushen, where they were met by Mr. Henry Kelly, who 
showed them two interesting stones with Ogham inscriptions, which 
have been read by Professor Rhys. One of the stones was inscribed 
Bivaidouas maqi mucoi Cunava — the stone of Bifaidon, the son of 
Mucoi Conaf. The larger stone was deciphered as follows: — 
Dovaidona maqi Droath, meaning ** The stone of Dovaidon, son of the 
Druid." These stones were found in graves in an ancient buiial 
mound, close to the road, where both Christian and pagan inter- 
ments had evidently taken place. Amongst other discoveries made 
in this mound about 20 years ago, were stone celts, coins of the 
reigns of Edwy, Edred, and Athelstane, partially burnt bones, and 
skulls of two distinct types of men. The shape of the graves also 
indicated both pagan and Christian modes of burial. Within almost 
living mcmor}' there were the ruins of a chapel on this spot. The 
discoveries in the mound are set forth in a paper on the subject 
written by Mr. Kelly for the Isle of Man Antiquarian Society. 

The party drove home by way of Arbory Church, where an old roof- 
beam, said to have been given by the Abbot of Rushen, was seen, as 
well as other objects of interest. The reputed site of Bimaken Friary 
was pointed out a little further on. The Castle Mona Hotel was 
reached about a quarter-past seven. 

On Wednesday the 26th September, favoured again with capital 
weather, the excursionists proceeded in carriages on their way to 
Peel, leaving Douglas at nine o'clock. They called at Kirk Braddan 
for the purpose of inspecting, under the guidance of the Rev. W. S. 

•This altar is No. S60 in the Lapidarium Septentrionale, and No. 371 C.l.L. 
It is first described by Gordon in his Ithierarium Septentrionale, p. 183, where it 
is stated, in March 1725-6, to have been just found at Elenborough upon the river 
Ehen in Cumberland. See also Kerroode's Manx Crosses, 2nd edition, p. 56. 




Calverley, F.S.A., the runic crosses and other monuments of antiquity 
in the interesting churchyard. Resuming the carriages, the party 
drove on to St. John's. On the way the ruins of St. Trinian*s Chapel 
were pointed out. Shortly afterwards St. John's was reached. On 
the invitation of Deemster Gill the party entered the church ; where 
his Honour explained the order of proceedings of the Tynwald Court, 
and pointed out the positions occupied by the two legislative bodies, 
and by the clergy and the. officials. He then led the way to the 
Tynwald Hill, where he made the following speech : — 

We stand on a spot as interesting to the antiquary as it is dear to the heart of 
every Manxman. In it we recognise the pivot round which for well nigh a thousand 
years has revolved the political life of this diminutive kingdom. Here new laws 
have been made and old ones declared and explained, grievances disclosed and 
redressed, differences between litigants adjudicated on and settled^ criminals 
punished or outlawed. Here in the open air for many centuries the inhabitants 
of this happy Isle have assembled to meet their kings, their governors, their 
judges, and their lawgivers, and, improving the occasion, they have established 
here their fair ground, wherein to transact their commercial business. In the 
construction of this mound we feel a peculiar interest, for tradition tells us that 
it is composed of soil brought from each of the 17 ancient parishes of the Island. 
We stand on representative ground. It consists, as you will observe, of four 
circular platforms, the lowest having a circumference at the bottom of 256 and 
at the top of 240 feet ; the second has a circumference at the bottom of 162 feet; 
the third of 102 feet ; and the topmost of 60 feet. The total height of the mound 
is about 12 feet. A writer in Notes and Queries of February, 1871, traces a 
symbolical meaning in and gives several interesting results from these figures. I 
am unable to follow him, but I think it right to point to the existence of these 
speculations. The hill and the purposes for which it exists are, of course, of 
Scandinavian origin. The mound is known as the Tynwald Hill, modernised or 
Anglicised from the Norse Thing f^otla — Parliament field— of the Middle Ages. 
There is a striking resemblance between our Tynwald arrangements here and 
those of the ancient Norse Moot-places, remains of which are to be found in Ice- 
land, in Norway, and elsewhere. Dr. Vigfusson points out some of these. There 
was always a plain {voU) — here we have a plain flanked by rising ground. There 
was a hillock or mound ; here we have this artificial mound constructed for the 
purpose. There was a Court situate due east of the hill ; here we have the Court 
at the distance of about 140 yards east of the hill. There was a temple — a place 
of religious worship ; here we have a church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, 
on the site of older churches. There was a path for proceeding from one to the 
other ; here we have such a path. The whole was enclosed by a fence ; here an 
encircling wall exists. When the king sat on the hill, it was with his visage unto 
the east; the arrangement is the same here, as I shall explain later. All these 
points of resemblance exist, but there is one essential and vital difference between 
the institution here and what exists there. There we find only evidence of a life 
which has long ago become extinct, we find the skeleton from which we may 
guess what manner of man it supported ; here we have the complete body, living 
and moving and having its being in the same form and to the same extent as it 


ttXCUftStON^ ANb t>R6CEteDtN(iS. 307 

had when it was borne hither in the gfalleys of the Vikings x,ooo years ago. It is 
remarkable, indeed it is romantic, that this interesting and picturesque institution 
which, centuries ago, died out in the mother country should have survived in this 
remote little colony and taken such firm root in a land where it was exotic; that 
in the midst of so many changes in the neighbouring countries, our home rule 
should have remained practically unaltered, so that we can boast of possessing 
the most ancient constitution in Europe. The Danes and Norwegians who occu- 
pied this Island for some three-and-a-half centuries, ending about 1264, brought 
with them here, as to other places conquered by them, their laws and form of 
government. They established here a kingdom, the territorial limits of which 
comprised, as well as the Isle of Man, all the islands of the Hebrides which lie 
south of Ardnamurchan Point. The kingdom was designated " Man, and the 
Isles," and its king " Rex Manniz et Insularum.*' The seat of government was 
in the Isle of Man, probably at Castletown ; and, of the twenty-four free-holders 
comprising the House of Keys (the representative branch of the Legislature), 
eight were chosen in the " Out Isles," and sixteen in the '* Land of Man." The 
number of the Keys appears to have been originally fixed at twenty-four, it 
remained unaltered after the extent of the kingdom was reduced by the separation 
of the out isles, and it is the same to this day. The Keys were known by the 
Manx people as the " Kiare-as-feed," the four-and-twenty, and this is probably 
the origin of the name *' Keys." It is, by some, thought to be derived from 
" Keise," the Norse equivalent of '* Chosen," and other suggestions as to the 
derivation have been made, but none appears quite satisfactory. The Keys were 
the third Estate in the Manx Constitution, the second. Estate consisted of the 
Council — the Lord's principal officers, including, or having associated with them, 
the two Deemsters, and the first Estate was the Sovereign or Lord of the Island. 
The formal designation of the Legislature is "The Governor, Council, Deemsters 
and Keys in Tynwald assembled." Thus constituted this national Council or 
Thing, in later days known as Tynwald, met from time to time for judicial, legis- 
lative, and administrative purposes. For judicial and administrative purposes it 
appears to have met in other places besides the hill at St. John's, for instance at 
Castletown, at Reneurling in Kirk Michael, at Kiel Abban in Kirk Braddan, and 
elsewhere, but it is doubtful whether for the purpose of the promulgation of laws 
it ever met except at St. John's. It has been suggested, but I think there is little 
foundation for the suggestion, that Tynwalds, each comprising 12 Keys and one 
Deemster, met respectively at the South and^North of the Island. It is undoubted 
that very marked differences have existed between the two districts, diflPerent laws 
and customs have existed and still exist in each, and the people speak with a 
noticeable difference in the intonation of voice. But I cannot find that there was 
even this splitting of the Tynwald. There is evidence of the Tynwald having sat 
at Reneurling in 1433, and at Keil Abban in 1429 ; but I think the Court sat as a 
whole. Keil Abban is situated as nearly as possible in the centre of the Island. 
It is exactly equidistant between the Point of Ayre on the north, and the Land of 
the Calf on the south ; and, within half-a-mile, equidistant between the east and 
west coasts. Whether this placing was the result of accident I do not know. 
There was a hill, and an ancient church ; but the church was not east, but south 
of the mound. More might be said as to Keil Abban — or Keil Ammon — but time 
forbids. We must turn to the modern use of the Tynwald Hill. After the Norse, 
men, the Scots ruled here for over a century ; after them, the Earls of Derby 
were lords. Sir Stanley, second of his line, visited his kingdom and held a 



Tynwald in 1414 ; for his instruction the followiugf document was prepared : — 
" Our Doughtful and Gracious Lord, thb is the constitution of old time, the 
which we have given in our days, how ye should be governed on your Tynwald 
Day. First, ye shall come thither in your royal array, as a King ought to do, by 
the prerogatives and royalties of the Lord of Man ; and, upon the hill of Tynwald, 
sit in a chair covered with a royal cloth and cushions, and your visage unto the 
east, and your sword before you holden with the point upward, your Barons (in 
the third degree) sitting beside you, and your beneficed men and your Deem&ters 
before you sitting, and your clerks, your knights, esquires, and yeomen about 
you (in the third degree), and the worthiest of your land to be called in before 
your Deemsters, if you will ask anything of them, and to hear the Government of 
your land and your will, and the Commons to stand without the circle of the hill 
with three clerks in their surplices, &c." This imposing ceremonial in the pre- 
scribed form continues to take place here annually on the 5th July (the 24th of 
June, old style— St. John's Day), and all the laws which have during the year 
been passed by the Legislature and received the Royal assent are promulgrated 
in .English and in Manx to the assembled multitudes. No statute is of any 
validity until it has thus been promulgfated. After it has been passed by all the 
estates of the Legislature, it lies dormant until it has been proclaimed f roni the 
Tynwald Hill. 

At the conclusion of the Deem.ster*s interesting exposition, on the 
motion of Chancellor Ferguson, a hearty vote of thanks was 
accorded to him by acclamation. Prom the Tynwald Hill the 
Society went to Peel, and there, of course, they explored the picture- 
sque ruins on Peel Hill. The custodian of the building did the 
honours of the ruins in a truly '* popular ** style, but the bitter cold 
wind drove many of the party to the shelter of the Creg Malin 
Hotel, where lunch was provided. 

Kirk Michael was next visited and the crosses there were explained 
by Mr. P. M. C. Kermode, whose work on Manx Crosses should be 
in the hands of everyone interested in the subject. One of the 
crosses here has Runic inscriptions on it, and also an Ogham one 
and an Ogham alphabet lightly scratched on it, no doubt by the 
mason for his guidance in cutting the inscription. Prom Kirk 
Michael the party drove home through the beautiful pass of Glen 
Ellen. They were fortunate in escaping a heavy local shower 
which had evidently fallen in the neighbourhood of Greeba before 
they reached that place. They arrived at Castle Mona shortly after 
seven o^clock. 

The route on Thursday morning, the 29th September, was by car 
to Ramsey and back. The first call was made at Kirk Onchan, 
where several interesting crosses were described by the vicar, the 
Rev. S. A. P. Kermode — himself a lover of antiquarian lore. After- 
wards, the party took the mountain road, and had a most delightful 
drive over the hills. The weather was charming, and, the atmos- 


phere being clear, they had a fine view from Snaefell over an 
immense tract of country, reaching from South Barrule to North 
Barrule. At Sulby, a pause was made for refreshment, and then 
the. party drove on to Ramsey where luncheon was had. An 
adjournment was then made to the Masonic Lodge Rooms, where 
the Rev. S. N. Harrison, president of the Isle of Man Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society, welcomed the visitors. Chancellor 
Ferguson replied on their behalf, and assured the Manx friends pre- 
sent of the pleasure which the visitors had experienced in visiting the 
various localities and inspecting the numerous objects of antiquity 
which they had seen during their excursion to the Isle of Man. Mr. 
P. M. C. Kermode, whose attention to the north country visitors all 
through was most assiduous, had taken the trouble to collect a large 
number of drawings of the various crosses in the Island, and after 
the Chancellor*s reply, these drawings were described by Mr. Ker- 
mode. After an hour thus agreeably spent, the party left Ramsey 
and drove to Maughold Church, where there is a fine collection of 
crosses. Here the Rev. S. N. Harrison took the visitors in charge and 
explained the several crosses and other objects of antiquarian in- 
terest about the church. The party then returned to Douglas, being 
accompanied part of the way by a waggonette containing several 
members of the Manx Society. At Castle Mona Hotel dinner was 
served about half-past eight o'clock, and ai^erwards a short meeting 
was held, when cordial votes of thanks were passed to all the friends 
resident in the Island who had so courteously helped the members 
of the Cumberland and Westmorland Society to enjoy their visit to 
Mona's Isle. 

On Friday 28th September the members departed for home by the 
Barrow boat, though some half-dozen prolonged 1 their stay in the 
island for a day or two. 


Art.XXW.— Church Belts in Leaih Ward. No. 4. By the 
Rev. H. Whitehead. 

Communicated at the Isle of Man, Sept. 24, 1894. 
DENRITH parish church has eight bells; the treble and 
tenor of which were cast in 1889 by Messrs. Taylor, 
of Loughborough, who at the same time recast the fourth 
bell of the old ring of six. 

On each of the other five bells, cast at the Whitechapel 
foundry, is inscribed 


Lester and Pack, who were better bell-founders than Latin 
scholars,* became partners in 1752, the foundry since 1739 
having been held by Lester alone, t foreman and successor 
to Richard Phelps,^ whose predecessors were the Bartletts 
for three generations, and the Carters for two, the elder of 
whom in 1606 succeeded Robert Mot, the earliest known 
proprietor of this celebrated foundry. 

The names and date in the above inscription impair the 
accuracy of the following story, which has long been cur- 
rent at Keswick : — 

The tradition is that there were three sets of six bells each, cast by 
Pack and Chapman, for Penrith, Cockermouth, and Keswick — ^some 
say there were four sets, adding Workington — and that Dr. Brown- 
rigg, who built Ormathwaite, and was one of the chief residents here, 
gave /"lo 10. to the collection, on the condition that Keswick had 
the first pick of the three, or four sets, as the case may have been, 
and that this accounts for the Crosthwaite bells being of a sweeter 

* On Stanwix church bell, cast in 1779 by Pack and Chapman, occurs the 
word fbcbrunt; which in 1775, when castingr the Crosthwaite and other Cum- 
berland bells, they had not yet learned to substitute for fecit. 

fin 17^3 Lester recast the Hexham bells. 
% Founder of 

the old great bell of St. Paul's (London). 



tone than either those at Penrith or those which were destroyed 
when All Saints church, Cockermouth, was burned down"^^ (Cros- 
ihwaiU Parish Magazine, October, 1882). 

Never yet was there a ring of bells which was not regarded 
by the inhabitants of the parish to which it belonged as 
the best anywhere known. But Keswick folk must seek 
some other explanation of the alleged superiority of Cros- 
thwaite bells to those of Penrith. Pack and Chapman did 
certain!}' cast the Workington as well as Crosthwaite bells 
in 1775. In what year they cast the late Cockermouth 
bells is not exactly known ; destroyed bells, like dead men, 
telling no tales. But Penrith bells, as shewn above, were 
cast in 1763 by Lester and Pack. 

The Whitechapel foundry — ^which after Lester's death 
in 1769 was held by Pack and Chapman until 1781, by 
Chapman & Mears from 1781 to 1783, then by successive 
members of the Mears family until 1868, since which year 
the firm has been known as Mears & Stainbank — has 
supplied many excellent bells to Cumberland churches, 
€.g.y besides those already mentioned, six for Brampton in 
1826, six for Thursby in 1846, eight for Cockermouth in 
1856, eight for St. Bees and three for Skirwith in 1858, 
eight for St. Stephen's (Carlisle) in 1864, and numerous 
single bells of various dates from the Holme Cultram 
tenor of 1771 down to the Addingham treble of 1893. 

The Penrith (Whitechapel) tenor, now No. 7, in addition 
to the inscription common to the ring, bears the names of 
the then vicar and churchwardens : 


The vicar, Mr. Cowper, was long connected with Penrith, 

* Cockermouth church was burnt down in 1S49. 



having in 1729 been appointed master of the Grammar 
School, the governors of which, on Feb. 25, 1733, as 
recorded in the school register, 

certifye that Mr. John Cowper Master of the said School is a person 
of Regular Life and Conversation, ha« very much improved the 
school, and behavM himself for these five years to our entire satis- 
faction and aprobation, for which Sr Chr Musgrave has added the 
chapel of Soulby for his encouragement. 

The "encouragement" thus received consisted of a stipend 
of about 3^20 (Nicolson and Burn, i, 552), out of which he 
paid a substitute to perform the duty. There is extant a 
letter from Dr. Richard Burn of Orton, the historian, to 
Sir Philip Musgrave, son and successor of Sir Christopher, 
in which, speaking of the clergy who within his knowledge 
served the chapel of Soulby, he says that 

Mr. Cowper employed Mr. Pindar of Musgrave, who for half-a-crown 
each Sunday, after having officiated in the afternoon at his own 
church, travelled thro* thick and thin, in bad road, mostly on foot, 
and (to use his own expression) thundered them a march '-s 

From 1743 to 1750, still continuing to reside at Penrith, 
and retaining his mastership of the Grammar School, Mr. 
Cowper was rector of Kirkbride ; where, as at Soulby, he 
probably performed his duties by deputy. At all events 
we catch a glimpse of him during that period himself 
acting as a clerical deputy elsewhere ; for Chancellor 
Waugh, writing in 1749, in his notes to Bp Nicolson's 
Miscellany Accounts, speaking of Mr. Wilkinson, vicar of 
Bromfield, who was at the same time vicar of Lazonby, 
says ; — 

Mr. Wilkinson resides at Lazonby, where he has built himself a good 
house . . . but the unhappy man, soon after he finished it, for 

• For this information I am indebted to the Rev. W. Lowthian, vicar of Trout- 
beck, formerly curate of Soulby, who had it from Mr. Bowstead, steward at 




want of his school,* I think, was moped, and so remains. The 
schoolmaster of Penrith, Mr. Cowper, supplies the duty. He has 
no other curate. 

In 1750 Mr. Cowper was collated to the vicara«:e of Pen- 
rith ; which, together with the school, he held until his 
death at the age of 80 in 1788, having been master of the 
school 59 years. 

The weights of the bells of 1763, as given in the fol- 
lowing table, are taken from the founders' invoice, or 
rather from a copy of it in the churchwardens' accounts, 
which from 1655 to 1801 are contained in what is called 
*• The Old Church Book " : 









28i inches 












3H ., 




1 -* 


34i » 



i ^ 


37* » 




' 6 






These bells were paid for by a rate of gd. in the pound, 
and every item of expenditure for their purchase and 
hanging is minutely recorded. Lester and Pack's account 
with the churchwardens was 3^334 on, from which 
£164 2 4 was deducted in allowance for the old bells. 
This amount, however, did not include the hanging, which 
was done by local men, at a cost of ;f 37 i 8, care being 
evidently taken to distribute the work amongst as many 
as possible, under the superintendence of Mr. William 
Porthouse, who seems to have been regarded as an 

* Lowther School ; established by the second Lord IjonsdaIe> " with an ample 
foundation, for the benefit of all the northern counties ; and, as longr as Mr. 
Wilkinson directed it, never was a school in higher repute " (Hutchinson, ii, 



authority on the subject of bells, and on much else be- 
sides*. For three years he had charge of the "water 
engine **, bought in 1763-4 " by order of the Vestry " ; 
which duty, afterwards successively performed by John 
Pattinson and James Mounsey, was in 1780 assigned by 
the vestry to the bellringers : — 

Jan. I, 1780. At a Vestry meeting held this day it is agreed by the 
Churchwardens Overseers and principale inhabitants assembled that 
the underwritten men be appointed ringers for the future & that they 
are to have the usual Salary viz 15s per annum each man And also 
that the Ringers be appointed to take care of the Engine to the 
Satisfaction of Mr. Isaac Pattinson and that, they have the yearly 
salary for the same : — i John Porthouse ; 2 Thos Cockin ; 3 Jas 
Birbeck; 4 Edwd Parcivale; 5 Wm McHenry; 6 Thos Birkett 

When a fire occurred the ringers worked the engine, for 
which they received extra payment. They also received 
extra payment, at the rate of is. 6d. each per day, on 
what are called in the churchwardens' accounts '* rejoicing 
days". At the time now under notice (George III) the 
regulation " rejoicing days " seem to have been : May 29, 
King Charles' Restoration ; June 4, King's birthday ; Sept. 
22, King's Coronation ; Oct. 26, King's Proclamation ; 
Nov. 5, Gunpowder Treason. But when news of some 
victory arrived there was an extra rejoicing day; for which 
also the ringers received extra payment. Nor was this all 
that they received on such days. No year passed without 
its item of 

Ale to the ringers on rejoicing days. 
Other persons also enjoyed themselves at the ratepayers' 

• Nor was his reputation confined to Penrith, since in 1767 the Crosthwaite 
churchwardens' accounts have this item : "Mr. Porthouse for the bells £z4 7^ 
6d." These were the old Crosthwaite bells, which in 1775 were superseded by 
Pack and Chapman's ring of six. What was done to them in 1767 there is 
nothing- to shew; probably they were then rehung. 



expense on these festive occasions. At least that is the 
inference to be drawn from a constantly recurring item, 
of which the following is an average specimen : 

1765 Spent on rejoicing days £2. 

Of specimens exceeding the average the most notable is 
that supplied by the year which closed the i8th century : 

1800 * Xmas Day and sundry rejoicings £y i8s. 2d. 

There are no such " rejoicings" now at Penrith, and not 
many such anywhere else. They probably disappeared 
with the church-rate. 

Among the items in the accounts for 1763-4 was this : 

To Dawson & Storey for carrying the old Bells to 
N*castle & bringing the new ones £1^ 3s gd. 

There is a tradition that these old bells " went to Kirkos- 
wald". It is likely enough that they went there, but not 
to stay there. They would have to pass through Kirkos- 
wald on their way to Newcastle, thence to be conveyed by 
sea to London. Doubtless they " went to " the White- 
chapel furnace ; but not without leaving behind them the 
materials for a partial recovery of their story. The terrier 
of the year 1749, signed by " Battie Warsop, Vicar ", thus 
describes them : 

Five Bells the least weighing Five hundred weight the Second is six 
hundred weight and a half the third eight hundred and a half the 
Fourth ten hundred and a half the biggest weighing twelve hundred 

* In this year (iSoo) also occurs the following item, which however did not 
greatly exceed the average annual expenditure for the same purpose in the last 
decade of the century : ** Bread and wine for Sundry Sacrements ^"8 5s. 6d.** 
The wine, as shewn by the accounts of some other years, cost 2s. per quart, and 
the annual cost of the bread was about lod. ; from which it appears that in this 
year the wine provided " for sundry Sacrements " amounted to 77 quarts. 




These weights do not agree with those allowed for in the 
invoice of Lester and Pack, who in 1763 took the old bells 
in part payment for the new. I here place the two 
estimates side by side: 




Cwt. Qr. 

Cwt. qr. 




3 3 



6 2 

4 3 



8 2 




10 2 

7 I 






Terrier weights are often inaccurate ; but, when they are 
so, they for the most part virtually confess as much, saying 
that the bells are about such and such a weight. The 
Penrith terrier contains no "about", but speaks with a 
decision which suggests that whoever drew it up either 
called in the aid of an expert or had before him some 
authoritative memorandum on the subject. Nevertheless 
it is obvious that Lester and Pack, when the bells were 
taken down in 1763, had better means of ascertaining 
their weight than anyone could have had in 1749, when 
they were still hanging in the tower. 

A good deal of information concerning them is supplied 
by the " old church book" ; which in the year at which it 
begins at once introduces them to our notice : 

1655 To the ringers in decembr 5s. 

During the next two years they appear not to have been 

rung at all. It was the time of the Commonwealth ; and, 

though the Puritans were by no means universally hostile 

to church bells, it would seem as if the Presbyterian vicar 

of Penrith, Roger Baldwin, had no great lovd for them, 

and allowed them to fall into disuse, but was perhaps 

induced by public opinion to allow them to be heard 

again. Hence in 1658 this item : 


s. d. 


4 to 


6 8 




i8 4 


10 o 

2 O 


6 o 


To ringers of the church as hath formerly been used 58. 

In each of the next two years the ringers receive their 5s 
at Christmas. But the items for 1661 tell a livelier tale : 

Iron worke for ye Great Bell 

For a bell rope « -. 

To the Ringer for drinke. .- 

To W. Burton for iron work for 3 bells and 
a Key for ye Steeple doore 

To the Ringers 

For drinke when ye bells was amending 
For the ringers 

Clearly an episcopalian revival. The local historians, 
from Nicolson and Burn down to Walker, all say that old 
Mr. John Hastie, who had been collated to the vicarage 
of Penrith in 1600, and ejected by the Long Parliament, 
was restored in 1660. But this is an error, as is con- 
clusively shown by the parish register : 

1659-60 Jan 6— Mr, J.ohn Haisty Late vicar of Penrith buried. 

All the same Mr. Roger Baldwin had to vacate the living 
soon after the Restoration, when an Act was passed which 
deposed all incumbents who had been put into the place 
of others by the parliament, even if those they superseded 
had since died. Mr. Baldwin's successor was Mr. Simon 
Webster, inducted October 25, 1660, to whose appoint- 
ment may be ascribed the activity we have observed in 
the belfry in 166 1 ; which activity certainly indicates that 
that the bells had been allowed to get into some disorder, 
and perhaps had suffered rough usage, during the Com- 
monwealth. But the remedy applied does not seem to 
have been thorough ; for the tinkering at the bells con- 
tinues at intervals all the way down to the hanging of the 
new bells in 1763, the " great bell *' especially causing a 
great deal of trouble and expense. How many of the bells 



were in use at any given time, at least for some years, or 
what sort of system regulated the ringing, it is not easy to 
say. The 5s. at Christmas, which, notwithstanding the 
increased amount given to the ringers in 1661, was all 
they got in other years down to 1666, looks like a Christ- 
mas box, given to men who had no regular salary, and 
who doubtless did very little work. In 1666 they get 
I2s. 6d. at Christmas, which they continue to receive at 
Christmas until 1686, when it rises to 15s. In 1692 it is 
increased to 22s., and for the first time is mentioned as 
their "yeare's salary". In 1696, the ringers probably 
striking for more pay, we meet with this item : 

Ye ringers as by agreement by ye parishioners £z. 

At which figure the wage stands until 1739, when it rises 
to £2 10, the reason for the rise being apparent in the 
following entries : 

1738. Paid the four ringers for their wages at Christmas £7,. 

1739. Paid to ave ringers • . . . ;£*2 10. 

From this it might be supposed that before 1739 there 
had only been four bells, and that a fifth bell was now 
added. But, as will presently appear from Bishop Nicol- 
son's notes, one of the bells had long been out of order, 
and seems now to have been put right. No further 
alteration of wages occurs until the arrival of the new 
bells in 1763. But, as in later years, the ringers received 
extra payment for " rejoicing days " ; which however were 
not much observed in Penrith until the very end of the 
17th century, though Mr. Webster, the first post-Restora- 
tion vicar, appears to have done his best to encourage 
their observance. Thus the bells were rung on May 29 
and Nov. 5 in 1662 ; and in the following year the ringing 
on Coronation day, or at all events the payment for it, is 

expressly ascribed to the vicar's influence : 



Pd the coronation day to ringers at re- 
quest of Mr. Webster our Vicker is. 

What further in this direction Mr. Webster might have 
instituted, whether he would have anticipated the develop- 
ment of later years, we cannot say, as he did not see that 
year out, i.e., as vicar of Penrith.* Nor amongst his 
immediate successors, with one exception, did anyone 
arise at all equal to the carrying out of the principle which 
he had laid down. Here we must note the extraordinary 
rapidity with which these successors came and went. In 
seven years Penrith had as many as five vicars : Simon 
Webster, Rt. Fisher, Chas. Carter, Marius d'Assigny, and 
Joshua Bunting. The seven years covered the whole 
period of these five vicars. This quick succession of 
vicars seems to have had a damping effect on the growth 
of Penrith festivity, and indeed to have checked it alto- 
gether, except during the brief incumbency of Mr. Carter, 
when, in 1665, the bells were rung on the Restoration and 
Coronation Days, and for " a victory at sea ", which must 
have been the defeat of the Dutch on June 3 in that year. 
In no other year of the period in question was there any 
extra ringing at all except on an occasion which cannot 
exactly be called a festivity : 

1668 Paid the ringers att the burall Mr. Rabon son 3s. 

Some may be surprised to hear of a peal being rung at a 
funeral. But such was formerly the prevalent custom, 
and indeed was in strict accord with the 67th canon of the 
Church, which directs that •* after the party's death (if it 
so turn out) there shall be rung no more than one short 
peal, and one other before the burial, and one other after 
the burial *', the intention being to call upon friends to 
give thanks for the deliverance of a soul "from the 

* He was collated in 1663 to the vicarage of Dufton. 



miseries of this sinful world '*. The funeral knell, there- 
fore, is a modern innovation ; and this entry is only 
strange as indicating that the peal " at the burail Mr. 
Kabon son " * was paid for by the churchwardens. The 
first vicar to break the spell of quick succession was Mr. 
J. Child, who was instituted in 1688 and died in 1694. 
But Mr. Child fell on evil times ; for in 1671 there occurs 
a total break in the annals of the parish, lasting three 
years, during which even the names of the churchwardens 
are not recorded, the only entry being this : 

The plait e was gone & linen belonging ye church in the yeare 1672 in 
which yeare Allan Mawson was noe churchwarden. 

Allan Mawson had been one of the churchwardens in 
1670, and this entry in the church book may be regarded 
as his protest against the idea that he was in any way 
responsible for the disappearance of the '' plaite and linen " 
How or why it " was gone " there is nothing to shew. 
Whatever became of it no steps were taken to procure 
new plate until 1678, when a subscription of £g 1 10 
was raised as a " free gift for ye plaite and linen in Pen- 
rith Church ". We need not, therefore, be surprised that 
it is not until 1685 that we meet with any indication of 
public rejoicings during Mr. Child's incumbency. In that 
year there was ringing on May 29 and Nov. 5 ; for which, 
however, the ringers got nothing but drink, is. on May 29, 
and 6d. on Nov. 5. Still a principle was established, or 
rather re-established, which in the following year expands 
into "Ale to ringers at severall times 33"; and in 1688 
into " Given the ringers upon publick days to drink 5s ", 
as well as 12s. 6d. in money for ** five public days ringing ", 
But 1688, being the year of the Revolution, was of course 

* Mr. George Watson informs me that no such name as Rabon occurs in ihe 
parish register either in i66S or in any other year, and he ^ves good reason for 
identifying the "Mr. Rabon son'* of the church books with "Mr. Edward 
Robinson " recorded in the register as "buried November i6, i66S". 



an exceptional year for public rejoicing. During the rest 
of William's reign the standard of pubh'c rejoicing at 
Penrith was not kept up to this mark. It was reserved 
for the reign of Queen Anne and the incumbency of Dr. 
Todd to witness the next decided advance in this matter ; 
and in 1706 we recognise the beginning of a custom which 
prevailed more or less at Penrith, sometimes to a remark- 
able degree, during the whole of the i8th century, viz., 
the burning of ** tar barrels at the Cross ". Mr. Walker, 
in his history of Penrith, referring to this practice, says 
(P.79) : 

It was customary during the early part of the last century for the 
parishioners to assemble round the Cross whenever any great occa- 
sion for rejoicing presented itself; and, while there, a quantity of ale 
was consumed, and a number of tar barrels burnt, which on some 
occasions were paid for out of the church money. 

It would perhaps be nearer the mark to say that on all 
occasions these proceedings were " paid for out of the 
church money ** ; which, being provided by a rate, the 
parishioners naturally regarded as their own. So far from 
the drinking of ale on these occasions being confined to 
the ringers, it would almost seem as if they were at first 
in danger of not coming in for their fair share, and the 
vicar had to come to their assistance : 

1706. Pd to Alexander Hewer for Ale to the Ringers as 

he says per Dr. Tod's orders as per acquittance 7s. 

The victory of Ramillies, the victory before Turin, the 
raising of the siege of Barcelona, the news of " the happy 
Union of England and Scotland ", the thanksgiving day 
for the same, and the anniversary of the Queen's accession, 
were all occasions in this year for " ale at the Cross "• 
Tar barrels seem only to have been burnt for the battle of 
Ramillies ; but in later years they figure more con- 
spicuously. In 1708 we get another new item : 



Ale for Ringers and treating the Soldiers 
at severall public Rejoyceings 14s. 

On the accession of George I there is yet another new 
departure : 

1 7 14 Wine att the King's Proclamacon £1 5s. 

Which however does not preclude ale on the same occa- 

Ale to the Cross 4th Aug. att the King's Proclamacon 8s. 

Ale again at the Cross to same amount " when the King 
landed ", and twice as much the day he was crowned. No 
doubt the bells rang in the king. But the days when there 
was extra ringing in this year are not specified. They are 
grouped in a single comprehensive item : 

A shillinge a man p day for seaven days ringmge 

by the Order of the Doctor and other gentlemen £1 8 o. 

There is nothing, then, to show whether the bells were 
. rung on the following occasion : 

1714-5. — Ale at the Cross on January 20 

beinge the General! ffast day . . los. 

The ensuing year, 1715, was a memorable one in the 
annals of Penrith, where on November 2 the Chevalier 
de St. George was proclaimed at the Cross as James III 
by Mr. Forster, the commander of his forces ; who, says 
Mr. Walker (p. 61), " collected the money belonging to 
the revenue, but in other respects conducted themselves 
in the most orderly manner, doing no harm either to the 
inhabitants or their property ". All the same when his 
cause collapsed there was exultation at Penrith : 

Nov 14. — Aile to the Cross at newes of the defeate of the 
Rebels 6s. ; to the Ringers 4s. ; Tar Barrels 3s. 

Dec 5. — ^When Stanhop's Horse came thro paid the Ringers 2s. 

ifeb 12. — At the Pretenders leaving Scotland, aile 

at the Cross 58. ; the ringers that night 2s. 



Yet with inconsistent impartiality, brought out into strong 
relief by a curious juxtaposition of days, they continue to 
celebrate Charles II's restoration : 

May 28. — Expenses att night with ye officers * £1 56. 
May 29. — Expenses that night per bill and 

receipt made • ;^2 18 6. 

King George's birthday and King Charles's restoration 
were in the next year occasions for yet another step in 
advance : 

May 28 — Music 12 J. 
May 29 — Music i2i. 

Nor in succeeding years was the music restricted to 
those two days or to so small an expenditure, but was 
repeated, at 2s. per day, on every " rejoicing " occasion, 
What with bell-ringing at the Church, tar barrels, music, 
and ale at the Cross, the Penrith people of those days 
were a jovial folk. And so, year after year, the 
" rejoicings " went on, reaching their climax, as they 
were bound to do, in 1745, when Penrith, having again 
undergone the experience of being occupied by an invading 
army, again had to celebrate the triumph of the king. 
Mr. Walker, at p. 73, to which page he prefixes the 
heading *' Twelve days' rejoicing ", says : 

The inhabitants of Penrith had a fortnight's rejoicing after the danger 
to which they had been exposed was past, as will appear from the 
following extract from the old church book : 

. ^ B. d. 
1745. To expenses in securing church plate in 

Rebellion ». o 10 o 

To ringers, 12 rejoicing days 300 

To expenses in 12 rejoicing days ^.. 8 10 o 

Hence it would appear that the bells were rung for 12 days in suc- 
cession ; and the item of £% 10 would certainly indicate that the 
spirits of the people generally had been somewhat elevated. 



But Mr. Walker, who, by the way, has made the mistake 
of transcribing los. instead of lod. as the amount paid for 
securing the church plate, has here fallen into a further 
mistake through not observing that since the year 1741 
the church book had ceased to record the separate items 
of expenditure for the several rejoicing days during the 
year, and lumped them altogether. So that the entry 
relating to " 12 rejoicing days " in 1745 does not mean 
that the bells were rung and ale drunk at the Cross for 
twelve successive days, but that there were in all twelve 
public rejoicing days throughout the year ; an unusual 
number, it must be admitted, the regulation number being 
five. They may have kept up their rejoicing for a day or 
two when Prince Charles left Penrith behind him on his 
march northward, after the *' skirmish nigh Clifton Moor", 
and when Carlisle was retaken by the Duke of Cumber- 
land. But there were certainly not twelve successive 
rejoicing days. In the following year they had eight 
rejoicing days — for which the ringers got jf2, and the 
other expenses were £^ — ^which again was more than the 
regulation number. One of the extra three days was no 
doubt for the battle of Culloden, and another for the 
arrival of 

two large gilt chandeliers, which are still to be seen in the parish 
church, and which, although rendered useless by the introduction of 
gas, are daily becoming more interesting as mementoes of the march 
and retreat of the Highlanders. (Walker, p. 73). 

Their arrival and fixing are thus recorded : 

£ s. d. 

1746. For carriage of chandelears from London — 318 o 

To Wm. Porthouse for putting up chandelers 200 

They tell their own story, each bearing this inscription : 

These Chandeliers were purchased w* ye fifty guineas given by the 
most noble William Duke of Portland to his Tenants of y« Honor of 



Penrith : who under his Grace's encouragement associated in defence 
of the Government and town of Penrith against the Rebels in 1745. 

To the right of this inscription are the Portland arms, on 
the other side of which the narrative continues thus : 

The Rebells after their retreat from Darby were put to flight from 
Clifton and Penrith by his Royall Highness William Duke of Cum- 
berland after a short skirmish nigh Clifton Moor'^'' which began at 4 in 
ye afternoon of Wednesday ye 18 Deer 1745 Rebell Prisoners taken by 
ye Tents of Penrith and ye neighbourhood were upwards of 80. 

The impetus given by the suppression of the rebellion to 
festivity at the Cross did not at once subside ; for in 1747 
there were nine rejoicing days, with £2 5 for ringing, 
and £4 II II at the Cross. In 1748 it drops to five 
days, with £1 5 for ringing, and only £1 17 at the 
Cross. In 1749 it shews a tendency to rise again, viz., 
seven days, with 22s. for ringing, and ^^3 4 11 at the 
Cross. In this year a new vicar is thus welcomed : 

Treating the Rev Mr Worsop at his first coming £1 4. 

Notwithstanding this cordial welcome his stay was short, 
for on 

Nov. 2, 1750, the Rev Mr John Cowper MA Rector of Kirkbride was 
collated to the vicarage of Penrith by the Rt Rev the Bishop of 
Carlisle void by the cession of the Rev Mr Battie Warsop LLB on 
the 22 of September 1750 (Parish Register), 

During his brief incumbency the vestry passed the fol- 
lowing resolution : 

July ye 9th, 1750. — It is hereby agreed yt no Sum or Sums of money 
expended on ye usual rejoyceing Days be for ye future charged on 
acct of ye Parish except ye expences of ye Bonefire and ye Ringers 
and ye Ale which shall be then drunk at ye Cross. 

• For full particulars concerninfi^ the "skirmish nigh Clifton Moor" see 
Chancellor Ferguson's paper on **T^* Retreat of the Highlanders through 
Westmorland in 1745 {ante, vol. viii> pp. 186—228). 



Yet it does not appear that there ensued much diminution 
in the expenses of the rejoicing days, which seem to have 
gone on at about the same rate as before, and in 1762, 
which was the last year of the old bells, reached the fol- 
lowing amount : 

Eight days — £2 for ringing ; Tar barrels, £1 4s. 6rf. ; 
Music and ale at Cross £z 17s. 6</. 

Of ale, no doubt, whether at the Cross or elsewhere, the 
ringers consumed a fair amount ; and the writer of a 
review of the Carlisle Diocesan Church Plate Book, in 
which some of these entries are given, says : 

We may remark that the ringers at Penrith in the i8th century were 
by no means wearers of the blue ribbon. The members of that pro- 
fession have indeed been seldom famous for temperance (Saturday 
Review^ Sept. 23, 1882). 

But it would be a mistake to suppose that the Penrith 
bellringers of the i8th century were disorderly men. Their 
rules breathe the very spirit of order : 


You ringers all observe these Orders well. 


He forfeits sixpence who overthrows a bell. 


Who'er shall ring with either Spur or Hat 
Shall pay his sixpence certainly for that. 


In falling bells one penny must be paid 
By him who stops before the signal's made. 


Each Peal required for Church -service Divine 
Who don't attend must send in proper time 
A substitute ; sixpence shall be his fine. 




A brother knowing and shall absent be 
When others ring to catch the pecuny 
Of what arises he shall have no share 
Except force not choice causM absence there. 


Who'er profanely takes God's name in vain 
Shall sixpence pay ; in future must refrain 
From said practice or no ringer remain. 


To cause to cease from wrangling debate 
For every Ringer standing obstinate 
Against a fairly polled majoritie 
Sixpence for each a fixed fine shall be. 


It is agreed all fines they must be spent 

What in, when, where, by major part's consent. 


With heart upright each individual ring 

For health & peace to Country Church & King. 

Bishop Nicolson, when inspecting the bells, on the 
occasion of his visit to Penrith in 1704, did not omit to 
notice the clock : 

They have also a good clock ; which is commonly under such dis- 
cipline as is usiial in Mercate-Towns (Bp. N*s Miscellany Accounts, 
p. 153)- 

At what time it was placed in the tower we have no 
means of knowing ; but that it was already there in 1655 
appears from the item of " mending a clocke wheele is 4d** 
in the first page of the church book. Its "discipline", 
prior to 1704, does not seem to have been of a very 
systematic character. One John Washington, first men- 
tioned in 1664, was called in at intervals to " mend clock 



and chime ", or was paid for " work about the clock and 
chime " ; but there is no record of any regular payment to 
to a caretaker. John Washington, we remark, may have 
been akin to the ancestors of the illustrious George 
Washington, whose grandfather John is believed to have 
sailed from Whitehaven in 1657, and to have been a 
Cumberland man. "^ Our John Washington disappears 
from the church book in 1692, from which year to 1704 
there were occasional repairs to " clock & chyme ** by 
nameless persons. In 1704 there occurs this item : 

Mending Clock & Chimes & putting all 
in order relating to them . . . ;f 3 i 6 

In 1 7 12 the clock gives place to a successor : 

£ 8. d. 
To Aaron Cheasbrough for the new Clock — 16 o o 
Lant. Holme for makeing the Clock case 
and finding wood as per recpt 226 

That the " discipline " of the new clock was more 
systematic than that of its predecessor may be inferred 
from the constantly recurring item of " Wm. Browne as 
usual I2S 6d.", sometimes varied by " Wm. Browne for 
taking care of clock and chimes ". William Browne, 
sexton and captain of the bell-ringers, had a long innings, 
his name not disappearing from the accounts till 1748. 
His •' taking care " of the chimes was probably a light 
duty, as they seem to have fallen into disuse, until Wm. 
Porthouse took them in hand, repairing them for £y in 
1740. In 1748 Mr. Porthouse mends the clock; the first 
time the new clock seems to have required mending. In 
1755 he mends both clock and chimes. In 1765, two 

• On which subject see a paper by Mr. W. S. Harper in vol. v, pp. qS-ioS, of 
these Transactions. 



years after the hanging of the new bells, he supplies new 
chimes at a cost of 3^53 211. In fact, for a quarter of 
a century or more, he appears to have reigned supreme 
over clock, chimes, and bells. Dr. Michael Taylor, F.S.A., 
speaking at a meeting of the Penrith Literary Society, 
" said that it was perhaps in the knowledge of many there 
present that among the lost trades of Penrith was that of 
clock making; and Mr. Wm. Porthouse was one of the 
great clock makers at Penrith. At that time Penrith was 
very celebrated for clocks, and many of these clocks were 
still in the county. The clocks were of very excellent 
manufacture, in the old fashioned style, and the business 
was continued by his son. He thought the last Wm. 
Porthouse died in Penrith in 1820, and it might interest 
many to know that the shop in which he lived was in 
Post Office Lane, very near the shop now occupied by 
Mrs. Miller" {Penrith Observer, Dec. 25, 1883). 

But to return to the Bells. Bishop Nicolson says : 

In the Tower there are five Bells ; whereof the largest seems to be 
the oldest, haveing only these words Ora Jesu Maria twice inscribed 
upon it. The Second was new cast about 60 years agoe ; and has 
Thomas Stafford (the name of the Bell-founder) and the Initial 
Letters, as supposed, of the names of the then Church Wardens. The 
Third appears to have been cast in 1639. The Fourth has no Legend 
on it ; but the Fifth has Exsurgite Mortui ct VeniU ad Judicium ; and 
was cast in 1595. This last is either faulty in the Frame or some 
other way in disorder ; For 'tis never rung out, or, at least, has not 
been so of late years. 

It is necessary to notice that the bishop and the terrier, 
in their numbering of the bells, do not follow the same 
order, the bishop beginning with the " largest ", and the 
terrier with the " least ", as first bell. The right order is 
that of the terrier, which accordingly will be adopted 
whenever reference is made in this paper to any particular 
member of the ring. It will be convenient, however, for 
avoidance of confusion, to place the two arrangements 




side by side in the following table ; the weights in which 
are as reported by Lester and Pack : 

Bp. N. 

1 erner 

Cwt. qr. lb. 



No. 5 
». 4 
» 3 

,» 2 

„ I 

No. T 

,» 2 

.. 3 
« 4 

" 5 

3 3 13 

4 3 13 

6 o 10 

7 I 13 


Exsurgite &c. 

T. Stafford 
Orajesu Maria 

The bishop, for an antiquary, is rather loose in his account 
of these bells, especially of that which he says " was new 
cast about 60 yeares agoe " by T. Stafiford, and that which 
he says " appears to have been cast in 1639 ". In all 
probability these two bells (Nos. 3 and 4) were cast at the 
same time and by the same founder. The treble, dated 
1595, seems from its legend to have been originally in- 
tended to toll the death knell, and was just in time to do 
a deal of work, as in 1597-8 the northern counties were 
severely ravaged by the plague.* This was the bell 
which in 1704 was " some way in disorder ", and had 
" not been rung out of late years ". Nor was it again 
" rung out " until 1739. The bishop showed good 
judgment in not taking it for granted that it was mute 
from any fault of its own. Many a sound bell has been 
condemned as cracked when the only fault was in its 
gear. The tenor, with its mediaeval legend, Ora Jesu 
Maria^ was rightly regarded by Bishop Nicolson as the 
'' oldest " bell of the ring ; and it is well that he specified 

* On a stone slab, now on the inside of the wall of the north aisle, but in the 
old church in Bishop Nicolson's time "on the outside of the north wall of the 
vestry ", is inscribed 

Pestts fuic Ao 1598, unde moriebantur 

apud Kendal 2,^00, Richmond ; 
Penrith, 2266, Karliol 1196. 

This cannot mean that 2266 persons died in the parish of Penrith, which in 159S 
had not more than 2000 inhabitants. It must refer at least to the deanery of 
Penrith, at that time coincident with Leath Ward. 



it as the " largest ", or we should not have known that he 
inverted the order, and should have supposed that this 
bell was the treble, instead of the tenor. The regular 
sequence of the weights of the five bells, and the proba- 
bility of Nos. 3 and 4 having been cast at the same time, 
are suggestive of a work done in 1639, ^^^ object of which 
was, by casting, recasting, or tuning, as the case required, 
to secure a complete and harmonious ring. On which 
hypothesis I assign the blank bell (No. 2) to no later date 
than that year. Either it was found in the tower, or 
placed there, by Thomas Stafford. This founder, if not 
a native of Penrith, had resided there some years before 
he did the work now under notice ; for at Cartmel there 
is extant an agreement, dated July 20, 1630, between the 
churchwardens and " Tho Stafford, of Penrith, in the 
county of Cumberland, bell-founder, for the new castinge 
of the greate bell of the P'ish Churche of Cartmel " 
(A finales Caermoelenses, p. 61) ; and the treble of the old 
Kirkby Stephen ring, as stated by the late vicar {antCf iv, 
239), bore this inscription : 


In this couplet I at one time thought we had a clue to the 
authorship of the " Ringers' Orders ", which I was dis- 
posed to include among the poetical works of Thomas 
Stafford. But I now know them to be a compilation, 
taken a bit here and a bit there from similar ** Orders ". 
Nor was Stafford the original composer even of the 
couplet on his Kirkby Stephen belK The late Mr. T. 
North, in his " Church Bells of Rutland ", says (p. 53) : 

At the commencement of the seventeenth century the Newcombes 
began to use the form to which they subsequently as a rule adhered : 
Be yt knowne to all that doth me see 
That Newcomhe of Leicester made mee. 



Possibly Thomas Stafford served his apprenticeship to the 
Newcombes. Perhaps, as there is no trace of him, nor of 
any one of his name, in Penrith parish register, it may be 
no gpreat stretch of imagination to suppose him to have 
been a native of Leicester, and a descendant of the 
earliest known Leicester bell-founder, thus mentioned by 
Mr. North : 

Johannes de Stafford had, there are good reasons for believing, a 
foundry at Leicester at least as early as the middle of the fourteenth 
centuiy (ib. p. 48). 

So Thomas Stafford may have come from Leicester, 
bringing with him thence his couplet, and perhaps also 
the " Ringers' Orders " ; for the adoption of which his 
reform of the Penrith belfry in 1639 was a suitable occa- 
sion. Nor was there ever a time when it was more 
needful to " ring for health and peace to Country, 
Church, and King". But the ringers, unless they im- 
partially welcomed whatever happened, must soon have 
been in great perplexity what to ring for. Penrith people 
were tolerably well affected to the king. But there were 
times when their town was occupied by parliamentary 
forces. General Lambert in 1648 making it his head- 
quarters ; and if when Charles II passed through Penrith 
on his way to Worcester, in 1651, " no merry peal from 
the old church steeple bade him welcome " (Walker, p. 
5q), it may have been because the then vicar, Roger 
Baldwin, had no love for Charles. Perhaps, as we have 
already had occasion to notice, he had no love for the 
bells themselves. The churchwardens* accounts prior to 
1655, had they been extant, would probably have shown 
that Mr. Hastie's ejectment from the vicarage was at once 
followed by neglect of the bells. The loss of those early 
accounts is the more to be regretted, as they would have 
thrown much light on Stafford's work in 1639, which was 
an event of someinterest in the annals of Penrith. Browne 



Willis, writing of Cariisle cathedral tower in 1727, says : 
" In it hang five bells, the only peal of so great a number 
in the diocese, except at Penreth *' {Survey of English 
CatJtedralSf vol. i, p. 280). Willis is wrong as to the 
cathedral, which since 1658 had possessed six bells. But 
even down to 1775 no parish church in Cumberland had 
as many as five bells, except Penrith, which meanwhile, 
in 1763, had got six. The year 1608, in which a fifth bell 
was added to the cathedral ihediaeval ring of four, seems 
to mark the introduction to Cumberland of the change- 
ringing movement, then in its infancy (ante, viii, 135-165). 
It may have reached Penrith from Carlisle. More likely 
it came from the south. Perhaps Stafford himself brought 
the new learning, and, preaching the necessity of Penrith 
keeping pace with the times, succeeded in making con-* 
verts of the churchwardens, whose initials he inscribed 
on the 3rd bell of the reformed ring. But he was unfor- 
tunate in the time of his work ; which, as we have seen, 
was destined to be much marred during the Common- 

Must we stop here, or may we endeavour to carry our 
story still further back ? What bell was that which was 
** new cast " in 1639 ? Thomas Stafford saw it, consigned 
it to his furnace, but has left no record of it. But, on 
hypothesis of its having been a pre- Reformation bell, 
Edward VI's commissioners must have seen it in 1552. 
It was their duty to report what they saw, and their 
report is still preserved at the Record Office. To the 
Record office, then, we repair, and find-^alas, we find the 
names of half the Cumberland churches torn off, and 
Penrith among the lost names (ib. viii, 186-204). But, 
though the names of the churches are missing, the lists of 
their goods remain, and in some cases it is possible to 
restore a lost name to its surviving list. Thus we at once 
identify the Greystoke list by its item of " iiij gret belles ", 
which still remain. Only three other churches in Leath 



Ward had ^''gret belles" in 1552. All three of them are 
among the nameless churches; but one of them must 
certainly be Penrith, which we know had at least one bell, 
viz., " Jesu Maria", which was great as well as mediaeval. 
The following list, then, which stands next to that of 
Greystoke, was probably the list of Penrith church goods 
in 1552 : 

Item ij chalesses of silvr with coverings one 
vestement of white silk ij vestements of 
bustenge with albes to the same ij vestements for 
. . . . iiij alterclothes ij gret belles. 

One of these bells, if the royal commissioners had strictly 
carried out their instructions, would have been confiscated 
" for ye Kinges use " ; but, as has been shewn elsewhere 
(ante 9 vi, 426), the Cumberland church bells seem not to 
have been molested by Edward VI's commissioners. In 
the massive tower of Penrith parish church I cannot but 
think there may at some time or other have been, as at 
Greystoke, " iiij gret belles ". Assuming, however, that 
this tower once had its ring of at least three, what became 
of the third? Did Henry VIII's "visitors" take it and 
sell it for "ye Kinges use " ? We know, on the authority 
of Philip and Mary's commissioners, what Henry's visitors 
did with one Penrith bell : 

Jeffrey Thomson Stephen Robinson and Anthonie Robinson of Peh- 
rithe yomen saythe that Richarde Wasshingstone besydes Kendal 
bought the layte howse of the ffreers in Penrithe and hadd the bell 
of the sayde ffreers {MS in Record Office). 

But Henry Vni, though he despoiled the religious houses 
and abbeys, did not molest the parish churches. By his 
treatment of the religious houses, however, he set a bad 
example, which patrons of livings, churchwardens, and the 
parishioners generally, in many parts of the counti-y were 
not slow to imitate, betaking themselves to spoliation of 



the churches on their own account; and in some such 
way the parish church of Penrith may have lost one and 
perhaps two of the bells which had hung in its tower — 
since when ? Well, a likely man to have had a hand in 
providing Penrith church with " gret belles ", worthy of 
its fine tower, was William Strickland, bishop of Carlisle 
from 1400 to 1419, who gave to the cathedral " quatuor 
MA,GNAS CAMPANAs " (Leland, i, 472), one of which, weigh- 
ing about 17 cwt., still remains as a memorial of his 
munificence. Camden, in his account of Penrith, says : 

For the benefit of the Town W. Strickland, Bishop of Carlisle, 
descended from a famous family in these parts, did at his own charge 
draw hither a Chanel or Water-course, irom Peterill, or the little 
river Peter. 

Nor was this his only known benefaction to Penrith. 
Hutchinson (i, 333) says : 

William de Strickland founded a chantry in this church in honour of 
St. Andrew with a yearly stipend of £6 to a chantry priest who 
should teach church music and grammar. 

He also added a tower, known as the "Strickland tower", 
to Penrith Castle. Let us then believe that he was the 
donor of the church bells, the last survivor of which served 
as the tenor of the Stafford ring. 

Must we stop even here ? Surely he must be an un- 
imaginative man who can have spent but a few days in 
Penrith with never a thought bestowed upon the far dis- 
tant past, the memory of which still lingers in the tones 
of the curfew. Common report ascribes the origin of the 
curfew to William the Conqueror. But in Cumberland 
we do not recognise William the Conqueror, and refuse 
to admit that he instituted anything in this county. Yet 
does not the very name of the ** curfew ", it may be asked, 
reveal its Norman origin ? Well, even in other parts of 



England the evening bell, whatever may have been its 
name, was wont to be rung as a signal for the extinction 
of fires long before the Norman conquest. The late Miss 
Powley, in her interesting paper on the Curfew (anU^ vol. 
iii, pp. 127-133), whilst admitting that "through the 
Conqueror's edict the practice acquired new authority, 
and through his language a new name, at least in the 
south of England *\ patriotically contends not only that 
William's edict had no force in Cumberland, but that his 
language did not here succeed in imposing upon the 
evening bell the new name of Curfew ; which she says is 
in Cumberland " quite a lately acquired piece of book 
knowledge ". It was ** communicated by the late Mrs. 
Brown that in her childhood the eight o'clock bell was 
popularly named 't' Taggy bell ', and she remembered old 
persons saying to children that if they were out after it 
was rung Taggy would get them". Then follows a 
learned disquisition, some authorities recognising in the 
word Taggy a corruption of the Danish word " toekke ", 
which means " cover", and thus connected with "couvre 
feu " (curfew). But Miss Powley gives in her adhesion 
to another Danish word, " taage ", mist or gloom, and in 
the warning " Taggy will get you " sees " a simple appeal 
to the terror of children against the personification of the 
power that walketh in darkness ". Nor was Taggy a terror 
only to children. " In the early days of the Northmen in 
England there must have been great distress and discom- 
fort in districts with such a rainfall as ours, with such 
abundant streams and undrained lands, with their dense 
fogs, and exaggerated mists, and misleading lights ". We 
recognise, then, a use of the evening bell distinct from its 
function as the signal for extinction of fires. " From very 
early times there appears to have been an idea of safety 
connected with bells. Besides the wide spread super- 
stition of their power against evil spirits . . . they 
had other claims to regard. There are on record many 



instances of life havin^^ been saved, when benighted 
travellers, at the sound of the familiar bell, recognised 
their locality, and regained their home, after being utterly 
lost amid the swamps and fogs of yore ". Such considera- 
tions, she concludes, ** surely may have some association 
with or influence on the name of * Taggy bell ', if it is a 
Danish word . . . and as Bell of the Gloaming, the 
Mist or the Darkness, it is a more natural as well as a 
more powerful and poetical term than if it is considered 
merely as that for the Norman extinguisher ". Penrith 
people, then, would perhaps do well to discard the modern 
innovation of calling their evening bell the " curfew ", and 
restore to it the traditional name of Taggy, especially as 
they would thereby be assisting Chancellor Ferguson in 
his laudable efforts, in which, as he told Mr. Freeman 
during the visit of the Archaeological Institute to Carlisle 
in 1882, he has been engaged for several years, to keep 
the name of William the Conqueror out of Cumberland, 
where when living he never set foot and had no authority* 
Let not the spirit of William, eight centuries after his 
death, triumphantly ensconce itself in the tower of Penrith 
parish church. 

But the " knell of parting day ", still tolling from eve 
to eve, as from century to century through bygone ages, 
whilst taking us back in thought to the remote past, 
serves also to remind us that the story of Penrith church 
bells would be incomplete without some reference to their 
present uses. Each member of the old ring had, and (with 
one exception) still retains, its distinctive name, indicative 
of the office it has long discharged. The exception is the 
old 6th (now 7th) bell, which has been superseded as 
" death bell " by the new tenor. 

2 Town Fire Bell 5 Market Bell 

3 Country Fire Bell 6 Curfew 

4 Prayer Bell 8 Death Bell - 



In some places all the bells are "jangled" to give alarm 
of fire. Bishop Hall says : " So when we would signify 
that the town is on fire we ring confusedly " {Occasional 
Meditations Lxxx). But here the 2nd or 3rd bell, according 
as the fire is in town or country, is rung alone. The late 
vicar on the occasion of " ringing himself in " is said to 
have caused consternation by ringing one of the fire bells. 
Which bell, by the way, ought he to have rung ? 
Probably the " prayer bell ", so called from being used 
for the daily service, and therefore the least likely to cause 
disturbance when rung unexpectedly. The ancient custom 
of ringing a bell to announce the opening of the market 
has now in many places fallen into disuse. Thirteen 
years ago it was proposed to abolish it at Carlisle ; but at 
a meeting of the town council 

Mr. R. S. Ferguson thought the bell should not be abolished. He did 
not think the market legally began until the bell was rung. There 
had been such a bell as long as the corporation had existed {Carlisle 
Journal, March ti, 1881). 

The custom was therefore retained with only two dis- 
sentients. At Carlisle, however, the market is not opened 
as at Penrith by a church bell. The curfew, rung nightly 
for about ten minutes at eight o'clock, ending with the 
requisite number of strokes to indicate the day of the 
month, is a unique survival, at least in Cumberland. An 
evening bell at Rocliffe, called the " curfew ", is a modern 
institution. The Carlisle municipal accounts contain 
items of this kind : 

1603 Unto henry Warwicke for curfewe bell xiiis iiiji. 

But at Carlisle the curfew has long been obsolete. The 
tenor (No. 8), besides its use as the "death bell", serves 
also as the clock bell. The death " knell ", sometimes 
erroneously called the " passing bell ", is a rarity in this 



county. In Penrith, as in many places further south, it 
indicates the sex of the deceased by thrice three quickly 
repeated tolls, called the ** tellers", for a man, thrice two 
for a woman, and thrice one for a child; whence the 
saying " Nine tailors make a man ", a corruption of " Nine 
tellers mark a man ". 

It has been, as the reader will have noticed, the practice 
of the good people of Penrith, at least in post-Reformation 
times, to wake up once in a century to a sense of the need 
of putting their bells in order. Nor will the present 
century be unmarked by an important work of belfry 
reform, owing to the munificence of the late Miss Har- 
rison, of Lynnwood, at whose cost the following improve- 
ments were made in i88g : 

Taylor & Co., of Loughborough, to rehang and 
quarter-turn the bells, with entire new fittings 
and iron framework — ..«. ;fi44 

New eight days' clock, by Potts & Sons, of Leeds, of 
best construction, with all modern improvements . 100 

Instead of three hours chimes the Cambridge quarter 
hour four bell chimes « ^ 55 

Total cost », .... ;f299 

Tradition says that the oak of the old bell-frame came 
from Brougham Castle. The late Canon Simpson, quoting 
from Machel, says that " Lord Thomas Tufton pulled 
down a great portion of the castle in 1691, and in 1719 
the timber and lead was sold, and purchased by Mr. 
Markham and Mr. Anderton of Penrith " (ante, i, 70). 
This brings the oak of Brougham Castle to Penrith. But 
there is nothing in the churchwardens' accounts to con- 
firm the belief that any of it found its way into the belfry 
of the parish church ; nor anything to shew that the 
framework was renewed when Mr. Porthouse hung the 
bells in 1763. In all probability, with such alterations as 



were rendered necessary by the sixth bell, the framework 
had remained much the same as Thomas Stafford left it 
in 1639. I'o say nothing of other defects, it impinged on 
the walls, an arrangement which has caused serious injury 
to many a church tower. The ringers* ** gallery ", so 
called in the accounts for 1741, when it was erected at a 
cost of £t 2 6, was unsuitable for the purpose for 
which it was intended, as it only admitted of the ropes 
falling in a line. With such an arrangement change- 
ringing, worthy of the name, was out of the question. To 
remedy this state of things by enlarging the gallery would 
still further have spoilt the beauty of the vaulted basement 
of the tower, already disfigured by such an excrescence. 
The ringers therefore now use the upper chamber, which 
formerly contained a cumbrous and complicated chiming 
apparatus, the superseding of which by the Cambridge 
chimes allows plenty of room for the ropes to fall in a 

These chimes, first used, in 1793, for St. Mary's church, 
Cambridge, are said to have been composed by Crotch, 
then a mere lad, who, says Dr. Raven in his book on 
Cambridgeshire Church Bells, pp. 105-6, 

may be credited with the idea of taking a movement in the 5th bar 
of the opening symphony of that most sublime air of HandePs *' I 
know that my Redeemer liveth ", and, by a system of variations, not 
unworthy of Fabian Stedman, expanding them into the annexed 
musical chime. . . . Very few, except those who had known 
Crotch, were aware that he had anything to do with their com- 
position, and till they were copied for the Royal Exchange their 
merits were but little appreciated. But now they sound from many 

They are here subjoined as arranged for the Penrith 
bells : 




i *<fH.-r:77 










The hour is struck on the tenor E. 

The parishioners, whilst these alterations were in pro- 
gress, by a praiseworthy effort, in which nonconformists 
heartily co-operated with churchmen, raised £"220 to 
complete the octave, and also, owing to change of key by 
new tenor in E, to recast the old fourth (but now fifth) 
bell from A| to A ; and the ring, by the addition of the 
new treble and tenor, is thus constituted : 











27 inches 






m „ 



































414 1 














On the treble is inscribed 




On the tenor 


The Messrs. Taylor, of Loughborough, to whom the 
work of rehanging, casting, and recasting, was entrusted, 
are the present representatives of the ancient bell-founders 
of Leicester. The chief specimens of their work for this 
county are rings of six at Bridekirk, Cleator Moor, and 
Great Salkeld, a ring of eight at Silloth, and Mr. Edwin 
Banks' great bell at Highmoor, weighing 8} tons, and 
only exceeded in magnitude by three other English bells, 
viz. : the new Great Paul, i6/j^ tons, cast by J. Taylor in 
1882 ; Big Ben, 13J tons, by G. Mears in 1857 » ^"^ 
Peter of York, loi tons, by C. & G. Mears in 1845. 

Correction, p. 311, line 25, for "1893" read "1888". 


Art. XXVI.— On Touching for the King's Evil. By Henry 

Barnes, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Read at Lakeside, Windermere, June 13, 1894. 
^HE miraculous healing of some diseases has attracted a 
good deal of attention, and the records go back to a 
very early period. It is not necessary to enter into a dis- 
cussion of those which took place at such a remote period 
that the evidence of their authenticity is open to question, 
but if we take those only which occurred during the first 
three centuries of the Christian era, we find much difference 
of opinion, especially as to the period when the miraculous 
gifts of the Apostolic age ceased to operate. Some of the 
best informed writers have divided miracles of healing into 
four distinct classes or periods. The first contains those 
which are related in the New Testament and reaches to 
about A.D. 70. Of these there can be no doubt among 
Christians. The next period may be of 37 years and ends 
about A.D. 107. There is reason to think that some 
miracles were performed by those who preached and 
planted the Gospel in pagan countries. The third reaches 
from A.D. 107 to the time of Constantine, and the last is 
from Constantine to when you please, and abounds in 
miracles. From the third century to Gregory the Great 
(540-604) there are many scattered cases of healing. Such 
are recorded in the fourth century by Athanasius, Ambrose, 
Chrjsostom and Augustine ; in the fifth by Hilary and 
Jerome ; and in the sixth by Gregory the Great, Augustine 
of Canterbury, and Cyril. During the middle ages the use 
of charms and amulets, idols and relics, and various 
superstitious practices too numerous to mention were 
widely accepted as articles of faith by a large proportion 
of the people. Even in the present day it is not unusual 
to find people who believe in charms. Only about two 



years ago a patient came to me from a remote village on 
the shores of the Solway with some disfigurement of the 
face which had persisted in spite of a charm which had 
been used and which was supposed to be infallible. We 
frequently read of the doings of people who place their 
reliance on most extraordinary remedies. Underlying all 
these impostures, wheher they be ancient or modem, there 
is generally to be found an element of faith. Sometimes 
the cures have been obtained by faith in the personal 
power of an individual, or it may be in the magnetic 
influence of a man, and at others we find that they have 
been effected by faith in medical remedies or in appliances 
wholly ineffectual or inadequate in themselves. 

Among the inhabitants of the mixed races settled in 
this country one of the most common and distressing 
diseases was scrofula. It was a perfect scourge in the 
country, and still continues to afflict large numbers in 
our day. Its first outbreaks are seen generally in the 
glands ; they swell, become inflamed, and the skin 
ulcerates. In mild cases the mischief is soon over, but 
in all its phases it is lingering and it often causes con- 
siderable personal disfigurement. One cannot therefore 
wonder that any procedure which offered a reasonable 
prospect of success in its treatment should obtain a great 
hold on the minds of the community. During the middle 
ages the most popular and effectual remedy was con- 
sidered to be the Royal Touch, and it was sought for by 
rich and poor alike, young and old, beautiful or deformed. 
It is for this reason that the disease came to be called 
Morbus Regius, or King's Evil, a name which it holds to 
the present day, and many people know it by no 
other. It is not quite certain at what period the 
practice of Touching for the Evil first came into use by 
the Kings of England. Most writers seem agreed that the 
first monarch who possessed the gift of healing was 
Edward the Confessor^ although but one instance is 



recorded of his using it, and that by a historian (William 
of Malmsbury) who wrote his history about 80 years after 
the king's death. The story given by the writer is that a 
young woman, with a painful swelling in her neck, was 
directed, in a dream, to apply to the King to wash the 
affected part, that the King complied wich her request, 
and that within the space of one week she was perfectly 
cured. Dean Stanley* writes: — 

There was a kind of magical charm in his thin white hands and his 
long transparent fingers, which not unnaturally led to the belief that 
there resided in them a healing power of stroking away the diseases 
of his subjects. 

This belief survived his death, and we are further told 
(p. 132, Op. Cit.) that beneath his shrine 

the arches underneath were ready for the patients, who came to 
ensconce themselves there for the sake of receiving from the sacred 
corpse within the deliverance from the * King's Evil * which the 
living sovereign was believed to communicate by his touch. 

So far as I can find, there is no mention in contemporary 
chronicles that the power of healing was possessed by 
Edward the Confessor, and it is not mentioned among 
his other gifts in the Bull of Canonization of Pope 
Alexander III. about 100 years after his death. Shake- 
speare, however, describes him as fully exercising the 
power. The description is probably based on what 
occurred in Shakespeare's own day, as he speaks of the 
king using prayers and giving gold, which was probably 
not in circulation before the time of Edward III. The 
account will be found in Macbeth, Act IV. Scene III. 

Malcolm (a fugitive from his own kingdom after the 
murder of his father, and residing at the court of Edward 
the Confessor) enquires of the doctor : 

* Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey, 2nd Ed. p. 13. 

" Comes 


** Comes the king forth, I pray you ? 

Doctor : Ay, sir ; there are a crew of wretched souls 
That stay his cure ; their malady convinces 
The great assay of art ; but at his touch- 
Such sanctity hath heaven given his hand — 
They presently amend. 

Malcolm : I thank you. Doctor. (Exit Doctor). 

Maid : What's the disease he means ? 

Malcolm : Tis called the Evil 

A most miraculous work in this good king ; 
Which often, since my here remain in England, 
I have seen him do. How he solicits heaven 
Himself best knows: but strangely visited people 
All swoln and ulcerous, pitiful to the eye, 
The mere despair of surgery, he cures. 
Hanging a golden stamp about their necks 
Put on with holy prayers : and *tis spoken 
To the succeeding royalty he leaves 
The healing benediction.'* 

There is no record of the immediate successors of the 
Confessor exercising this miraculous gift of healing. 
William the Conqueror was probably too much occupied, 
as one historian * remarks, with killing those who were 
well, and the uproarious sons of the Conqueror 

affected no share in the sacred mesmerism of their saintly prede- 
cessor. They manipulated the sword, the lance, and the wine cup — 
occasionally knocked healthy people at head, but carefully eschewed 
the company of the sick. 

Their scholarly brother, Henry, described as the Ulysses 
of the Norman dynasty, married a saint's niece and a 
saint's daughter, who brought with her something like a 
title to the throne. Saintly Queen Maude, or Matilda 
the Atheling, used her best endeavours to ameliorate the 
" new poor laws ** of the roystering Norman usurpers, 

* Miss Strickland's Queens of England, vol. xi, p. 105. 



and chronicles speak of the washing and healing the 
wounds and sores of the poor by her, but we can trace no 
imposition of hands. Soon after this however the practice 
seems to have been notorious, and mention is made of it by 
Petrus Blesensis, Archdeacon of Bath and afterwards of 
London, chaplain to Henry II. about 1180. About a 
century later, in the time of Edward I., the healing power 
of the king was fully recognised and was frequently 
exercised both in public and in private. This king is said 
to have healed 182 persons. As the name-child of his 
Saxon ancestor he affected a good deal of St. Edward's 
piety, and the reconciliation between the Plantagenet 
kings and the poor commonalty was unquestionably 
s^trengthened by the honours paid to their beloved saint. 
From this time onward the power was claimed by succes- 
sive monarchs, and formed an important part of their 
duties. The kings of England from the time of Edward 
I. to Edward III. kept an alchymist, Raymond Lully, who 
made gold for them at the Tower. This fact is handed 
down to us in the Chaillot MSS. where we are told that 
Raymond the alchymist's Tower gold was the purest 
angel gold, and the coins were called angels because the 
reverse side was impressed with the figure of an angel. 
On account of its superior purity it was used as the 
healing gold, each person touched receiving one coin from 
the royal hands during the ceremony. In the time of 
Henry VIII. all royal offices were carefully observed, and 
in addition to his observance of the healing by touch he 
insisted on his numerous queens performing a religious 
office of blessing cramp-rings, some of his antiquaries 
having discovered that this privilege had been enjoyed by 
Queen Edith, Consort of Edward the Confessor. The 
royal ceremonies of healing by touch and consecration of 
cramp-rings were duly recognised by the Tudor Queens, 
Mary and Elizabeth. It is said that for a time Queen 
Elizabeth discontinued the practice, but there are many 



instances on record of her having exercised the supposed 
power. Although Cromwell claimed and exercised many 
of the royal functions he never attempted this. During 
the rising in the West of England the Duke of Monmouth, 
claiming to be the rightful king, touched several persons, 
and among the accusations made against him on his trial 
at Edinburgh for high treason we find that he was 
charged with having " touched children of the King's 
Evil." Two witnesses prove this as having been done at 
Taunton. * On the accession of William III. the healings 
ceased for a time, the king being persuaded, as Rapin 
says (History of England, vol. iv.,) that the sick would 
not suffer by the omission. Macaulay says of him he had 
too much sense to be duped and too much honesty to be^r 
a part in what he knew to be an imposture. " It is a 
silly superstition," he exclaimed, when he heard that at 
the close of Lent his palace was besieged by a crowd of 
the sick, " Give the poor creatures some money and send 
them away." On one solitary occasion he was importuned 
into laying his hand upon a patient and he said, *^ God 
give you better health and more sense." The last English 
monarch to touch was Queen Anne, in whose reign the 
ritual of the Royal Healing Service was first added to the 
Book of Common Prayer, just after the Thanksgiving for 
her accession. Her adoption of the practice gave great 
offence to the Jacobites, and it is said she was urged 
thereto by the success of her brother's healing establish- 
ment at St. Germains, where vast numbers of diseased 
persons went to seek the touch of the disinherited heir to 
the throne. His success was much greater than hers, and 
has been described as marvellous, but we must not forget 
that his patients had the advantage of a sea voyage, 
change of air, and change of food. Among the latest, if 

• Howell's State Trials, vol. xi. 



not the last, for whom the royal touch was used may be 
mentioned the celebrated Dr. Johnson, and in Boswell's 
Life of Johnson (London, 1824, vol. i, pp. 17-18,) we find 
a full account of the case. 

Young Johnson had the misfortune to be much affected with the 
scrofula, or King's Evil, which disfigured a countenance naturally 
well formed, and hurt his visual nerves so much that he did not see 
at all with one of his eyes, though its appearance was little different 
from that of the other. His mother, yielding to the superstitious 
notion which, it is wonderful to think, prevailed so long in this country, 
as to the virtue of the royal touch, — a notion which our kings 
encouraged, and a man of such enquiry and such judgment as Carte 
could give credit, — carried him to London, where he was actually 
touched by Queen Anne. Mrs. Johnson, indeed, as Mr. Hector in- 
formed me, asked the advice of the celebrated Sir John Floyer, then a 
physician at Lichfield. Johnson used to talk of this very frankly, and 
Mrs. Piozzi has preserved his very picturesque description of the 
scene as it remained upon his fancy. Being asked if he could remember 
Queen Anne, — * he had ' (he said) *a confused but somehow a sort of 
solemn recollection of a lady in diamonds and a long black hood.* 

This touch, however, was without any effect. On the same 
day 200 persons were presented at the Healing Service. 
Soon after the accession of George L an English gentleman 
applied to the king on behalf of his son, and was referred 
to the Pretender. The gentleman acted upon the hint, 
took his son to the Continent, got him touched, and the 
lad got well. By this means the King lost a good subject 
and the Pretender gained a new adherent.* We are 
further told that the Pretender used to exercise his gift 
in the Paris hospitals and his son, Charles Edward, once 
touched a child in Edinburgh in 1745. He was unwilling 
at first to listen to the entreaties of the mother, but at last 
he allowed the child to be brought to him. A circle was 
formed by his attendants, the child was introduced, a 

• Chambers' History of the Rebellion, 1S27, vol. i, p. 183. 



clergyman offered up an appropriate prayer, the Prince 

approached the kneeling girl and on touching the diseased 
parts pronounced with great solemnity the words, "I 
touch, God heal." In twenty-one days the child was 
completely healed. 

The numbers touched in some reigns were enormous, 
and afford a good idea of the prevalence of the disease. In 
some years many thousands of persons received the royal 
touch. In the time of Charles II. a register of cases was 
kept by the Serjeant of the Chapel Royal, and afterwards 
by the Keeper of the Closet. Upon the Restoration public 
healings were held three times a week till September, 
1664, when the Court upon the approach of the plague 
removed from London. They were resumed however in 
1667, and it appears from this register that the total 
number touched by Charles 11. amounted to 90,798. The 
greatest number touched in one year was in 1682 when 
8,447 were registered. The cost in money alone which 
these healings caused must have been considerable. In 
the time of Henry VIII. the angel, the name given to the 
coin which each person received, was of the value of seven 
shillings and sixpence. In the time of Queen Elizabeth it 
was ten shillings. In 1663 the annual charge for touch 
pieces was at least £3,000. The substitution of silver 
touch pieces by James II. rendered the ceremony less 
expensive. The Rev. James Wilson has called my atten- 
tion to some Mint papers published from the MSS. of Sir 
Reginald Graham by the Historical MSS. Commission: 6th 
Report, part I., p. 333, and dealing with the period 1664- 
1677. Details are given of a project for increasing the 
revenue by debasing the metal from which " Healing 
Medals" were made. 

Besides the number of them spent one year with another being 
about 5,600, which amounts unto but ;£'2,5oo, there would not be 
9aved by such alteration more than about ;^i,ooo yearly. 



ChATles II. (Gold.) 



James II. 

Anne. (Gold.) 

The Pretender, as James III. 
. (BUtct.) 

The Cardinal of York, aa Henry IX. 

From the Originals in the possession of Edward Hawkins. Esq.. F.8.A. 
Beprodueed by permUtion from the ArehcBohgical Journal^ VoL X. 



There is another entry in the same MSS. : 

1675 March 20. ;f92 4 8 for 200 Healing Pieces weighing 22 oz. 
II dwt. 18 gr. 

It appears that 

the former gold made for healing was a lo/- piece of current money 
made of fine gold, which, after his Majesy's raising the value of the 
gold coins, became worth 11/6. 

In the time of Henry VII. the angel noble was the 
smallest gold coin in circulation, and it was in this rei^n 
the ritual service was first instituted. The touch piece had 
on one side the angel Michael overcoming the dragon and 
on the other a ship on the waves. The coins of the period 
generally bore some religious inscription, and the angel 


Queen Mary's and Queen Elizabeth's angels bore a domino 


James I. and Charles I. are smaller. James I. have a 
DOMINO FACTUM EST ISTUD. Charles I. have amor populi 
PRESIDIUM REGIS. During his troubles he had not 
always gold to bestow and he substituted silver, and indeed 
often touched without giving anything. Duiing the resi- 
dence of Charles II. abroad the patients who came to be 
touched brought their own gold. After the Restoration 
the touch pieces were of less pure gold. They bear round 
the angel a still shorter legend, soli dbo gloria, which is 
continued on the touch pieces of succeeding reigns. There 
are none of William III. or Queen Mary. The Pretender 
as James III. had two, both of silver, one of better work- 
manship and probably Italian. Those of Charles Edward 
are very rare. Several touch tokens were exhibited in the 
Stuart Exhibition, one being a copper one, eight-tenths of 
an inch in diameter. Obv : An open hand issuing from 
the clouds touching one of a group of four bearded heads. 



HE TOUCHED THEM. Rev : Crown, beneath it rose and 
thistle entwined, and they were healed. The medal 
is not perforated. I am doubtful if this kind of token was 
used at the healing services. See Notes and Queries^ 7th 
S. vii, '89, p. 84. Recently I visited the coin department 
in the British Museum and examined the Touch pieces. 
They have one of Charles II. in gold, of James II. one in 
gold and one in silver, one of James III. in gold, and one 
of Anne in gold, said to have been the one which belonged 
to Dr. Johnson. In the collection of Mr. Hawkins, 
F.S.A., there is one of the Cardinal of York as Henry IX., 
but it is doubtful if he ever exercised or even claimed the 
power of healin;;. Through the courtesy of the Council 
of the Royal Archaeological Institute I have been per- 
mitted to reproduce the illustration of the touch tokens 
in this gentleman's possession which appeared in vol. x. 
of the Archaeological Journal. I am not aware of the 
existence of any touch pieces in Cumberland or Westmor- 
land, but I think it probable that some may exist in 
private collections. With the aid of the illustration and 
of the full description of the pieces given above I am in 
hopes that hitherto unrecognised tokens may be identified, 
and if such should be the case, I hope that they may find 
a resting place in Tullie House, Carlisle, where I am sure 
they would find a welcome from its honorary curator, 
Chancellor Ferguson. There are several cases of local 
interest in which the royal touch has been obtained for 
residents in Cumberland or Westmorland, and this makes 
me think it possible that some unrecognised tokens may 
exist in private collections. Among the lists of collections 
for briefs in the Registers of Crosthwaite Church, near 
Kendal, Mr. Wilson, our invaluable and energetic secre- 
tary, informs me that the following entries occur. 

1629, 14 Feby. Given to John Rig of Staveley who hath the 
King's Evil to go vp to be cured thereof i/-. 




Given to Nathaniel Glover of Kirkland towards ye carryin^^ vp of 
two children to London q^ Eod. die. 

II April 1629. Given to Geo. Sigswick towards the carrying vp of 
his two sonnes iii^ 5^. 

In the Calendar of State Papers (Domestic) of Charles II. 
there is an entry at p. 447 to which my attention was 
called by the Rev. James Wilson, of Dalston. It is as 
follows : 

Sep. 6, 1667. 

Cockcrmouth. 83. John Lamplugh, George Lamplugh, rector of 
Lamplugh, George Williamson and Pickering Hewer, to William- 
son. Desire him to procure His Majesty's touch to John Dixon, 
a neighbour and parishioner, who is troubled with the Evil. 

Sir Joseph Williamson was Secretary of State, and a 
native of Bridekirk, near Cockermouth. In Hutchinson's 
History of Cumberland (vol. ii, p. 244,) there is a short 
notice of his life. We are told that he was particularly 
attentive and friendly to his countrymen, and we can 
readily imagine that he would lend a willing ear to the 
petition of the rector and two justices of a parish near to 
that from which he had himself sprung. 

There is a notice in the Grasmere parish register refer- 
ring to the subject. My attention was called to it by Mr. 
George Browne, of Troutbeck, Windermere, and through 
the kindness of the present rector, the Rev. W. Jennings, 
I am able to give it as follows : 

Wee the Rector & Churchwardens of the Parish of Grasmeere in the 
County of Westmorland do hereby certify that David Harrison of the 
s<* Parish aged about [fourteen years, is afflicted as wee are credibly 
informed with the disease comonly the King's Evill ; & (to the best 
of o^ knowledge) hath not heretofore been touched by His Majesty 
for y* sd Decease. 

In Testimony whereof wee have hereunto set o^ hands & seals the 
ifourth day of ffeb : Ano Doi 1684. 

Henry ffleming, Rector. 

John Benson, ) ^. 

Jo». Mallinson, j Churchwardens. 
Registered by John Brathwaite, Curate. 



There is a memorandum on a fly-leaf of the Penrith parish 
registers in the handwriting of the Rev. John Child, vicar, 
as follows : 

Memorandum that I certified for Isaac Threlkeld to get the King's 
touch under my hand and seal the 25 Aprill Anno Regis Jacobi 
Secundi Tertio, Anno que Domt 1687. 

Mr. Whitehead, whose knowledge of parish registers no 
one in this Society can doubt, and to whom I am indebted 
for the above extract, informs me that it is the only entry 
of its kind in a Cumberland parish register known to him. 
Mr. Child was vicar of Penrith from 1670 to 1694, and 
Mr. Watson in his paper on "Notabilities of Old Penrith" 
in the Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland 
Association for the advancement of Literature and Science, 
No. xvi, p. 67, tells us that Mr. Child greatly improved 
the form of registration, and that he was a man of /great 
exactness and neatness in the keeping of the registers. To 
this love of exactness we are probably indebted for the 
notice quoted above. It is fair to assume that there were 
other cases from Cumberland and Westmorland, but those 
above-mentioned are the only ones of which I can find any 
trace. The records of the Corporation of Preston contain 
two votes of money to enable persons to go from Preston 
to be touched for the Evil. Both are in the reign of James 
II. There are no traces in our local municipal records of 
such payments. 

In order to obtain the Royal Touch it was at one time 
necessary to obtain the intercession of some of the king's 
nobles. Certain days were appointed by proclamation for 
a " Public Healing," and officers were appointed to make 
selection of suitable candidates. In course of time cer- 
tificates were needed, signed by the vicar and church- 
wardens of the parish to which the patient belonged that 
he had never been touched before. This was rendered the 



more necessary as patients were thought to apply a second 
time more for the sake of the gold than with the hope of 
obtaining relief of their sufferings, and by a proclamation 
ministers and churchwardens were enjoined 

to be very careful to examine into the truth before they give such 
certificates and also to keep a register of all certificates they shall 
from time to time give* 

This accounts for some of the notices given from local 
parish registers. The faith in the healing power of the 
Royal Touch was general in all classes, and especially 
among the physicians and surgeons of the day, — men not 
very ready in admitting that cures may be effected without 
making use of the remedies which they themselves pre- 
scribe. Gilbertus Anglicus, a physician of the time of 
Henry III. and Edward I., alludes to the exercise of the 
power, and says scrofula is called King's Evil because the 
kings have power to cure it. John of Gadsden, physician 
to Edward II., advises recourse to the Royal Touch in 
desperate cases. Dean Tooker, one of Queen Elizabeth's 
chaplains, testifies that many wretched sufferers were 
restored to health by the Queen's touch, aided by the 
prayers of the whole church. Clowes, surgeon to St. 
Bartholomew's and Christ's Hospitals, and surgeon to 
Queen Elizabeth, in writing of scrofulous ulcers, says 

These kinds do rather presage a divine and holy curation, which is 
most admirable to the world, that I have seen and known performed 
and done by the sacred and blessed hands of the Queen's Most Royal 

Wiseman, chief surgeon to the army of Charles I. and 
afterwards surgeon to Charles II. writes : 

I myself have been a frequent eye witness of many hundreds of 
cures performed by his Majesty*s touch alone, without any assistance 
of chirurgery, and not only from the several parts of this nation, 
but also from Ireland, Scotland, Jersey and Qarnsey. 



Dean Swift, writing in 171 1 of a visit to the Duchess of 
Onnondy says : 

I spoke to her to get a lad touched for the eviU the son of a grocer 
in Capel St, one Bell — ^the ladies have bought sugar and plums of 

These quotations are sufficient to show the opinions of 
eminent physicians and ecclesiastics, and could readily 
be multiplied. 

There were both public and private Healings. At the 
latter the number touched was only small. The cure of 
the patient did not always follow upon the Healing; it 
advanced by degrees and often required a considerable 
time to be completed. In many instances it failed alto- 
gether. The numbers flocking to the Court rendered 
frequent Healings necessary, and the time and place 
varied with different monarchs. In 1683 a proclamation 
was ordered to be published in every parish in the king- 
dom enjoining that the time for presenting persons for the 
"Public Healing" should be from the Feast of AH 
Saints till a week before Christmas, and after Christmas 
till the first day in March, and then to cease till Passion 
Week. The Healings were held wherever the Court 
happened to be. If in London they were held at White- 
hall, and we have record of them at Langley by Henry 
VIIL, at Kenilworth by Queen Elizabeth, at Newmarket 
by Charles II., and at Bath by James IL* 

The following extract from Bishop (then Archdeacon) 

* In the London Gazette for Mav 6, 1667, there appears an advertisement 
which Mr. Cranston, of the Carlisle Patriot Office, inrorms me is one of the 
earliest known advertisements. It is repeated in several subsequent Gazettes and 
is as follows : 


We are, by his Majesty's command, to give notice that, by reason of the great 
heats which are growing on, there will be no further touching Jor the evil until 
Michaelmas nex^ and accordingly all persons concerned are to forbear their 
addresses till that time. 



Nicolson's Journal, for which I am indebted to Chancellor 
Ferguson, will be of interest as referring to the service : 

July 14, 1684. 

In ye morning King's"^ musick at ye bed chamber, as usuall on 

Mundays. Touching for ye Evill in ye guard chamber.} Dr. 

Montague held ye gold. Water brought to ye King by the Vice 


It does not appear that there was any regular form of 
religious service used before the lime of Henry VI L and 
the new ritual introduced by that monarch was in Latin, 
the rubric being in English. It was taken from two 
forms in use in the Roman Catholic Church, "The 
Blessing for Sore Eyes " and the " Exorcismus Adversus 
Spirit us Immundos.*' The Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, 
F.S.A., has collected a series of services used " at the 
Healing " by different monarchs. It is published in the 
British Archaeological Journal, vol. xxvii, 1871. In it a 
copy is given of the office used by Queen Mary. In this 
reign when the sick were presented the sore on the 
patient's neck was crossed with an angel noble, which 
was then hanged about the neck to be worn (in the words 
of the rubric) till they were " full hoole." The use of 
the sign of the Cross in giving the gold gave rise to some 
jealousies, as if some mysterious operation were imputed 
to it. James I. discontinued the use of the Cross, but it 
was revived by James II. In the time of Charles I. the 
office was first published in English, and in the time of 
Queen Anne the service was materially shortened. The 
following is a list of the services used ** At the Healing." 

In 1686 a small volume was published which purports 
to contain the office used by Henry VII. (See below James 


• Charia II. 
t At Windsor. 



There is no copy, written or printed, in the reign of 
Henry VIII. of the " Prayers at the Heahng," but the 
copy used by Queen Mary is probably a copy of the one 
used by this monarch as it does not modify the rubrics, 
and the word '' King " appears in all the rubrics. 

There is no copy of the reign of Edward VI. 

The copy used by Queen Mary was in the possession 
of Cardinal Manning. On the fly-leaf, in the handwriting 
of Cardinal Wiseman, is written 

Queen Mary*8 Manual for blessing cramp-rings and Touching for 
the Evil. 

Queen Elizabeth's differs from Queen Mary's in the 
versicles and responses. 

Charles I. The same as Queen Elizabeth's, but with 
more extended rubrics. 

Charles II. The service ** At the Healing " is con- 
tained in a volume published at the Hague, MDCL. 

James II. In 1686 Henry Hills, printer to the King's 
Most Excellent Majesty, for his household and chappel, 
published two volumes. 

The Ceremonies for the Healing of them that be diseased with the 
King's Evil, used in the time of King Henry VII. Published by His 
Majesty's command. 

Four copies of this are known, one being in the British 
Museum and another in the Lambeth Palace Library. 

The second volume contains the same office, but in it 
the rubrics are still in English, the Prayers and Gospels 
in Latin. There are two copies in the British Museum, 
one of which belonged to Georgt III. and has a picture 
representing the ceremony. 

Queen Anne. The copies of Queen Anne's ritual are 
five in number : 

I. 4to. London, 1707. By Charles Bill and the Executor of Thomas 
Newcomb deceased. The office is immediately after the acces- 


sion service. Lathbury says the service first appeared in 1709, 
but this is two years earlier. 

2. 4to. London, 1708. Bound up at the end of a Bible printed in 

1708 by Charles Bill and the Executor of Thomas Newcomb 

3. 4to. London, 1709. Printed by Charles Bill and the Executor of 
Thomas Newcomb, deceased, Printers to the Queen's Most 
Excellent Majesty. This volume is illustrated. (British Museum). 

4. 8vo. London, 1709. With the same imprint, and also in British 
Museum. Another copy is said to be annexed to the Prayer 
Book printed at Oxford University Press in 17 12. 

5. 8vo. London, 1713. Liturgia seu Liber precum Communium. 

George I. In four editions of the Prayer Book published 
in the reign of George I. the office is found : 

1. Folio. Oxford, 17 15. Printed by John Baskett, printer to the 
King's Most Excellent Majesty and to the University. 

2. 4to. Oxford, 1721. With the same imprint. 

3. Folio. Oxford, 1721. Printed by John Baskett, printer to the 


4. 8vo. London, 1727. Liturgia seu Liber precum Communium. 

5. A reprint of the English version is in the appendix to the edition 
of L'Estrange's Alliance of Divine Offices. 

George 11. In a Latin Prayer Book published in 1744 
the " Forma Strumosos Attrectandi " appears. 

No one has been able to discover any authority for in- 
cluding the ojffice in the Book of Common Prayer. There 
are some local copies in existence, and some time ago 
Canon Matthews lent me one bearing the date of 1709, 
similar to the one in the British Museum. 

A short description of the service, as used by Charles 
II., will probably be of interest. The certificates were 
first of all examined by the surgeon and countersigned by 
him. The Clerk of the Closet, generally one of the 
bishops, had charge of the gold distributed at the Healings. 
Under him was a Closet Keeper, who kept the register. 
He received the gold from the Exchequer and attended 

. the 


the Healings with the gold ready strung on his arm, and 
presented it to the Clerk of the Closet. On the day 
appointed, usually a Sunday or some other festival, the 
time generally after morning prayer, the sick people are 
placed in order by the chief officer of the Yeomen of the 
Guard. The King enters and is surrounded by his nobles 
and many other spectators. One of his chaplains then 
begins to read the Gospel, taken from St. Mark, xvi, 14, 
the Gospel for Ascension Day. At the i8th v. : " They 
shall lay their hands on the sick and they shall recover," 
the surgeons in waiting, after making their obeisances, 
bring up the sick in order. The chief surgeon delivers 
them one by one on their knees to the King, and as 
Evelyn, a spectator of the proceedings on one occasion, 
says : 

The king strokes their faces, or cheeks with both his hands at once. 
Another surgeon then takes charge of the patients to be brought up 
afterwards to receive the gold. The words of the 18 v. are repeated 
by the chaplain between every healing, till all the sick are touched, 
which being done the Gospel is continued to the end of the chapter. 
The second Gospel is then begun and is taken from St. John, I. i. 
After the eighth verse, the surgeons, making their obeisance as before, 
bring up the sick in their order, the Clerk of the Closet then on his 
knees delivers to the King the gold strung on white silk ribbon and 
the King puts it about their necks as the chaplain reads the 9th 
v : ** That was the true light, which lighteth every man which cometh 
into the world,** which he repeats as each one receives his gold. The 
Gospel is then continued, ending with the 14th verse. This being 
finished, the chaplain, with the rest of the people on their knees pro- 
nounce the following prayers : 

Vers. Lord, have mercy upon us. 

Resp. Lord, have mercy upon us. 

Vers, Christ, have mercy upon us. 

Resp. Christ, have mercy upon us. 

Vers. Lord, have mercy upon us. 

Resp. Lord, have mercy upon us. 

Then the Chaplain reads the Lord's Prayer, after which these 
versicles, the responses being made by those who come to be 
healed. Vers. 


Vers. O Lord, save thy servants. 

Resp. Which put their trust in thee. 

Vers. Send help unto them from above. 

Resp. And Evermore mightily defend them. 

Vers. Help us, O God, our Saviour. 

Resp. And for the Glory of thy Name deliver us and be 

merciful to us sinners for thy Name's sake. 

Vers. O Lord hear our Prayers. 

Resp. And let our cry come unto thee. 

The Chaplain then reads the following prayer : " O Almighty God, 
who are the giver of all health, and the aid of them that seek to Thee 
for succour, we call upon Thee for thy help and goodness, mercifully 
to be showed to these thy servants, that they being healed of their 
infirmities, may give thanks to Thee in thy Holy- Church, through 
Jesus Christ Our Lord. Amen.'* 

The "Gratia Domini" concludes the service. After the service, 
the Lord Chamberlain and two other nobles, having brought up the 
linen, with a basin and ewer to wash the King's hands, he takes 
leave of the people and they joyfully and thankfully every one return 
home, praising God and their good King. 

The Kings of France also claimed the right to dispense 
the gift of healing. Laurentius, first physician to Henry 
IV., who is indignant at the attempt to derive its origin 
from Edward the Confessor, asserts the power to have 
commenced with Clovis L, the first Christian king, and 
other writers also declare that this monarch exercised the 
power by gift from heaven. Fuller, in his Church History, 
1-227, says : 

The Kings of France share also with those of England in this 
miraculous cure. 

In a MSS. in the Cambridge University Library is this 
memorandum : 

The Kings of England and France by a peculiar guift cure the 
King's Evil by touching them with their handes and so doth the 
seventh sonne. 



There is some evidence to show that the practice of the 
touch was in use in the time of Philip I. of France, and it 
continued until 1776. On his coronation in 1775 Louis 
XVI. touched 2,400 individuals. He touched each one by 
making a cross on the face and saying '' Le roi te touche, 
Dieu te guerisse/' the King touches thee, may God cure 

In such widely separated districts as Cornwall and the 
North-West Highlands of Scotland the belief still lingers 
that the touch of the seventh son can cure scrofula. Sir 
Arthur Mitchell, in a paper read before the Scottish 
Society of Antiquaries in i860, says he has seen more 
than one poor idiot with strumous complications, for 
whom this magic touch had been obtained. A Lewis 
gentleman to whom he referred says it is customary in 
Lewis for the seventh son to give the patient a sixpenny 
piece with a hole in it, through which a string is passed. 
This the patient wears constantly round his neck. In the 
event of its being removed or lost the malady breaks out 
again. Adults have been known to resort to a seventh son 
of not more than two years of age. A person caught hold 
of the bairn's wrist and applied his little hand to the 
patient's sore. Sir Arthur Mitchell considers that the 
custom probably owes its origin to the story of the seven 
sons of Sceva, the Jew (Acts, xix, 13). It is true that all 
the seven sons claimed the power of casting out evil 
spirits, and possibly this claim may have rested upon the 

* The King^ of Eng-land, France, Jerusalem and Sicily were sacred at 
their coronations, and so were possessed of a clerical character. See The 
Sacring of the English Kings, by J. Wickham Legg, F.S.A., Archaologieal 
Journal, vol. 51, p. 2c)-32. Notwithstanding- the clerical character of the King 
of Eng^Iand in the middle ages, yet no priest-like functions seem to have been 
assigned to him : no ministering either of God's Word or of the Sacraments. 
The nearest approach to such functions seems to have been the touching for the 
king's evil, and the blessing of cramp rings on Good Friday. See W. Maskell, 
Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesia Anglicana, London, 1847, vol. iii, pp. 310-340 : 
cited in Archaeological Journal, ut supra. One would thus expect to nnd all 
these four kings touching for the king's evil. At a later time by special papal 
dispensation the King of Scotland was also sacred. — Editor. 



fact that there were seven, which is the chief mystical 
number in the East. It is easy to understand that the 
gift which the seven claimed eventually came to be 
regarded as the possession of the seventh alone. The 
gift does not appear until the seventh is born. He brings 
it. It seems likely then that with an ignorant people they 
would soon acknowledge that it belongs only to him. 

In conclusion I beg to express my obligations to Chan- 
cellor Ferguson and other members of the Society for 
valuable help in connection with this paper. I am also 
indebted for many references to an interesting paper in 
vol. X. of the Archaeological Journal, by Mr. Hussey, of 
Oxford. The subject has not hitherto come under the 
notice of the Society, and I hope what I have written 
may be of some service. 


Art. XXVI I. — The Victims of the Tudor Disestablisment in 
Cumberland and Westmorland during the reigns of Edward 
VI. and Mary. By the Rev. James Wilson, M.A. 

Communicated at the Isle of Man, September 24, 1894. 

THE religious persons ejected from the monasteries were 
in no envious circumstances when the youthful son of 
the Royal exterminator ascended his father's throne. There 
was some show of commiseration* for them in the matter 
of pensions, but however ample these eleemosynary grants 
were supposed to be, the yearly instalments were not 
regularly paid and the unhappy monks were forced to beg 
or else to undertake manual labour. The country swarmed 
with wandering monks and friars who were suspected of 
preaching treason among the people and persuading them 
that things should never be well settled till they were 
restored U> their houses again. They flocked up to London 
to demand their pensions in person and while there they 
became such a nuisance that a proclamation t was issued 
ordering all pensionaries to remain in their usual places of 
abode and to send up certificates to the Court of Augmen- 
tations when justice would be impartially dealt out to 
them. The proclamation was followed by an Act of Par- 
liament (i Edward VI. cap. 3) which added humiliation to 
their other misfortunes. The statute against vagabonds, 
in which the provisions t against clerics convicted of 

* See the instructions issued by Henry VIII. to the Commissioners for West- 
morland as given in^ the Appendix : also the Injunctions for a ^ Visitation of 
Chauntries, as given in Burnet {Collection of Records, vol. ii, pt. ii, pp. 312-15). 
t Collier's Ecclesiastical History, vol. v, 225 (Lathbury's tLdition) and also 
Burnet's Histori/ of the Rtformation, vol. ii, 83 (Clarendon Press, 1816). 

X Though this Act was repealed two years later, it may be convenient to recall 
some of its provisions a^inst the clergy — 

(6) No clerk convict shall make ois purgation, but shall be a slave for one 
year to him who will become bound with two sureties, in twenty pound 
to the ordinary, to the King's use, to take him into service : and he shall 
be used in sAl respects, as is aforesaid like to a vagabond. 



vagrancy are severe and cruel in the extreme, was levelled 
against them. It is little wonder that these poor priests 
should come in for such hardships as the sermons of the 
Gospellers were full of angry denunciations of their whole 
tribe and of the system which- they had formerly upheld. 

Not only were the disestablished monks in a sorry 
plight, but it would seem that the ecclesiastical machinery 
of the realm was dislocated and religion itself in a state of 
general discredit at the opening of this reign. The bishops 
were made by a new Act (i Edward VI. c. 2) the creatures 
of the king and the ecclesiastical courts were so recon- 
structed as to minimize their moral authority in the eyes 
of the clergy. The public contumely which was the lot of 
the monks soon extended to the parochial clergy. In the 
streets of London the licence was so great and the treat- 
ment of the clergy was so outrageous that the king in 
council was forced to issue a proclamation * to reform the 
disorder, forbidding 

serving men and other young and light persons and apprentices 
to use such insolency and evil demeanour towards priests or those 
that go in scholar's gowns like priests, as revelling, f tossing of them, 
taking violently their caps and tippets from them or otherwise to use 
them than as. becomes the king's most loving subjects one to do 
towards another. 

Ecclesiastical matters were in this condition when the 
advisers of the young king proceeded to lay hands on the 

(7) A clerk attainted or convict, which by the law cannot make his pur^tion, 
may by the ordinary be delivered to any man who will become lx)und 
with two sufficient sureties to keep him as his slave five years : and then 
he shall be used in all respects as is aforesaid for a vagabond, saving for 
burning in the breast. 

(8) It shallbe lawful to every person to whom any shall be adjudged a slave 
to put a ring of iron about his neck, arm or leg (Pickering's Statutes at 
Large, vol. v, 246). 

It was thous^ht a hardship, says Collier, that the monks, who had a creditable 
education, were bred to learning and many of them persons of condition, should 
be tied to labour, and come under the penalties of common servants and be 
treated no better than the lowest of the people {Ecclesiastical History, v, 225), 

*f The proclamation is printed at length m Collier (v, 230). 

f Revihng. 



lahds and endowments of the chantries, free chapels, 
collegiate churches, and guilds throughout the kingdom. 
The revenues of many of these institutions had been 
granted to Henry, his father (37 Hen : VHI. cap. 4), 
but the spoliation was not complete when that monarch 
died. In the Act of Edward (r Edward VI. cap. 14) which 
annexed their lands, goods and chattels to the Crown, 
there is a repetition of the ecclesiastical policy in vogue 
during the late reign. It begins with a copious flow of 
piety in the preamble, continues with an enumeration of 
the spoils, and concludes with their confiscation. The out- 
come of this legislation added an important contingent to 
the multitude of the pensioners. It is a mistake* to 
suppose that the deprived priests were not considered in 
the provisions of the Act for the dissolution of the chan- 
tries. The commissioners, appointed to administer the 
Act, were authorized to assign a sum not exceeding the 
original income of the several establishments for the main- 
tenance of the ejected persons, and they were required to 
promise on oath that they will " execute their commis- 
sions beneficially towards the deans, masters, wardens, 
provosts and other incumbents and ministers aforesaid, 
and towards the poor people, concerning the ^aid assign- 
ments" (i Edward VI. cap. 14). Opinions differ whether 
or not the commissioners fulfilled the intention of the 

Complaints from the deprived priests for the non- 
payment of iheir pensions were the order of the day. 
Local paymasters were appointed in the several counties, 
and a general survey was made with a view to test 
claims and reform abuses. Upon this new policy Strype 
observes — 

* The well-known Roman Catholic writer. Dr. Dodd, dropped into this error, 
from which he has been rescued by the Rev. M. A. Tierney, F.S.A., his able 
editor {Church History, vol. ii, 12-15}. 



In September (1547) appeared another point of the honesty of the 
king's policy, in taking care of the payment of his father's debts : 
unless some may rather look upon it as a device to come to the 
knowledge of what pensioners were alive and what dead. The i8th 
of the said month the king issued a proclamation to be published in 
every county about the payment of pensions, annuities, and corrodies 
granted by his father or by some abbots or priors : that whereas be- 
fore they were used to be paid by the Receivers of the Court of 
Augmentations, the pensioners were henceforth to receive them 
j'carly at the hand of the treasurer of the said Court, or of his depu- 
ties. And this order to take effect at Michaelmas next. And it was 
appointed, for the ease of the pensionaries and others, of what house 
or houses soever they were, to receive their pensions within the 
shire, where they dwelt, at the hand of the said treasurer or his 
deputies. It was also commanded, that all having these pensions, 
annuities and corrodies, should appear on such a day and place 
before the said treasurer's deputies, who were sent down to take 
notice of their patents and grants, which they were to bring with 
them and to exhibit : to the intent the said treasurer might be the 
better ascertained of their states and of the sums of money he was to 
appoint to his said deputies for the contentation of their said pen- 
sions. And if any appeared not in person, to send a certificate in 
writing under the hands of two justices of the peace, or one justice 
and one gentleman, declaring the same to be living and in la'vful 
state to receive his or their pensions."^' 

The same writer confesses t that those who were appointed 
to pay these poor men were suspected of dealing hardly 
with them by making delays, or requiring bribes and 
deductions out of the pensions, or fees for writing receipts. 
This abuse was in some measure ameliorated by the local 
administration of the pensions and the pressure of a pro- 
clamation commanding an audit to test the fairness of the 

It may be imagined that any reformation in the method 
of dealing with those pensioners would take some time 
before it reached our north-western counties. And such 

• Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. ii, 58, folio, 1721. 
t It' id, vol. ii, 118. 



we find to be the case. I have searched in the Public 
Record Office for the documents connected with these 
pensions for Cumberland and Westmorland, but for the 
reign of Edward I have met with only partial success. ♦ 
Whatever documents I have found relate to Westmorland 
alone. The description of them I take from the official 
catalogue of " Exchequer, Queen's Remembrancer's Mis- 
cellanea, Suppression Papers," vol. i, where I find the 
following abstract — 

Commission issued from the Court of Augmenta- 
tions appointing Thomas Sandforth, Alen Bel- 
lyngham and Richard Washyngton to enquire in 
Co : Westmorland as to late religious persons 
holding pensions, corrodies, &c. i September 
A. O. 6 Edward VI. Fragment of great Seal of Aug- 

6 Edward VI. mentations (Mem. Parchment). 

835 Annexed. I. Schedules of pensions, corrodies 

59 and salaries of Schoolmasters in Co : Westmor- 

land paid by Thomas Newneham, Knt, Receiver 
there in the year 5 Edward VI. paper book, 4 
mems. II. Certificate of above Commissioners 
returned i January 6 Edward VI. (Mem. Parch- 

These three documents are rolled together and tied with 
the inevitable piece of red tape. As ecclesiatical docu- 
ments they are of the utmost importance as giving not 
only the names of the pensioners and the amount of the 
gratuities but also the report of the Commissioners. From 
an attentive study of the first schedule and from its com- 
parison with the second, or certificate, the nature and 
intention of the Edwardian policy is very apparent. These 
documents are given in full. 

• It is only fair to say that my search was neither very carerul nor very exten- 
sive. I'he date of these documents, 1552, is the same as the survey of church 
g'oods in the parish churches. This valuable inventory for the County of Cum- 
berland has been carefully transcribed by my friend, the Rev. H. Whitehead, and 
printed in these Transactions, vol. viii, 186-204. 




Edwarde the Sixt by the grace of god King of Englande ffraunce and 
Irelande defendo^ of the faith and of the Churjhe of Englande and 
also of Irelande in erthe the supreme heade To our trustie and wel- 
beloved Thomas Sandforthe Alen Hellyngham Esquiers and Richard 
Washington gentleman sende greatyng Know ye that for the good 
opinion we have reposed in yo' wisdomes and dexterities wee have 
ordeyned named constituted and appoynted you to be our Commis- 
sioners gevying to yow or two of yow full power and aucthoritie to 
assemble yo' selfs in such and so many places in our Countie of 
Westmerlande as to yo' discrecions shalbe thought convenient and 
to enquyre as well by thothes of honest and lawfull psonsof our said 
Countie as by all other wayes and meanys semyng to yo' discrecions 
convenient for the tryall of the truthe in these matters folowing, ffirst 
ye shall enquire how many of the late Abbotts Pryours Abbesses 
Pryoresses Monks Channons ffryers nonnys Incumbents and other 
mynisters of evy Abbey Pryory hospitall howse of ffryers Colledge 
Chauntries ffrechappells guylds or fraternities and stipendary prests 
or evy other having rent chardge annuytie or pencon going out or 
charged of any Abbey Pryory hospitall howse of ffryers Colledge 
Chauntrie ffrechappell guylde or ffratemitie or out of any their pos- 
sessions for terme of lyfe mencoed in a Sedule or booke hereunto 
annexed be or shalbe at the tyme of your Session deade and what 
tyme and where every of them died Also how many of the said psons 
named in the said sedule be unpaide of their annuyties or pencions 
and for how long tyme and for what occasion they be so long unpaid 
Also ye shall enquyre how many of them have solde graunted and 
assigned over their annuyties and pencons to whom when and for 
what somes of mony the same sales graunts and essignements over 
were made And further wee gyve yow full power and aucthoritie by 
these presentes to calle before yow at such tymes and places as ye 
shall appoynt w^Wn our said Countie as well all and every the psons 
in the said Sedule mencoed as all and every other pson and psons 
whom yow shall thincke convenient and to examyne them and evy 
of them of the premisses aswell by their corporal othes and sight of 
their patents or other\%ise by your discrecions and herein we woU 
and comaunde yow and every of yow to endevo"" yo' selfs w* all dili- 
gence for the spedye and pfecte accomplesshement of the premisses 
and that ye or two of yow shall certifie us of your doings and pro- 
cedyngs herein distinctly and playnely into our Court of Thaugmen- 
tacons and revenues of our Crowne by wrytyng in pchment subscribed 
w* yo>" hendes and seallcd w* your seallys or w' the seallys of two of 
yow at the least ymmedyatly together w< this Comission straytly 




chargyng and comaiindyng aswell the Sherif of our said Countie as 
all other our officers and mynisters in the same Countie to be atten- 
daunt aydyng and assistyng to yow in thexecucion of the premisses 
as they tender our pleasure and will answere to the contrary In wii- 
nes wherof we have caused these our Ires to be made patent and 
sealled w' the great scale of our said Court of Thaugmentacons and 
revenues of our Crowne the first day of Septembre in the'syxt yere 
of our reigne 

Schedule of Pensions. 

Com. \ Ricus huchenson Auditor j liber penc. Annuitat.& Corod. 
Westm'd r Thomas Newenhm Mil. Recede Anno quinto Rz Edwardi 

Comitatus ) Sequnt' pencoes Annuitates & Corod. cum Salar. ludima- 

Westmlond ) gror. infra com. Westmlond pdict. in compo. Thome 

Newnehm militis Receptoris dni Regis ibm regni regis 

Edwardi Sexti quinto allocat. p*ut in eodem comp. 

plenius apparet 

nup. Mon. 

'Ricus Baggote p. annu' xl'* ") 

Martinus Makerethe ad c* p. annu* x^ 

p. duobus annis 
Johnes Dawson ad c" p. ann. xi» p. duo- 
bus annis 
Robtus Laylond p. annum viH 
Hugo Watson p. annu' vii« 
Johnes Adyson p. annu' vi'» 
Johnes Bell p. annu* cvis viij^ 
Edwardus Michell p. annu' vil« 
Georgius Ellerson p. annu* iiijH 
Anthonius Johnson p. annu* iiij" 
Johnes Roode p. annu' iiijl* 
Ricus Mell p. annu* c» 
Radus Watson ad iiiji» p. annu' xx^* 

p. quingz annis finit. ad ffest 
Michis hoc anno x** E. vi'» ac 
pz acquiet inde 
Edmundus Carter p. annu' vii^ 

'cxxxij^* xjs viij** 




Terr. & Poss. 
ptinen. dnis 


^Adam Sheparde p. annu* Ixvj* viij* \ 

Robtus Bryse p. annu' Ixiiij* iiij* 

Johnes Gamett p. ann liiij' vij* 

Alanus Sheparde 
nup Cantar. J ^^ ^.jj ^^^^, ^„ ^^^ ^^^^ 

& al. consi- _,. v> , . , 

Ricus Becke p. annu xx* 

Robtus Hogeson p. annu' iiijl> xiij' iiij* 

Willus Moneforthe p. ann vj" 

xx*» xviijs xi* 

Stai. omi. penconu' 

in dco. com. Westmlond 

dco. anno quinto 

.cliij^» x« vij** 

Annuitates sive Stipend. 

Shappe nup. 

'Georgius Blenkensoppe p. annu' xxvj» 

Robtus Wallez als Welles ad xv* iiij* 
p. ann xxx* viij^ p. duobus annis finit. 
• in Clo. huius compi 
Michael Crakenthroppe p. annu' iiij^> 
Alexander Whittyngton p. annu' xh 
Ambrosius Midelton p. ann xl" 
^Edmundus Carter p. annu' iiiji» 

•xiiijii xvij^ iiij** 

Sm. omi. Annuitat. 
in dco com. Westmlond 
dco Annox*<> Rz Ed 


.XUIJ" XVl" lllj 

;»■ iitid 

Corrodia siue stipendia ludimagroFum 

Terr. & Tcnta in 
Stikney Hondilbie 
Somercotes Skidbroke 
in com. lincoln nup. 
ptinen. libere Scheie 
gramatice in Kendalle 
in dco. com. Westmlond 

Adam Sheperde magister 
^schole gramatice p, 
Stephani Wilson 

annu' x^i modo 




Terr. & tenta 
ptinen. nup. Cant, de 
Appulbie in dco. Com. 

Terr. & Tcnta 
nup. expectan. ad 

magri schole 

gramatice in Burgh 
in Com. Westmland 

Edwardus Gibson magister [ex* vi\}^ 
schole gramatice p. ann. ) 

Johes Becke magister schole 
gramatice p. annu* 

vijM xi» iiij*' 

Sm. omi. Stipend, ludi 
Magror. in Com. Westmland | 

Ixxiij" i'}* 

Report op Commissioners. 
Quarto Die Januarij Anno Regni Regis Bdwardi Sexti VI^ 

The Certificate of us Thomas Sandforthe Aleyn Bellingham Esquyers 
and Rychard Washington Gentleman made the day and yere above- 
sayd by virtue of oure Sov*aigne lordes Comission to us directed and 
and hereto annexed to enquere what penconers named in a Sedule to 
the said Comissioners lykewise annexed be dead and of other articles 
and thinges conteyned in the said Comissione 

The persons named in the said Sedule beinge dead at this present 

John Dawson a Channon of Shappe dyed at Graystocke the thryd 
day of Octobre Anno Regni Regis nunc (?) sexto and 
had for his pencon hereby c^ 

John Garnet late Chauntre prest dyed at Kendall the xxvij 
day of Julye Anno R R tercio and had for 
his pencon yearely 

liiij* vljd 

Richard Becke late Chauntre prest dyed at Kendall the' 
xOi day of £february Anno R R quarto and 
had for his penson yearely 


Sm : of the pensonsj -.mj 
determined i 





Aleyn Shepherd late Chauntre prest in the pishe charche of Kendall 
haythe shewed to us his patent for vi^' by yere and deposythe that 
the fyrst yere he payd by the Kinges Ma*** Receyvo's there and ev* 
sence he haithe been payd by the Receyvo* of the Right honourable 
the lord Marques of Northampton And deposythe further that he the 
said Aleyn Shepherd receyved the pofytte of the lande certefyed by 
the Comissioners of Chaunteres to the Courte of Augmentacons by 
the space of xx yeres next afore the same Certificat and that next 
affore hym one Syr henrye godmonde receyved the same as chauntre 
prest there by the space of xviij yeres and afore him was chauntre 
prest there one Syr Stephyn Johnson durynge his lyf and afore him 
one Cowper all w*'*^ receyved the pofytte of the lands certefyed in 
the Certlficat of Chaunterys beinge Chauntrye prests there and the 
said S' Aleyn hathe subscribed a bill indented oi the same 

Thes persons whose names followithe dwellinge in other Shiers 
hathe made defaut 
Bdmound Carter 
Willm Mouneforthe 

Alexander Whittington M^ that none of the late brethryn of Shappe 
knowith the same Whittington nor we can 
get no knowlege of any such man 
}A^ that all the other persons named in the said Sedule or 
booke annexed to the said Comissione other than above- 
named be on lyve and hathe shewed to us theyr patents 
and ar satisfied and payd thejrr pencons In Witneswherof 
we the said Comissioners to thes presentes have subscribed 
o'' names and sette o^" Sealls the day and yere abovesaid 

Thorns Sandfforttd 

Alan Bellinghm Rye Weyssyngton 

Some other time it may be convenient to follow the 
history of the property of these religious houses and to 
find out what became of it and to whom it was sold. It 
is very instructive to go no further than to run one's eyes 
over the pages of the Book of Sales of Edward VI. and to 
learn how the quasi-pious intention *of the legislature with 
regard to the disposal of this property for religious pur- 
poses "^^ had come almost to nothing. 

* As an example of this sort of thing one instance may be given from the 
Register of Thomas Gooderick, Bishop of Ely and Lord Chancellor, found by 
Collier among the Harleian manuscripts and printed in his History (vol. 1x^296). 

It is as fellows- 


Whatever may be said against the ecclesiastical policy 
of Queen Mary, there is no question but that she did her 
utmost to repair the breaches made in the walls of the 
English church by her father and brother. Her endea- 
vours to restore the church lands and to reconstitute the 
monastic houses are well known. When she was unable 
to prevail on the nobles and gentry to fall in with her 
plans, the Queen's piety prompted her to set them a good 
example. A statute was passed (2 and 3 Philip and Mary, 
cap. 4) restoring the church's patrimony as far as the 
Crown was concerned. The payment of tenths and first 
fruits by the clergy was abolished and all rectories, bene- 
fices, glebe lands, tithes and pensions vested in the Crown 
since the twentieth year of Henry VHI. were returned to 
the church for definite ecclesiastical purposes. The 
administration of these revenues was left to the discre- 
tion of Cardinal Pole. In this Act there were many 
provisos, and amongst them one of great importance to 
the ejected priests and monks. This proviso was a clause 
exonerating the King and Queen and their successors from 
the payment of pensions and annuities, to which were 
added corrodies and fees, which for the future were to be 
paid out of the first fruits and tenths without any burden 
upon the Crown. 

The Archbishop set to work to bring church matters 
into line with this new policy. The prospects of the 
religious pensioners began to look brighter and their 
affairs were not only leniently but benevolently adminis- 

Nov. I, 1552. A patent fj^ranted to license the lord bishop of Carlisle to sell 
to the lord Clinton, lord admiral of England, "Socam sive dominium 
suum de Horn-Castle cum omnibus pertinentiis in Com. Lincoln, in 
villis, campis, sive parochiis de Horn-Castle, Overcompton, Nether- 
compton, Ashby, Marin?, Wilesby, Haltham, Conisby, Boughton, 
Fimbleby, Moreby, Meckham, et Innerby in Com. predict," to have 
the same to him and his heirs " tenend. de domino rege," &c. There 
was likewise a license granted to the dean and chapter to confirm the 
said conveyance. And for all these lordships the purchaser was only to 
pay the yearly rent of twenty-eight pounds to the bishop. 



tered. A survey of the whole kingdom was undertaken 
and the results entered in two very bulky parchment 
folios, one of which was lodged in the Court of Exchequer 
on the Queen's behalf and the other with the Cardinal. 
The folio belonging to the Crown I have examined in the 
Public Record Office, where it is now kept under the 
official title of " Q. R. Miscellaneous Books, vol. xxxii." 
All persons having claims against the Crown for fees, 
corrodies or pensions are set out in seventy-seven 
schedules, for the most part under counties, with the 
amount due annually opposite each name. These 
schedules are of great interest to the ecclesiastical his- 
torian as giving an exhaustive list of all the survivors of 
the dissolved religious establishments. The survey is 
prefaced with an indenture which of itself is enough to 
explain the whole proceedings. As I have never seen 
this instrument in print, nor indeed its existence acknow- 
ledged, I need not hesitate to produce it without 

Q. R. Miscell. Books. Vol. 32. 

THIS INDENTURE Made the xxiiij'»> daie of Februarie in the 
Seconde and thirde yeres of the reignes of our soueraigne Lorde and 
Ladle Philipp and Marie by the grace of god Kinge and Quene of 
Englande Fraunce Naples Jerusalem and Irelande Defendors of the 
Faithe Princes of Spaine and Cycile Archdukes of Austria Dukes of 
Millayne Burgundye and Braband Counties of Haspurge Flaunders 
and Tirole BETWENE our saide Soueraigne Lorde and Ladie the 
Kinge and Quenes Maiesties on thone ptie And the moste Reuerend 
father in god Reignolde Poole Cardinal! and Legate de Latere of the 
popes Holynes and of the See Apostolique specialie sent vnto ther 
Maiesties and to their Kingdomes and Domiyons on the other ptery 
WHERE at the Parlyament begon and Holden at Westmynster the 
xxj** daie of Octobre in the saide seconde and thirde yeres of the 
reigne of our saide soueraigne Lorde and Ladie And there kepte and 
contynewed vntill the dissolucone of the same beinge the ix*** daie of 
Decembre then next ensuinge one acte of perliament was made in- 
tytled an acte for the extinguyshment of the tirste fruites and touching 



ordre and disposicon of the teothes of spirituall aod BccUastical 
pronicions and of Rectories and Personagies impropriate remayningc 
in the Quenes handes it is emongest other thinges Provided and 
Enacted THAT WHERE the Kinge and Quenes Maiesties stand 
charged for the payment of sundrie rentes Pencones Annuities Cor- 
rodies Pees and othre yerelie payraentes seuerallye graunted aswell 
by diuers and sundrie late Abbotes Priours Masters of Colledgies 
Masters of Hospitalles Chauntrey prests and other eccHasticall and 
spuall persones before the dissolucone of theire houses to dyuerse and 
sundrie Persones seueralh'e or jointlye for terme of lief Ijrves or yeres 
as also by hir Highnes Father Kinge Henrie theight and by hir 
Highnes Brothre Kinge Edwarde the Sixte and by hir Maiestie or by 
any of them to diuers and sundrie Religeous Persones and other 
seuerallie or jointlie for terme of lyefe lyves or yeres the names of all 
whiche personnes together w^ ther seuerall yerelie rentes pencones 
Annuyties Corrodies fees and yerelie paymentes and Proffites shulde 
be speciallie and pticlerlie set furthe and conteined in a certeyne boke 
Indented wherof thone Counterpaine to be signed by our said Soue- 
raigne Ladie the Quene And thother w^ the signe Manuell of the 
saide most Reuerende Father in god Reignold Poole Cardynall to 
thintent our saide soueraigne Lorde and Ladie the Kinge and Quenes 
ma**" theire heires and successores shuld be from the Feaste of 
sainte Michaell tharchangell laste paste and at all tymes from thens- 
forthe clerlie exonerated acquited discharged or saued Harmelez of 
and from the payment of the saide rentes pencones annuyties Corro- 
dies Fees and yerelie paymentes afToresaide Our saide Soueraigne 
Lorde and Ladie the Kinge and Quenes ma**"* were pleasid and con- 
tented that it was Enacted AND THERFORE yt was and is enacted 
by Aucthoritie of the saide pliament that suche and so manic of the 
clergie of this Realme as the saide Lorde Legates grace sholde and 
shall from tyme to tyme name and appoynte and the successors of 
them and of euerie of them (if it shall so please the saide Lorde 
Legates grace to name appointe and assigne them) shuld from the 
saide Feste of S^ Michaell tharchangell laste paste Before the makinge 
of the saide Acte and so from thensforthe from tyme to tyme vntill 
the saide Rectories psonagies and Benyfices impropriate and othre 
the spuall proffites specified in the saide Acte shulde be othrewyse 
ordred vsed and ymploied by thassignement of the saide Lorde 
Legates grace as in the saide acte is expressed and declared Haue 
take pceyve and receive aswell all and singler the perpetuall pencones 
annuall rentes or tenthes and euerie of them mencioned in the saide 
Acte at suche daies and tyme and by all suche waies and meanes as 
the same is lymited and appoynted to be paide either by seuerall 



Ires patente or by the statute made in the xxvi*^ yerc of the saide 

Kinge Henrie theight or by eny other estatute made for and Con- 

cerninge the true payment of the saide tenthesoranyof them as also 

all and singler thissues Reuenues proffites and Comodities of and in all 

and singler the saide Rectories psonage and Benyfices ympropryate 

glebe landes tithes oblacons Pencones Porcones and othre Proffittes 

and Emolumentes Eccliasticall and spuall aforssaide mencyoned in 

the saide acte And of the Reuersion and reuersions therof when they 

shall Falle by all suche waies remedies and means for the levyeng 

and Recovery of the Rentes and Proffites of the saide Premysses as 

our saide Soueraigne Lorde and Ladie hir highnes heires and suc- 

cessores shulde or might have donne if the saide premysses had still 

contynued in their Maiesties handes and possession to this vse entent 

and purpose followinge THAT IS TO SAIE that suche and asmanye 

of the clergie of this realme and theire successores as the saide most 

Reuerend fathre the Lorde Legate grace shulde name and appoynte 

as ys afforesaide shuld therw^ satisfie content and paye or cause to 

be satisfied contented and paide to all and everie the saide Religeous 

persones and to others to be named w^in the saide boke indented 

w(^ at this tyme haue or ought to haue eny Pencone Corrodie annui- 

tie yerelie rent pffytt or Fee for terme of liefe lyves or yeres as is 

afforesaide All and singler their saide pencones corrodies annuyties 

rente or fees at suche daies and tymes as is Lymitted and appoynted 

by seuerall Ires patente or othre writinges or grauntes to them made 

and in soche manner and fourme as our saide soueraigne Lorde and 

Ladie the Kinge and Quenes highnesses hir heires and successours 

shulde or ought to haue paide the same if the saide Acte had never 

bynne had ne made any thinge mencioned in the saide acte to the 

contrarie not w^standinge And that they sholde exonerate Acquite 

Discharge or saue Harmelez the saide Kinge and Quenes Maiesties 

and theires and successours of the Quenes highnes Kinges of this 

Realme of and for the payment of all and singler the saide Pencones 

Annuyties Corrodies and fees and sholde be further bounde for 

thassurance therof as shold be devised by theire ma^i^ w^ thassent 

of the saide Lord Legate Any thinge before in the saide Acte 

mencioned to the contrarie notw^^^standinge as by the saide acte 

more playnelie apperithe BE YT WYTNESSED by thes presente 

that accordinge to the purport tenor effecte and playne meaninge of 

the saide estatute aswell the names of the psones afforesaide to 

whome any suche rente pencon annuytie corrodie Fee or othre yerelie 

payment as is before specified haiie bynne heretofore graunted joyntlie 

or seuerallie for terme of lyfe lyves or yeres as is afforesaide as also 

the saide yerelie Rentes Peocoos Annuyties Corrodies Fees and 



yerelie paymentes so graunted w^ the w^ and with the payment 
wherof all suche of the clergie as shalbe appoynted for the coilecion 
of the saide tenthes and othre the Premysses shalbe onerated and 
charged accordinge to the tenor fourme and effecte of the saide 
statute are speciallie and pticulerlie set furthe and conteyned in this 
I boke indented wherof thone pte Remaininge w^ the saide Lorde Car- 

I dinall his grace is signed by our saide Soueraigne Ladie the Quene 

I and thother pte remayninge w* hir highnes is signed w* the signe 

' nianuell of the saide Lorde Cardinall his grace accordinge to the 

fourme of the saide estatute AND FORASMUCH E as it is ordeyned 
I by the saide estatute that the saide yerelie Rentes pencones annuy- 

' ties corrodies Pees and yerelie paymentes graunted to the persones 

named in this booke indented sholde be paide to the same persones 
I at suche daies and tymes as is Lymitted and appoynted by seuerall 

Ires patente or othre Writinges or grauntes therof to the saide per- 
sones made and in manner and fourme as o' saide soueraigne Lorde 
and Ladie the Kinge and Quenes Highness hir heires and Successours 
sholde or ought to haue paied the same yf the saide acte had never 
byn had or made And for that dyuerse of the saide grauntes be made 
to dyuerse of the saide persones vpon condycone or by this clause 
quam diu se bene gesserit or w^ this Clause Quousque sibi de com- 
petenti Beneficio provisum sit or wt suche like in effecte or eny othre 
by reson of w® clauses or condicones dyuerse of the saide grauntes be 
determied and ought no longer to haue contynuance therfore to 
thintent the truthe maie be serched out and knowen concerninge the 
performinge and not pformynge of the saide Condicion and plaine 
meaninge of the saide clauses and of all other acte and actes thinge 
and thinges wherbye or for the w** the saide grauntes or any of them 
be or oughte to be determyned OUR SAIDE SOUEREIGNE Lorde 
the Kinge and Lady the Quenes . Ma^«s and the saide Lorde Car- 
dinall his grace be pleased To prouyde and geve aucthoritie con- 
cerninge an ordre to be taken of and for the payment from hensforthe 
of the saide Rentes annuities Pencones Corrodies Fees and somes of 
monye in manner and fourme FoUowinge THAT IS TO SAYE our 
saide soueraigne lorde the Kinge and Ladie the Quene and the saide 
Lorde Cardinall his grace and everie of them by theis presente do 
give and graunte full powre and aucthoritie to the Lorde Chauncelor 
of Englande or to the keper of the greate seale for the time beinge 
and to the Lorde Tresorer and Lorde previe seale and to the chefe 
Justice of Englande And to the chefe Justice of the Comen plees for 
the tyme beinge and to three of them wherof the saide lorde chaun- 
celor or lorde Keper of the grete seale for the time beinge to be one 
to calle before them iiij*^ or iij of them wherof the saide Lorde Chaun- 



celer or lorde Keper of the grete scale for the tyrae beinge to be one 
any of the pties to whome any of the saide grauntes be graunted or 
made as is aSbresaide and all persones that canne depose concern- 
inge the same or any thinge touchinge the same And in the presens 
or absens of the saide persones by the Othes of Witnesses as is affor&- 
saide and by all other circurostaunce as shall seme mete or conueny- 
ent to the saide Commyssioners iiij or three of them wherof the saide 
lorde Chauncelor or Keper of the greate Seale to be one to examyne 
and considre the validitie and invaliditie of the saide grauntes and 
of everie of them AND YF IT SHALL SEME or Appere to the 
saide Comyssioners or to three of them wherof the saide Lorde 
Chauncelor or Keper of the greate Seale to be one That eny of the 
saide grauntes so considered and examyned for any the causes afifore- 
saide or for any other good and Juste cause or Consideracon be or 
ought to be dyminisshed determyned or from thensforthe no longer 
paide orcontynewed THAT THEN thervpon the saide Comyssioners 
or three of them wherof the saide Lorde Chauncelor or Keper of the 
greate seale to be one to geve Judgment or take ordre therin as shall 
seame to theire wisdomes moste agreinge to lawe Equitie and Con- 
siens and that aftre suche ordre or Judgmente geven euerie of the 
saide rentes pencones annuylies corodies Fees and annuall paimentes 
wherof such Judgement or ordre shalbe so geuen or taken accordinge 
to lawe equitie and consyence as is afforesaide shall haue continu- 
aunce and be paide or not paied in no othre manner or fourme then 
accordinge to the tenor and efTecte of suche Judgement or ordre so as 
is afforesaide to be geven or taken AND IT IS FURTHER Prouided 
and agreed by our saide soueraigne lorde the Kinge and Ladie the 
Quene and the saide Lorde Cardinall his grace that everie suche 
Judgement or ordre geven or taken as is afforesaide be entred vpon 
the backe of the writinge or Ires patente of euerie suche graunte 
wherof suche Judgement or ordre shalbe so geven or taken as is 
afforesaide AND ALSO that theise Ires J and G be written in the 
counterpayne of this booke indented remayninge w^ the saide Lorde 
Cardynall his grace over the name of him againste whome suche 
ordre shalbe had as is afforesaide And that done then the Ires patente 
or other writinges of everie suche graunte whervpon suche iudge- 
ment or ordre shalbe so geven or taken to be deliuered to the ptie to 
whom the same was firste graunted or to his Lawful! deputie or 
assigne yf the saide ptie or his Lawfull deputie or assigne shall 
reqsirc it IN WYTNES of all the prcmysses To thone pte of this 
booke Indented remayninge w^ the saide Lorde Cardinall his grace 
our saide soueraigne ladie the Quene hath sett hir highnes signet 
And to thothre ptie remaininge w^ our saide soueraigne Ladie the 



Qiiene the saide Lorde cardinall his grace haue putte his signe 
manuail the daie and yere firste abovewritten And in further Witnes 
and Corroboracone of the assent and aucthoritie geven in the pre- 
mysses by our saide soueraigne borde the Kinge and Ladie the Quene 
our saide soueraigne Lorde the Kinge and Ladie the Quene haue 
caused the saide Counterpaine of this booke indented remayninge w^** 
the saide Lorde cardinal! his grace to be sealed w^ the greate Scale 
of Bnglande And to the other pte of the saide boke Indented remay- 
ninge w^^ our saide soueraigne lorde and Ladie the Kinge and tbe 
Quenes Ma^i^^ in the courte of Thexchequier the saide lorde Car- 
denalles grace hathe iikewize put his scale the daie and yeres firste 

Reg : Car*« polus. leg : 

Edward Gryppyn 
William Cordell 

Specificantur et continent^ in septuaginta septem sedulis indentat. 
sequen. tarn nomina et cognomina diuersar. personar. qm cor. separa- 
lia feoda an<^ corrodia et penciones eisdm pro termino vitae vel 
annor. concessa nuper in Curijs Scij et Ducatus Lancastrie de 
Thesauro Regio solut. ac imposter. per cierum vigore cuiusdm Actus 
Parliamenti exonerand. et soluend. videlt a festo sancti Michis Archi. 
annis regnor. Philippi et Maris del gratia Regis et Reginse Angliae 
firancise Neapolis Jerlm. et Hibnise fidei Defensor PHncipum His- 
paniar et Ciciliae Archiducum Austriae Ducum Mediolanise Burgun- 
diae Brabantiae Comitum Hasburgise Flandris et Tirolis secundo et 
Tercio prout in separalibz Comitatibz subsequentibz perticulariter 

Reg : Car1*s polus leg : 

Q. R. Miscellaneous Books, vol, 32, ffol. 71. 

Com. Westmerland 

Anntes Georgij Blenkynsoppe p. ann. xxvjs viijd 

Robti Walles p. ann. xvs iiijd 

Michis Crakenthorpe p. ann. iiijU 

Alexandri Whittingtone p. ann. xU 

Shapp Ambrosij Middletone p. ann. xU 

nup. Mon. Edi Carter p. ann. iiijli 





Rici Baggfot nup, Abbus. p. ann. 


Martini Mackarethe p. ann. 

Johnis Dawsonne p. ann. 


Hug^onis Watsonne p. ann. 


Robti Bailonde p. ann. 


Johnis Adisonne p. ann. 


Johnis Bell p. ann. 

cvis viijd 

Edwardi Michacll p. ann. 


Georg-ij Ellersonne p. ann. 


Anthonij Johnsonne p. ann. 


Johnis Rods p. ann. 


Rici Mell p. ann. 


Radi Watsonne p. ann. 


Edinundi Oirter p. ann. 


Adami Sheperd nup. incumben. 

Cant. bte. Marie in Kendall p. ann. 

Robti Birse nup. incumben. 
Cant : CoUeg : Cant. sci. Anthonij in 

fraternit. et Penc. Kirkebye Kendale p. ann. 
al. hmoi. Johnis Garnett nup incumben. 

in Com. predic. Cant. sci. Xpofer in ecclia de 

Kirkebie Kendale 

Alani Sheperd nup. incumben. 

Cant, ad Altar. Tho. Beckett in 

Kendall p. ann. 



Ixiiijs iiijd 

fliiij* vijd 



Robti Dogesonne nup. incumben. ) .... „, 

Cant, de Kirkebye londesdale p. ann. j '"^^' ''"J' "'i^ 

Galfri Bainebrigge nup. incumben. \ 

Cant. Sci. Leonard! voc. le Spitle I jiyij 

in Kirkebye londesdale p. ann. ] 

Willmi Mounteforthe nup. incumben. ) 

Cantrie sive libe capelle de howe p. a. J ^'** 

Sm.omi Soluc. 

in pdco. Comitat. -du xis vijd 

Westmerland p. an. j 

see. bege 
nup. Mon. 

nup. Monaster. 



Comitat. Cumbr. 
I)ni Whartone senl general omn. 
poss. nup. mon. pred. ex concess. 
nup. abbis ibm. p. ann. 
Anne Dartwentwater nup. 

Galfride Chambres p. ann. 
Anntes Mbrgarete Standley p. ann. 

xxvjs viijd 
[■liijs iiijd 

xxv]^ viijd 



Holme Coltrm 

nup. Monaster. 

Anthonij Richerdsoone p. ann. 


Johnis I dell p. ann. 



Wtllmi Symondsonne p. ann. 


Robti Cement p. ann. 


Johnis Allanbye p. ann. 


Johnis Wyse p. ann. 

Ixvjt viijd 

Thome Browne p. ann. 

iiijli ziijs iiijd 

Rrci Patensonne p. ann. 

Ixvjt viijd 

Nichi Pyg^iey p. ann. 


Thome Yrebye p. ann. 


Rid Adamesonne p. ann. 


Willmi Moreton p. ann. 


Robti Bankes p. ann. 

lxvj« viijd 

iiijli xiijs iiijd 

Rici Waite p. ann. 


Robti Harysone p. ann. 


Oliveri Skelton p. ann. 

xxvjs viijd 

Jacobi Salkelde p. ann. 

Ixvjs viijd 


Thome Atkynsonne p. ann. 


nup. Monaster. 

Rowlandi Marke p. ann. 


Anntes Hugfonis Sewell p. ann. 

xxvjs viijd 

Alexandri Whittingtone p. ann. 


Rici Bcnsonep. ann. 


Willmi Thomlynsonne p. ann. 

cyjs viijd 


Rici Jackesonne p. ann. 

cyj« viijd 


Anntes Edwardi Walls p. ann. 


nup. Monaster. 


Radi Hartley p. ann. 




Lawrencij Stanley p. ann. 


nup. Mon. 

Rowlandi Thirkelde mas^ nup. 

jxvijli xs 

Colleg. de Kyrke oswalde p. ann. 


Robti Thompsonne nup. incumben. 


fraternit. et 


in eodem Collegio p. ann. 

al hmoi. 

Johnis Blcnkerne alterius incumben. 

in Com. pred. 

in dco. Collegio p. ann. 


Robti Dune nup. incumben. Cant. see. \ .... 
Crucis infra ecclia. Cath..CarlieIl j *"J^^ 

Cant: CoUeg : Hugonis Baker nup. incumben. Cant, 

fraternit. sci. Albani infra Eccliam pd. p. ann. 

et al. hmoi Rici Jackesonne nup. incumben. \ 

in Com. predco. Cant. see. Katherine in ecclia pd. p. llxvj 

Ixvjs viijd 





Willi Mires nup. incumben. Cant. sci. 1 . 
Rochi in ecdia predca. p. ann. [ * 

Nichi Goldsmithe nup. incumben. ^ . 
Cant. bte. Marie in ecclia pd. p. ann. j ^* 

Thome Ellerton nuper confratris ) 

ibmp.ann. j "'J'' 

Thome Bewley nup. incumben. Cant. ] 

bte. Marie infra ecclia. poch. de Ednell ) 

Gawini Brathwaite nup. incumben. \ 

Cant. bte. Marie Magdalene in |cs 

Crossethwaite ' 

Bernard! Hastie nup. incumben. \ 

Cant. bte. Marie in ecclia. poch. de . vjH 

Hoton p. ann. J 

Willi Markendale nup. incumben. \ 

Cant. sci. Leonard! in Bromefelde . iiijH 

p. ann. ) 

Georg Lancaster nup. incumben. libe 

capell. voc. Saint Ieon*ds hospitall in 

poch. de Wigdon 

VVillmi Blackett nup. presbiter. 

celebran. in ecclia deSalkelde magna \ 

p. ann. 

Johnis Thraughton nup. incumben. \ 

Cantie in ecclia. poch. de Egremound . Ixvjs viijd 

p. a. f 

Willmi Lampleyl'nup. incumben. 

Cantie infira Cast, de Cockermouth - vjli 

p. ann. 

Pcivalli Whartone nup. incumben. 1 

libe capell. infra Cast, de Penrith i vju 

p. ann. J 

Willmi Hutchinsonne nup. incumben. 

Cant, infra Cast, de Penrith p. ann. 

Willmi Browne nup. incumben. ] .— 

Cant, infra poch. de Wigdon p. ann. 1 

Willmi Lathome alter, incumben. ) ^, 
ibm. p. ann. ) 

Willmi Haire alterius incumben. 
ibm. p. ann. 

Robert! Redshawe alterius incumben. ) 
in dco. Collegio p. ann. f 

a I xls 


Sm. Omi. Soluc. 
in pdco Comitat. 
Cumbr p. annu. 

ccxixli vjs viijd 



The eiforts of Queen Mary were not confined altogether 
in doing justice to the disestablished monks and priests, 
but took a wider range for the relief of the whole church. 
The estates of the bishops vested in the Crown were 
restored. The warrant for the restoration of the confis- 
cated lands of the See of Carlisle to Bishop Oglethorpe 
had received the Royal sanction and was despatched to 
its destination. Owing to the Queen's death, however, it 
was never put in force. After some search in the Registry 
of the Bishop of Carlisle, the instrument cannot now be 
found, but hopes are entertained that it has been placed 
somewhere in the Registry for greater security and the 
location forgotten. It was seen by Dr. Brigstocke 
Sheppard in 1881 and reported upon thus for the His- 
torical Manuscripts Commission : — 

Restitution of Church Estates. A deed endorsed : '* A grant to 
Bishop Oglethorp of certain benefices by King Phillip and Queene 
Mary ** is the instrument by which the Queen, for the disburdening 
of her conscience, restores to the See of Carlisle, as she did to the 
other Sees of her kingdom, such of the church estates in the diocese 
as were vested in the Crown : having been confiscated in the 20th 
year of Henry VIII. This, of course, does not point to a restoration 
of the Abbey lands which had passed into the hands of subjects, but 
to the Queen's renunciation of her claim to first fruits and tenths, 
and to all rectories, benefices impropriate, glebe lands, tithes, 
oblations, and pensions which were still vested in the Crown. 
These estates were conveyed to Bp. Oglethorp in order that the 
profits of them might be applied to the augmentation of the livings 
to which they formerly belonged, for the increasing of poor cures, for 
furnishing preachers, and in exhibitions to poor scholars. The re- 
grant was made in the first place by statute (2 and 3 Phil, and Mary, 
cap. 4,) to Cardinal Pole, who acted as representative of the Bishops 
of England. The payment of a sum of money, and the uneasiness 
of the Royal conscience are stated as the consideration for the grant. 

Nos, igitur, cupientes de hac cura nos penitus exonerare, et 
in consideratione summe vij millium librarum quam dictus 
Reverendissimus in Xpo. Dns. Cardinalis Polus, unacum 
consensu reliquorum Prelatorum, &c., sua sponte, gratissiroe, 



non rogatus, sed ex mera et spontanea sua voluntate, nobis 

obtulit ad supportationem grandissimorum 

onerum per nos in defensione regni nostri sustentatorum &c. 

The present instrument is dated 14th Nov. 5 and 6 Phil, and Maty. 
An attached memorandum certifies the fees paid to the Chancery for 
this concession : 

The greate Scale 

viijs ixd 

Waying and enrolment 

xlvjs viijd 

Wax, lace, and execution 

iij8 ivd 

Velame skyns and grete lettres 


By the ** grete lettres *' above mentioned are meant the capital 
initial letter which includes portraits of the king and queen em- 
bowered, with lions and unicorns, in Tudor roses (Ninth Report, 
Appendix, part i, pp. 177-8). 

In three days after the issue of this warrant the Queen 
and Pole were dead and Elizabeth/ having jibbed the 
sails and eased the helm of the English church, steered 
in another direction. It is to be hoped that Queen Mary's 
instrument of restitution may be soon recovered and pre- 
served in our Registry as a memento of her gracious 
dealings with the diocese of Carlisle. 


How many copies of these original instruments are now in existence 
I do not know. Burnet had seen one of them which he has printed 
tx MSS. Nob. D. G. Pierpoint (Collection of Records, vol. i, pt. 2, pp. 
242-246), but for what county he does not say. The following copy 
for Westmorland is of undoubted interest. 




Instructions for Survey of Religious Houses in Westmorland. 
28 Hen. VIII. (Vellum 6 pp.) 




newe Survey and an Inventorie to be made of all the demeane 
lands Goods and Catalls apptenynsf toany House of Relygion 
of Monkes Chanons and Nunes within their Comyssion accor- 
dynjf to the Articles hereafter Folowyn^ The nomber of the 
wiche Housez in enie Countie lymyttyd in their Comyssion 
ben Annexed to the same Coroission. 

Comitat.) FIRST AFTER dyuysion made one Auditor one Ptider Receyvor A 
VVestm. I Gierke of the Register of the last Vysitacon with iii other discrete 
Psons to be named by the Kyng in eury Countie where eny suche 
Housez ben after their Repare to any such House shall declare to the 
Gounor & Relygious psones of the same the statute of dissolucon their 
Comyssion & the Cause & ppose ot their Repare for that tyme. 

ITM that after this Declaracon made the seyd Comys^oners shall swere 
the Gounor of the Housez or suche other of the officers of the same 
Housez or other as they shall thynke can best declare the State & 
Plite of the same to make declaracon & Aunswer to the Articlez 
hervnder Written. 

ITM of what Order Rule or Rely^on the same House is & whether 
it be'a Cell or not And if it be A Cell then the ComysMoners to delyuer 
to the gounor of the House a pvye Seale And also enioyne him in the 
Kyngs name vnder A grete payn to appire without delaye before the 
Chauncellor of the Augmentacon of the Revenues of the Kyngs 
Crowne & the Counsell of the same And in the meane tyme not to 
medle with the same Cells till the Kyngs pleasure be ferther knowen. 

ITM what nombr of psons of Relygion ben in the same & the Conu- 
sacon of their lyves & howmany of they m ben Priestes&howmany of 
theym will go to other Housez of that Kelygion or howmany will take 
Capacyties & howmany seniants or hynds the same House Kepith 
comenly or what other psonez hath their lyvyng in the same House. 

ITM to survey the quantytie or vahie of the leed & Bells of the same 
House as ncre as they can with tlie Rvene Decay State & Plytc of 
the same. 

ITM incontynently to call for the Couent Seale with all Wrytynges 
Charters Evydencesand Mynuments concnyng eny of the possessions 
to be delyued to theym & to put theym in suer kepyng & to make A 
iuste Inuentorye bitwext theym & the gounor or other hedde officers by 
Indenture of the Ornaments Plate Juells Catalls redymoney Stuff of 
Household Corne aswell seued as not seued Stok & Store in the fer- 
mours hands & the value therof as nere as they can Which were 
appteynyng to the same Housez the First Day of Merche last & what 
Dettes the House dothe owe & to what pson & what Dettes ben owyng 

to theym & by Whome. 



ITM after to cause the Couent or comen Seale the Pbte & Joelles & 
redyraoney to be putt in sauff Kepyng & the Residue of the pticlers 
especified in the Inuentory to be left in the kepyng of the gounor or 
some other hedde officer without Wastyngror Consumpconof thesame 
onles it be for necessarye expense^ of the house. 

ITM that they comaunde the.gounor or other Receyvor of the same 
House to receyve no rent of their Fermors vntill they knowe ferther 
of the Kyngs pleasure excepte suche rentes as muste nedes be hadde 
for the necessarye Fyndyng or sustenance or for payment of their 
s'unts Wages. 

ITM to survey discretely the demeanes of the same House that is to 
sey suche as ben not comenly vsed to be letton oute & to certifie the 
clere yerly value therof. 

ITM to examyn the true clere yerly value of all the fermes of the 
same House deductyng therof Rents resoluts pencons & porcons 
payd out of the same synods & proxis Bailliffs Receyvois Stywards 
& Audytors Fees & the names of theym to Whome they ben due & 
none other. 

ITM What leasez hath ben made to eny Fermor of the Fermes 
pteynyng to ye same House & what Rents is reseued & to Whom & 
for howmany yeres And a copy of the Indenture if they can gett it or 
els the Counterpane^ 

ITM to serche & enquyre what Wodes Parkes Forests Comons or other 
pflBtt belongyng to eny of the possessions of the same Houses ye 
nombr of y« Acrez & value as nere as they can. 

ITM what Bargayns graunts Sales gifts Alyenacons leases of eny 
lands ten'ts & woods & oflfics hath ben made by eny of the seyd 
gounors of eny of the seyd Housez within one yere next bifore the 
iiijth Day of February last past & of what thyng & to what value & 
to Whom & for what estate. 

ITM if their be eny House of eny of the Religious aforeseyd dis- 
solued or omytted & not certyfied in the Eschequyer then the seyd 
Comyssioners to survey the same & to make ctificate accordyngly. 

ITM that they stray tly comaunde euy gounor of euy House 
lymytted to their Comyssion to sowe & till their grounde as they 
haue done bifore till the Kyngs pleasure be ferther knowen. 

ITM euy of the seyd Comyssioners havyng in charge to survey more 
then one shire within the lymytt of their Comyssion ymmedyatly after 
that they haue pvsed one Shire pcell of their Charge in Forme afore- 
seyd shall sende to the ChaunccUor of the Courte of the Augmentacon 
of the Reuenues of the Kyngs Crowne A brief ctificate of all their 
Comptes accordyng the Instruccons aforeseyd what they haue done in 



f • p«y«es k \m ^nj CoaotM to avrfoy^d thca lo poe4« fertlMr to 
Anpther Counkie & ms they passe the seyd Coaoties to make lyke 
certificate & so forth till their lymyttes be serueyed & ther to remayn 
till th^ knowe ferthcr of the Kyogs pleasure. 

I TM if the seyd Comysstoners haue but one Countie in Charipe thea to 
certifie the seyd Chauncdlor in forme aibwseyd & ther to remayn till 
they kooere ferther of the Kyogs pleasure, 

ITM if ther be eny House gyuea by the Kynge to any psoo in eny of 
the seyd seuall lymytts of the seyd Comyssion the names Wherof 
shalbe declared to the seyd G>my8sioners then the seyd Comyssioners 
imraedyatly shall take the Couent seale finom the Gounor & take an 
Inuentorye indented of the leed Bells detts Catalls plate Juells 
ornaments stok St store to the Kyngs vse & to make sale of y® goods 
Catalls & other Implements plate & Juells only excepted. 

ITM the Comysswners in euy sucbe House to sende suche of the 
Relygious psons that Will remayn in ye same Relygion to some other 
grete House of that relygion by their discreoons with a Ire to the 
gounor for the Receipt of theym & ye resydue of tbeym that will go 
to ye World to send theym to my lord of Canteibury & the lord 
Chauacellor of Engfonde for their capacyties wt ye be of ye same 

ITM the seyd Comyssioners to geue to the seyd psons that will haue 
Capacyties some reasonable Rewarde accordyng to the Distaunce of 
the place by their Diacrecyons to be appoynted. 

ITM the seyd Comysskmers to comauode the gounor to resorte to the 
Chauncellor of the Augmentacon for His yerly Stypende or pencon. 
ITM if there be eny House dissolued or gyven Tp to the Kynge by 
their Dede then the Comyssioners shall order theym selffes therin in 
euy poynte & prpose as of the Houses gyuen by the Kynge to eny 
other person in Forme aforeseyd 

ITM if it happen to the seyd Comyssioners that eny of the seyd houses 
within their ImyyttsbeoftheorderoftheGilbdynsthat then theyshall 
no ferther pcede but enioyne the gounor of the same Houses that 
they with all Celeritie do appire bifore ye Chauncellor & Counsell of 
ye Courte of Augmentacon at Westmer where they shall knowe 
ferther of the Kyngs pleasure. 

(Remaining leaves blank, but cover endorsed)— 


A Comission & instruccons 
for ye Survey of Religious 
Houses in the Nosth, 


11^1:11:5 AT^LD -PARKS.— BEADS. 

Plati 11. 



Art. XXVIII.— 0» a Tumulus at Old Parks, Kirkoswald: 
with some Remarks on One at Aspatria, and also on Cup, 
Ring, and other Rock Markings in Cumberland and West^ 
morland. By the Presidenti Chancbllor Fbrou80N, 

Communicated at Lake Side, Windermere, June 13th, 1894. 

AN the 2ist of September, 1892, • I exhibited to this 
Society at Seascale, by the kindness of Mr. W. 
Potter of Old Parks, Kirkoswald, a small vessel of coarse 
earthenware of the kind known as " incense cups," (see 
Plate II.) which had been found in a large mound of 
stones close to Mr. Potter's farm in a field called, signifi- 
cantly, " Low Field," — a name which was taken by the 
few who knew it to refer to the position of the field itself, 
and not to any mound or burial place in it t : the mound, 
indeed, was by many supposed to be a mere clearance 
heap, and as such it was sold to the County Council of 
Cumberland for road metal. In course of removing the 
stones, the incense cup exhibited at Seascale was found, 
and shortly afterwards was brought to my notice by Mr. 
Potter. In consequence of this I visited the mound in 
1892 in company with the Rev. H. A. Macpherson and 
Mr. Potter : about 30 cartloads of stones had then been 
removed from the extreme circumference of the mound on 
the north side : during the removal, the incense cup 
already mentioned as having been exhibited at Seascale 
was found ; also some fragments of a large urn, and some 
bits of calcined bone. On the occasion of this visit, we 

• These Transactions, vol. xii, p. 275. 
t Hlaw, Mdw, what covers, a grave, 
gently risings a low.— Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 

t Hlaw, hiduj, what covers, a grave, heap, a small hill. A tract of ground 
■ 's AngUhSaxon Dictionary. 



dug into the centre of the mound, where some large slabs 
of stone were lying about, and partially exposed a large 
earthfast stone, which we took to be part of a ruined cist. * 
On it we observed a curious artificial mark or grooving. 
Near it we found two or three vertebra and a fragment of 
a skull, none of which were human. We found also a very 
little charcoal, and some stones that had been subject to 
the action of fire. 

At the time of our visit in 1892 the work of leading away 
the stones had been suspended, and it was not resumed 
until after a very considerable interval. Towards the end 
of la^t year Mr. Potter informed me that a second incense 
oup (see Plate III.) had been found, with twelve small 
beads inside t of it (see Plate I.) and also urged me to pay 
another visit to the place : this I was very eager to do, 
though prevented by various circumstances, until July of 
the present year [1894], when I went, accompanied by 
Mr. Potter, and by the Rev. Canon Thornley, the vicar of 
Kirkoswald. At a much earlier period, I had, however, 
sent out a photographer, whose pictures are reproduced 
with this paper. (Plates I. to VIII.) 

Between my first and second visit about 600 cartloads 
of stones had been removed, and the site was virtually 
cleared, though a considerable heap was still remaining 

• Transactions, vol, xii, p. 276/ where I erroneously stated we had found a 
ruined cist : it will be seen we were in error. 

t The question has been asked me by a distinguished antiquary "Is the finding 
of those beads in the incense cup strictly authenticated?" I wrote to Mr. Potter. 
The following is his reply : 

The Parks* Kirkoswald, 

October 15th, 1894. 
Dear Mr. Ferguson, — 

There is no doubt whatever about the 12 beads being found inside the 
larger incense cup. I found the cup myself, and it was never out of my sight, 
and scarcely out of my hands until 1 took it home. It was my intention to send 
it on to you with its contents undisturbed, but Mrs. Potter, with the curiosity of 
the sex, got to poking in it with a hairpin and discovered some of the beads, 
and I then emptied it out and found the remainder. 

Very truly yours, 

Wm, Potter. 


Plate 111. 



> -« # J • 


on the west side, awaiting removal * The stones, it may 
here be remarked, were mainly of a local sandstone. 

The cleared site was roughly oval with a longer diameter 
of 80 feet, and a shorter of 63 feet, t the longer diameter 
running east and west. It may be well to mention that 
before the mound was touched, its height was about four 
feet above the level of the adjacent ground, and that it 
was somewhat depressed in the centre. Mr. Potter is of 
opinion that the mound had in modern times been used 
as a clearance heap, which might account for the irregular 
outline. A large tree which grew a little within the cir- 
cumference of the mound on the south side had been cut 
down and uprooted during the clearance. 

Running in a straight line from north to south across 
the centre of the cleared area are five slabs of rough stone, 
set in the natural surface of the ground, but not very deep, 
forming a row 14 feet 9 inches long measured on the 
ground. (See Plates IV. and V.) The following are 
their dimensions, taking the most northerly stone to be 
No. I ; 

Length along 

the ground. 



No. I. 

ift. 8in. 

ift. lin. 


No. 2. 

2ft. 6in. 

ift. sin. 


No. 3. 

2ft. 7in. 



No. 4. 

3ft. 2in. 

ift. gin. 


No. 5. 

3ft. lin. 

ift. loin. 


The height given for No. s >s taken at its middle, but its 
southern corner stands 2 feet 4 inches above the ground, 
and it was this stone that on our visit, in 1892, we took 
to be part of a ruined cist. 

' * Nothing like such a heap as is shown in the photographs, much carting 
having been done between the photographer's visit and mine. 

t At Seascale I stated it to be roughly circular with diameter of ^^ feet : the 
more recent measurements were made with a tape. 



Of these stones Nos. 3 and 5 have artificial grooves and 
markings on their east sides (see Plates VI. and VIIL), 
and No. 3 on its west side (see Plate VII.) : these mark- 
ings continue into the ground, and show that they were 
upon the stones before the stones were set in their present 
positions. But the freshness of the pick or chisel marks 
in the grooves proves that these stones cannot have been 
long exposed to weather. 

This row of stones, thus, divides the area of the mound 
or tumulus, roughly, into two halves, semi-circles, or 
rather semi-ovals 

In the western half of the area no less than thirty-two 
deposits of burnt bones were discovered : they were in 
holes scooped out of the natural surface of the ground, 
and in some cases were accompanied by fragments of 
broken urns, and also by stones showing traces of fire. 
The first incense cup already mentioned (see Plate II.) 
was found near the north end of the line dividing the two 
semi-circles or ovals (the continuation of the line of five 
earthfast stones). A second and much superior incense 
cup (see Plate III.) was found a little westward of the 
first, and in it were twelve small beads (see Plate I.) 
which Mr. J. G. Goodchild, F.G.S,, F,Z.S., pronounces to 
be made of cannel coal. Near to where the second incense 
cup was found, a flat stone covered one of the thirty-two 
interments, a protection that was not accorded to others 
of them. These interments were dotted about the area of 
the semi-oval, but mainly towards the circumference. 
Under the roots of the tree, stated to have been growing 
on the south side of the mound, a large burial am was 
found, full of burnt bones. It is much distorted by pres- 
sure, but was got out perfect or nearly so : it stands i foot 
i| inches high, with a diameter of five inches at the 
bottom, and of i foot i inch by 11^ inches at the mouth, 
which has been distorted into an oval. The ornamenta- 
tion on it is rude and much worn. Fragments of similar 


» *» W V « • 







.- # • 

• • • • '» 
• • • •-• * 

• •••-•*• r • • • 

•••••••••••••• • ••• * . 












isrnt were found among the bones in some of the inter- 
ments, and also fragments of urns of smaller and thinner 
paste, being probably of the class known as drinking cups. 

The eastern half of the area contained no interments, 
but two large excavations had been made into the original 
soil : both ran east and west, and much resembled modern 
graves. The larger was 8 feet 3 inches long by 4 feet 
9 inches wide and 4 feet 3 inches deep : the other was 
smaller, about the dimensions of an ordinary grave of the 
present day, but had been filled up before my visit, partly 
by the workmen, but mostly by a violent thunderstorm. 
Both, when first discovered, were filled up with cobble 
stones, and in a corner of the larger, under a flagstone, 
were some burnt bones and ashes. 

It would seem that the excavations in the eastern half 
of the mound must have contained burials by inhumation 
in an extended position, the bodies lying east and west, 
and having long ago wholly disappeared ; while the bones 
and ashes found there under a flagstone must have been 
a secondary interment of later date. These two burials by 
inhumation, four feet deep below the original surface, must 
have been the original interments over which the tumulus 
or low was raised : the question arises, what is the date of 
the thirty-two interments by cremation in the western 
half of the mound, and what is the meaning of the wall 
of separation, and of the mysterious grooves and marks 
cut on the east side of two of the stones, and on the west 
side of one of them ? One can hardly imagine the inter- 
ments after cremation to have been simultaneous with the 
two by inhumation, unless there had been a wholesale 
slaughter of slaves and dependents at the time of the in- 
humation. It would be more probable that they were 
made subsequently and at different times. Dr. Thurnam 
(Archaeologia, vol. xliii, pp. 328-331,) gives instances of 
central primary interments by inhumation with secondary 
interments after cremation lying on or towards the cir- 


cumference of the barrows] towards the south side, while 
the north is vacant, bat in the instance before us they lie 
towards the west, and the east is vacant. Many instances 
of burial by inhumation, and of burial after cremation in 
the same tumulus are given in Greenwell and Rolleston's 
British Barrows. No pottery except what has been men- 
tioned : no personal lelics, except the twelve rude beads 
of cannel coal were found to our knowledge, but there 
might have been. The removal of the tumulus occupied, 
intermittently, over two years, and was effected at such 
chance times as the work of a large farm and the weather 
left men and horses otherwise free. Hence continuous 
scientific supervision was impossible : but archaeologists 
are much indebted to Mr. Potter for the care he took to 
record, secure, and preserve everything. 

A granite monolith stands in the next field io6 yards 
due west from the circumference of the tumulus : it stands 
4 feet 7 inches high, and is 13 feet in circumference at 
the ground level : we did not detect any artificial markings 
upon it. 

Not very far distant on the estate of Messrs. Rowley 
in a field called Grazing Land, is another large tumulus 
of stones : standing on it, one can trace a stone circle or 
fence within its circumference* It would probably 
repay investigation, but such would be a very expensive 
piece of work. 

The occurrence of cup, ring, and groove marked stones 
is not without precedent in Cumberland and Westmorland. 
Indeed the first discovery of them was made at Aspatria 
in Cumberland in the month of June, 1789, and is re- 
ported by Major Hayman Rooke in a letter dated 17th 
December in that year, and read before the Society of 
Antiquaries of London, February, 4th, 1790. t The 

* Ste Greenwell and Rollestpn, British Barrows, pp. 7-8. 
t Archaologia, vol. x, pp. 105, \i\, 113. See also Hutchinson's History qf 
Cumberland, vol. ii. pp. 287-288, n. 



following is Major Rooke*s account of the circumstances 
of the find, which, be it observed, is not from personal 
observation, but from information supplied to him by Mr. 
Rigg> the proprietor of the land on which stood the barrow 
or tumtdus, during whose opening the discovery was made. 
The Major had an inspection of the objects found and 
sketched them. 

About two hundred yards north of the village, and just behind his 
house (Mr. Rigg's) is a rising ground called Beacon Hill, on the sum- 
mit of which the barrow was placed, commanding an extensive view 
every way, and of course a very proper situation for a beacon, which 
was probably erected on the barrow. In levelling this (the base of 
which I found to have been 90 feet in circumference) they removed 
six feet of earth to the natural soil, and about three feet below they 
found a vault formed with two large cobble stones at each side, and 
one at each side (sic). In it was the skeleton of a man which 
measured seven feet from the head to the ankle bone; the feet 
were decayed and rotted off. The bones at first appeared perfect, 
but when exposed to the air became very brittle. On the left side 
near the shoulder was a broad sword near five feet in length : the 
guard was elegantly ornamented with silver flowers. On the right 
side lay a dirk or dagger, one foot six inches and a quarter in length, 
the handle appeared to have been studded with gold. Near the 
dagger was found part of a gold fibula or buckle, and an ornament 
for the end of a belt, a piece of which adhered to it when first taken 
up. . . . Several pieces of a shield were picked up, but I did not 
see parts sufficient to make out the shape. There were also part of 
a battle axe, . . a bit shaped like a modern snafHe, part of a spur. 
These were very much corroded with rust. H and I * are the two 
large cobble stones, which incbsed the west side of the kistvaen. H 
is two feet eight inches in length ; I is three feet in length, and one 
foot eight inches high. On these stones are various emblematic 
figures in rude sculpture, though some of the circles are exactly 
formed, and the rims and crosses within them are cut in relief, \ 

• These letters refer to the plate of illustrations given in the Arcfueologia, 
and reproduced in Hutchinson's History of Cumberland. We have omitted 
the other references as immaterial to the subject of this paper. 

t These last ten words have been a stumblinjf block to Sir James Y. Simpson {On 
Ancient Sculpturines of Cups and Concentric Rings, &c., p. 120, n.. Appendix 
Proceedings, S.A.S., ist series vol vi.,) and to Dr. M. W. Taylor, F.S.A., 



We reproduce, from Pergusson's Rude Stone MonupnentSf 
one of the two side stones, so that their similarity to 
the stones at Old Parks is at once seen. Major Rooke 
takes the circles upon the Aspatria stones to be em- 
blems of eternity, and from the circles and crosses he 
concludes the interment to be that of a person of rank 


after the year A.D. 596, when Augustine the monk brought 
Christianity to Britain. We need not linger to argue 
the question with the Major's shade ; his theory will 
hardly find a supporter at the present day. * The relics, 

(these Transactions, vol. vi, p. 112,) who incline to consider the Aspatria 
stones as apocryphal, or at any rate of a different class to such as were found at 
Old Parks. But Sir James says the Aspatria find was "casually described" by 
the Major, and I think the Major has b^en rather more casual than usual, and 
that these last words are an error either of observatbn or of memory. Under 
this belief, we have no hesitation in puttinjif the Aspatria stones into the same 
class as the Old Park ones. Mr. James Fergusson in his Rude Stone Monuments, 
p. 157, reproduces Rooke's sketch of one of the side stones : he has no doubt 
that it belongs to the class under discussion, and asserts from it that the 
class may be of the Viking; A^e. There is a rude flower-like figure on one of 
these stones: a similar figure is to be seen on a stone in County Meath.^ See 
Proc: S.A.S., 3rd series, vol. iii, fig: 27, and p. 309. By kind permission of 
John Murray, 50, Albemarle Street, through Mr. A. H. Hallam Murray, we 
reproduce Fer^usson's illustration of one of the Aspatria cobbles.^ 

♦The compiler of Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, vol. ii, p. 288, n , 
goes one beyond the Major, and asserts tne marks on the Aspatria stones 
to be "magical numbers and figures, the work of ignorant sorcerers and wicked 
wretches," who inserted these things in the graves of bye-gone races in order 
to secure the obedience of the evil spirits that dwelt therein. He classifies the 


Vl.wv. l\. 


Plate X. 



Other than the cobble stones, found at Aspatria, are such 
as one would expect to find in a Northman's grave, and 
probably mark the interment as a result of the settlement 
of Cumberland by the Northmen, * 

The next recorded discovery of these cup and ring and 
other rock markings in Cumberland was made by Sir J. 
Gardner Wilkinson in 1835 on the well-known monolith 
Long Meg, where he found a concentric circle with four 
rings around a cupped centre, t At a later date Sir J. Y. 
Simpson and Dr. Taylor visited Long Meg and found not 
one, but several concentric circles carved thereon. J The 
stone circle so well known as " Long Meg and her 
daughters " is situate in the parish of Addingham, which 
is immediately to the south of Kirkoswald : Long Meg, 
as the crow flies, can only be distant from the Old Parks 
tumtdus about a mile and a half. § 

About the same time that Sir James Simpson discovered 
the circles on Long Meg, the Rev. Canon Simpson, for- 
merly president of this Society, found some ring cuttings 
on two boulders forming part of a circle of eleven stones 
around a cist, situated a few hundred yards to the east 
of Long Meg. || 

Aspatria stones with two brass plates found in a tumulus at Gilling in York- 
shire ; on one side of each these brass plates is a nia^c square, and on the 
other a curse on some people named Philip, of the date, by the handwriting, of 
James I. 

• Ferguson's Northmen in Cumberland and ff- estmorland. See also Sir J. Y. 
Simpson and Dr. Taylor cited ul ante. 

t British Archaeological Journal, vo). xvi, pp. loi-i 18, with illustration. 

i On Ancient Sculpturings, fife, ut ante, pp. 17-18, with illustration. These 
Transactions, vol. vi, p. 111. 

§ For an account of Long Meg and her daughters," with survey by Mr. C. 
W. Dymond, F.S.A., see these Transactions, vol. v, p. 40; British Archao- 
logical Journal, vol. xxxiv, pp. z^-jfi. Long Meg is sometimes stated to be in 
the parish of Great Salkeld, an error which arises from its being near to Little 
Salkeld, in the Parish of Addingham. 

II Proc: S.A., 2nd series, vol. iii, pp. 211-213. Also On Ancient Sculpturing, 
tsc, ut ante, pp. 18-19. "^^ cairn is in a field called Whins, in the township of 
Maughanby, in the parish of Addingham, and is often spoken of as at Maugh- 
anby. By the kind permission of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, we 
reproduce, from Sir James Simpson's paper, the illustrations of Long Meg and 
of tb« Maughanby Stone, showing the markings. 



Ring cuttings have been observed on two of the stones 
at Shap, one of which is a stone in a field called Asper's 
Field, and the other is the " Goggleby Stone " : these are 
recorded by Sir James Simpson * One, a cup, was found 
by Dr. Taylor on a stone at Hugill, near Staveley, t 

The most remarkable cup-marked stone ever discovered 
in Cumberland or Westmorland was found in 188 1 by Dr. 
Taylor at Redlands, in the township of Stainton, in Cum- 
berland, about two miles from Penrith. It is a large slab 
of freestone, 5 feet 4 inches in length by 3 feet 6 inches in 
width in the centre, and it varies from eight inches to 
thirteen inches in thickness. It is fully described in these 
Transactions by Dr. Taylor, who gives an illustration. J 
It formed the cover of a cist, which had contained an in- 
terment after cremation. The markings upon it display 
four types — (i). Cup-shaped hollows of various sizes and 
depths : (2). Central hollowed cones surrounded by two 
concentric circles, each bisected by a radial groove : (3). 
Hollowed channels like gutters running in various direc- 
tions : (4). Little pits or small pick marks in the stone. 

One of the two monoliths known as the Giant's Grave, 
at Lacra, in south-west Cumberland, has on it a well- 
defined cup mark. § Some cup and ring marked stones 
were found at Maryport, in 1887, by Mr. J. B. Bailey. || 

We have thus brought together all the known instances 
of cup, ring, and groove markings in Cumberland and 
Westmorland. Two questions arise upon them : What 
do they mean ? What is their date ? They are not 
peculiar to these two counties. "They are," says Dr. 
Anderson, " not confined to Scotland, or even to Britain. 
They are found in Scandinavia, in France, in Germany, 

* On Ancient Sculpturing, &c., ut ante, p. 20, plate xvii. 

t These Transactions^ voTvi, pp. 90-11 1. 

t These Transactions, vol. vi, pp. 110-118 : Proc: S.A.S., vol. xvi, p. 438. 

§ These Transactions, vol. i, pp. 27S-280. 

II These Transactions, vol. ix, pp. 435-438, where an illustration is given. 



and Switzerland. They appear on the Continent in 
associations which refer them to the Bronze Age at 
least, but they also occur in associations which show that 
the custom survived to the late Iron Age, and even in a 
modified form to Christian times." * Sir James Simpson 
and Dr. Taylor would refer their commencement at least 
to the late stone age. 

As to what they are, Dr. Anderson says " they are one 
of the enigmas of archaeology." Canon Greenwell says : 

In many cases these markings occur upon rocks, but they have been 
very frequently found upon detached stones of greater or less size, 
and in a large number of instances, . . . they are connected with 
burials af(er cremation ; sometimes covering the deposit of bones, 
sometimes placed beneath it, and sometimes forming the side or 
cover of a cist within which the bones were deposited. This con- 
nection with burial, always a sacred rite, seems to bring them within 
the class of symbolic representations ; in other words, suggests the 
notion that they are or may have been figures after a very rude and 
conventional manner, of some object embodying an idea that involved 
the deepest and most esoteric principle of the religion held by these 
people. The tau symbol of Egypt, the pine-cone of Assyria, the 
triangular-shaped stone of India, the cross of Christianity, outward 
expressions of that which has been in almost every religion its most 
sacred belief, may well have been, however different in form, yet the 
same in essence with these mysterious pits and circles, f 


For the general bibliography of this subject the reader should con- 
sult " Notes on some Stones with Cup-markings in Scotland," by J. 
Romilly Allen, F.S.A., Scot., in Proc : S.A.S., vol. xvi, pp. 79-143. 
Also a paper by W. Jolly, F.A.S., Scot., in the same volume, ** On 
Cup-marked Stones in the Neighbourhood of Inverness," pp. 300- 
401. See also "The Sculptured Rocks of Northumberland," by 
Geo. Tate, Alnwick, 1865. 

• Scotland in Pagan Times. The Iron Age, p. 299. 
t British Barrows, Greenwell and Rolleston, p. 343, 


Art. XXIX. — On some additional Seals of the BisJtops of 
Carlisle. By Mrs. Henry Ware. 

Communicated at Lake Side^ June 13, 1894. 

QINCE the publication of my paper on the Seals of the 
Bishops of Carlisle (see Transactions of the Cumber- 
land and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, vol. xii, page 
212) ; I have received a few additions to the collection, 
four of which have been thought worth engraving. 

No. I. Seal of dignity of Ralph de Irton, 1280-1292. 
This is a repetition of the seal already engraved on plate 
2, fig : 6, but is in better condition. The original is in 
the Bodleian Library. 

No. 2. Counterse^ of Ralph de Irton. A beautiful 
specimen of 13th century work. It is a pointed oval, 
li inches long. Legend : 


(Virgo Jesu nutrix 
Radulpho sis pia tutrix) 

Device : Under a simple gothic canopy the Bishop kneels 
before a standing figure of the Blessed Virgin holding the 
Divine child in her arms. The field is plain, but charged 
on one side with the sun and moon. 

The original is amongst the detached seals in the 
Public Record Office. 

No. 3 and No. 4 are both seals of dignity of John de 
Halton, 1292-1325. No. 3 is a repetition of the very 
imperfect seal already engraved, plate 2, fig: 7. The 
front of the building which forms the canopy for the 


No. 2. 

No. I. 

No. 3. 


Bishop is interesting, and probably represents his cathe- 
dral, which was burnt in 1292. Legend : 


The original of this seal is in the Public Record office 
amongst the detached seals, " A. to M." series, so its 
date is not known, but it is probably from the same 
matrix as the one already engraved, the date of which is 


No. 4 has not been engraved before ; about a third of 
it is missing, but what is left is in excellent condition. 
It is a pointed oval, three inches long. Half the legend 
is wanting, the remainder reads: 


Device : The Bishop stands under a canopy supported 
upon pillars, the top of which has perished, he is in the 
attitude of blessing, with the crozier in the left hand ; 
his vestments are the same as in the former seal, but the 
rationale is wanting. The field is plain, but outside the 
canopy on the dexter side is the Bishop's name ioh. 
The original is in the Library at Durham, attached to a 
deed dated 1315. It is, therefore, later than the seal 
described above, and the Bishop must have had some 
reason for changing his seal ; as the rationale was going 
out of fashion at this time, it is possible that he had a 
new seal made to represent him without that decoration. 
I have also received the Seal of John de Ross, 1325- 
1332, but it is too much damaged to engrave. The Bishop 
is represented in the attitude of blessing ; Johannis is the 
only legible word in the legend. 


Art. XXX. — Bone Spear or Harpoon Head from Terra del 
P^^go, found on peat near Crosby-on^Eden. By T. H. 
Read at Douglas, September 25, 1894. 
THE bone spear head, of which a drawing is here given 
(Plate I.) was found about the year 1875 by Charles 
Bryan, gardener at Newby Grange. He put it by, and 
only mentioned it when he was reminded of it by the 
excavations of the Roman wall in the. summer of 1894. 
Another was found with it of similar size and shape, but 
having serrated edges, this has, unfortunately, been lost. 
They were found in the flat ground, immediately below 
what is evidently the bank of an ancient estuary ; the soil 
is peat, imbedded in which are numerous trunks of large 
trees, principally oak. They were lying on the surface of 
the peat ; it was a very dry summer, and it is probable 
that they had been exposed by the shrinkage of the peat. 
The field is a very secluded one, distant from roads or 
houses, and seldom visited, and it is difficult to suppose 
that there is any possibility of them having been brought 
there recently. I have no knowledge of the field having 
been ploughed, and there is no sign that it has been, 
indeed most of the flat ground where the spear head was 
found would not bear the weight of the horses until it was 
recently drained — much of it would not carry them now. * 

Note by the Editor. — The missing harpoon head has since 
turned up, and is depicted in Plate II. Both of them were ex- 
hibited at Burlington House, before the Society of Antiquaries, on 
December 6th, 1894, and were unhesitatingly pronounced by Sir A. 
\V. Franks, K.C.B., Sir John Evans, K.C.B, and Mr. C. H. Read, 
F.S.A., to be typical specimens of harpoon heads in use at the pre- 
sent day by the natives of Terra del Fuego. How they came to be 
lying on a peat bog in Cumberland, in or about 1&75, is at present a 

* A field road leads from the east angle of the field in which the harpoon leads 
to a point midway between Newby Grange and Batthouse. — Ordnance Map (6 
inch) Sheet 17, S.W. 

Plate I. 




Plate 11. 




Art. XXXI. — Some Manx Names in Cumbria. By W. G. 
CoLLiNGWOOD, M.A., with notes by Mr. EiRiKR Mag- 


Read at Douglas, September 24th, 1894. 
TXT'E have often heard, since the days of Worsaae, that 
our district owes its population mainly to the 
Northern Vikings, who infested the Irish sea in the 9th 
and loth centuries. It has been thought by Mr. Robert 
Ferguson, Mr. J. R. Green, our President, and other 
writers, that they came into the Solway and Morecambe 
Bay from headquarters in the Isle of Man. That theory 
may find support from a comparision of some Manx place- 
names with similar names in Cumberland and adjacent 

A few analogies have been noticed in print. The Rev. 
T. Ellwood mentions the two Fleshwicks, from F/«, in 
Icelandic *' a gfrassy place," and vik, " a creek." In his 
book on ** The Surnames and Place-names of the Isle of 
Man," Mr. A. W. Moore compares : — 

I.O.M. Piel, with our Pile-of-Fouldrey. 

Scarsdale, with our Scarfgap (SftarB, notch, pass). 
Cammall, with our Camfell {Kambr, comb). 
Colby, with our Colby {Kollr, hill-top). 
Surby, with our Sowerby (Saurr, mud). 
Kirby, with our Kirkby (Kirkjuboer). 

And Mr. Moore remarks that, of the Scandinavian ele- 
ments which are common in our local names and dialect, 
some — namely, Haugh, Dale, Fell, Garth, Gill, Wick, 
Way {vagr), Ness, Toft and Thorp— are found in the 
Island; while some — namely, Thwaite, Beck, With, Tarn 
and Force — are absent; from which he infers that the 



Isle of Man is less purely Norse, and more Danish, than 
Cumbria. But his book, with its full account of Manx 
names, gives us material for carrying the comparison 

There are three classes of words to consider : — ^A, 
Celtic ; B, Scandinavian ; C, mixed — the last class con- 
taining some curious examples of loan-words from the 
Celtic to the Scandinavian. 

A. — Celtic Names. 

The Celtic words, common in the Isle of Man where 
the Vikings became Celticised, are rare with us, where the 
settlers kept their own tongue until they became Angli- 
cised. Carrock and Cark match the Manx Carrick, 
" rocky " ; Glencoin, " narrow valley," resembles Nascoin, 
"narrow waterfall"; Morecambe and Cambeck are like 
Glencam, with a common element — cam, " crooked " ; our 
Crummock, though commonly interpreted Crumbeck, may 
be the same with the Manx and Galloway Crammag, 
" cliff." But most of our Celtic names are Welsh, since 
Cumberland was the land of the Cymru. The earlier 
Gaelic element was partly crowded out ; though traces of 
it returned with the Viking settlers, as I think to show. 

Before their age, however, we have a few Gaelic impor- 
tations. For, just as the Irish monks preceded the 
Vikings in the Hebrides and in Ireland, so they did in 
these parts ; no doubt using the Isle of Man as a stepping 
stone across the sea. The Manx church of St. Bridget, 
Kirkbride, matches our Kirkbride and Bridekirk: there 
is Kirksanton in both districts ; and perhaps St. Sunday's 
Beck and Crag in Westmorland may be explained by the 
Irish Saint Sanctan : for in Domesday Kirksanton is 
written Santacherche, and Santon is Suntun, which 
bridges over the transition from Sanctan to Sunday. 

The Manx keeills have Cumbrian analogies in Gilcrux 
and Gilcarron ; and perhaps in two old names, " Gill- 


SOM^ lilAN^ NAKlBS lU CtJMBRlA. 405 

martyne ridding prope Crofton " (temp. John), and Killer- 
wick {temp. Ed. III.) near Mousell in Furness, which I 
venture to suggest may be the puzzling Chiluestreuic of 
Domesday : vestr vegr meaning the west road, the Roman 
road on which it stands. All these churches and cells 
are near the coast, where such missionaries might have 
settled. St. Patrick himself, to whom there are dedica- 
tions in the Isle of Man, is commemorated in Waspatrick, 
{temp. Ed. I.), his " wath " over the Wampool ; and, on 
the same Roman Road, at Askpatryk {temp. Ed. III.) per- 
haps embalming some otherwise lost tradition of an ash- 
tree under which he preached ; as at Patterdale is the 
well where he is said to have baptised. In the Isle of 
Man also we find Ash-tree and Well connected in Chibber 
Unjin, when the tree was formerly dressed with votive 
offerings. This custom survives with us ; a great oak- 
tree overhanging a fountain at Satterthwaite was dressed 
with crockery and coloured rags on Maundy Thursday a 
year ago, and another at Hawkshead Hill. 

But these church-names belong to an age before the 
Vikings came. They brought their own heathen worship, 
of which we find traces in both districts. And this leads 
us to the second class of words, namely — 

B. — Scandinavian Names. 
In 1134, Bertrannus de London was one of 12 monks, 
who, with their abbot, Gerald, founded Calder. The 
Rev. A. G. Loftie, in his guide to the Abbey, remarks on 
the strangeness to this exiled Londoner of his new life and 
surroundings among rough neighbours and brethren, north- 
countrymen all. But again {temp. Ed. III.), William de 
London neglected to pay his ** thrave " to St. Nicholas' 
Hospital at Carlisle; and the Testamenta Karliolensia 
show that the " de Londons " were a family of some local 
importance, without any suggestion of a connection with 
the great city. Now, we all know places whose names 



are derived, like similar names in Denmark, Sweden, and 
Iceland, from the Lundr or sacred grove of the Northmen : 
— Lund, near Whitehaven ; another near Ulverston ; and 
Hoff Lund, near Appleby. But in the Isle of Man there 
is a " Little London," which Mr. Moore derives from 
Lundinn, (ace) " the grove." This name, which is found 
also in Lincolnshire and in Longsleddale, is practically 
the same as Lund, and suggests that we may look for the 
" London " of Friar Bertram not far from his first monas- 
tic home at Furness, and for the " London " of farmer 
William in Cumberland. The difference is merely gram- 
matical, as the Manx name seems to show. 

Of this second class, all the Manx names can be 
matched in our district. Some are identical : as Ramsey, 
Hramnsey, " Raven*s Island " ; and Raby, Rdbcer^ " nook 
farm." The termination " by," it may be remarked in 
passing, is by no means a test of Danish settlement. It 
is common in Iceland, and is quite good Norse. The ter- 
minal r is merely the sign of the nominative, and it was 
dropped after a time in pronunciation, like the parallel 
Latin s of the nominative ; and it disappears in inflexions. 
Thus, " Ulfft his water"=l7//s»a^» (», pronounced in early 
times like w, and vatn sometimes written vatr :) " his 
farm" is ?7//s6^r=Ousby : therefore Ulvrestune, of 
Domesday, must be for UlfarS'tun, the inclosure of an 
early settler, Ulfarr. The popular pronunciation "Ouston" 
perhaps keeps a reminiscence of the later and greater 
Earl Ulphus or Ulfr, being the true equivalent of Ulfstun. 

Some of these names are practically identical : Cringle 
(Isle of Man) and Crinkle Crags (Kringla, "circle"); 
Jurby, formerly Ivorby, and Ireby (Ivar's farm) ; Kneebe 
and Knipe {gnipa, " peak ") ; Sulby and Soulby (Solvi's 

Some, again, are identical in one of the elements of 
which they are compounded. To take a few samples, 
some of them from old foriQs of Manx names: — 



I.O.M. Altadale, and our Alps {Alpt, ** swan "). 

„ A[s]mogarry, and our Osmotherley, formerly 
Asmunderiawe {Asmundar-garSr^ — Ijd). 

„ Brackabroom, and our Brackenber {Brekku-brun, 

„ Clet Elby and our Cleat How (KleUr, " rock "). 

„ Clytts, and our Cleator (Kleitar, " rocks "). 

Colden, with our Caldfell, &c. (Kaldr, " cold "). 

„ Dalby, &c., and our Dalton, &c. {dalr, " dale "). 

„ Foxdale, and our Foxfield (folkSy " of the 
people "). 

„ Grauff, and our Orgrave {aur-grdf^ "clay-pit")- 

„ Hseringstad, and our Harrington {Haring, 
" hoary," prop. name). 

„ Hegness, and our Honister {Hogna-nes^ — sia^r). 

„ Keppellgate, and our Keppelcove (Kapall, " nag "). 

„ Meary voar, &c., and our Merry hall — Mere beck 
{marr, ** borderland "). 

„ Orm's house, and our Ormside (proper name). 

,, Oxwath, and our Oxenfell, &c. (Oxava^, oxnafell). 

„ Rozefell, and our Rosthwaite, &c. {hross^ 
" horse "). 

„ Sandwick, &c., and our Sandscale, &c. {sandvikf 

,, Sleckby, and our Harrowslack, &c. {slakkt, 
" slope "). 

,y Staynarhea, and our Stennerley, &c. (steinn, 
" stone "). 

,y Strandhall, and our Strands {strond^ pi. strandir), 

„ Swarthawe, and our Swarthmoor, which is men- 
tioned as Swartmore in 25 Hy. 6, i.e.^ I447f 
forty years before the invasion of Martin 
Schwartz {svartr, " black "). 

„ Warfield — Wardfell, and our Warthole, War- 
wick {varia, " beacon "). 



From one of such names in the Isle of Man, h'ght is 
perhaps thrown on a curious series of names in our dis- 
trict. Mr. Moore explains Brausta (old form of Braust) 
as Brauiafsta^r^ " roadstead." Braut in Icelandic means 
a road broken through rocks or forests, as distin^ished 
from vegff stigry gata, ** path, track." BmuUnnot is *' a 
meeting of roads, as Bekkjarmot (Beckermet) is ** a meet- 
ing of becks." And to the settlers in Cumbria the Roman 
roads must have been a great and remarkable feature of 
the country. When they found a passage through the 
rocks and forests of Patterdale, it is no wonder if they 
called the tarn, — by which it wound and at which it 
threw off a branch to the wonderful High-street — Braular- 
vain, Brotherwater or Broaderwater ; so called long before 
the traditional brothers were drowned there. 

Again, Butterilket, the farm in Eskdale, just under the 
Roman fort, was written Brotherellkell (temp. Eliz.) ; 
Brotherulkul {temp. Hy. IV.) ; Brotherulkil {temp. Hy. 
III.) suggesting that the original Norse name was Braut- 
arhols'kelda^ " road-hill spring," where they stopped for a 
drink before taking the steep gradients up Hardknot. 
Brautarholl or BrotthoU {Brott being a common form in 
compounds) reappears in Brott-hole-hill in the Caldbeck 
neighbourhood {temp- Hy. III.) Brattah or Brotto in Leg- 
burthwaite may be the same, or else Brotthaugr^ " road- 

It is interesting to observe that the confusion of 
" Brotherilket " with " Butterilket " is matched in Norse 
philology by that of Brautarsteinar with Bautasteinar^ the 
popular name of the *' road stones " or monuments (ac- 
cording to Vigfusson, S.V.). This may explain Butterlip- 
howe, by the Roman road at Grasmere, as a natural and 
pastoral improvement on Brautarhli^shaugrf " road-gap- 
howe," a truly descriptive epithet ; while Buttermere and 
Butterwick are perhaps better explained by Bu^ir, 
" booths " ; Bu^arveggr is good Norse for " booth-wall, 



and practically identical ' with the country pronunciation 
of Butterwick. To give one more turn to the kaleidoscope ; 
Bethecar (High Furnesis) which was Bottocar {temp. Hy. 
8,) must be for Brautar-kjarr being a bit of forest through 
which a Roman track pretty certainly ran. 

This confusion between Brauiar and Bauia may have 
been helped on — ^and it may be remembered — by the fact 
that the Irish for road is Bothar. For it is well known 
that the Northmen on the shores of the Irish Sea lost so 
much of their pure nationality, that the district of Gallo- 
way got its name from the Gall-gaedhil, the mixed Gall 
and Gael, Vikings and Celts. Even those who emigrated 
to Iceland took with them much Celtic blood and many 
Celtic words. Thus, Njdll and Kjartan and Kormak are 
Irish names of Norse Icelanders : pollr^ * pool ' ; brdk^ 
* breeches,* and poki^ * bag,' are Celtic loan-words in Ice- 
landic literature. Now I think it can be shown that the 
Norse settlers brought Celtic loan-words into Cumbria, 
and that they brought them from the Isle of Man. 

C. — Mixed Names: Manx Loan Words. 

First we may take words that are recognised by the 
dictionary-makers as loans to the Norse from Celtic 
sources : (i). In the Edda is found a word Korhi^ from 
Manx hotkey^ Irish and Gaelic coirce^ * oats.' Now Corby 
in Cumberland was written {temp, John, Ric. I., and Hy. 
I.) Corkeby and Korkeby, i.«., Korkabar, * oats-farm.' A 
corresponding name in purer Norse is Haverthwaite, 
Hafrayveit. Similar formations are Ruthwaite and Ruck- 
croft {temp. Ed. VI. Rewcroft) from riigr, * rye ' ; Rusland 
however was (temp. Ed. III.) Rolesland, Rolf stand. Again, 
Bigland and Biggar (Bygg-garSr) from bygg, * six-rowed 
barley ' ; the four-rowed barley, barr, may be found in 
Barton ; so from Korki may possibly be derived Cockley 
beck ; i.e., Korkahli^^ * oats-fellside ' ; the termination 
being degraded on the analogy of Ainstable {temp. Hy. I. 



Ainstapellith) i.e.^ Binstapahli-Sy ' fern-fellside/ * Again 
Corncy (Cuinb.)=:Coma (I.O.M.)=Koras£ (Icel.)=* Com- 
beck/ so that the Cocker, on the banks of which is 
Cornhow, may perhaps be interpreted Korkd, ' oats*beck.' 

(2.) Hnukr is ' Knoll, peak/ in Icelandic, but derived 
evidently from the Manx Knock, Irish cnoc. We have it 
naturalised in Knockpike and Knock Shalcok {temp. Ed. 

Next we may take a set of words which are not found 
in the Icelandic dictionary, but are so used in Cumbria 
as to leave little doubt that they were brought over by the 
Celticised Vikings ; and their form seems to be distinctly 
Manx, in some' instances at least. 

(3.) Peel is Manx for a * fortified tower * ; a word which, 
though not found in Icelandic literature, was certainly 
adopted by the Norse in Cumbria, and used to consider- 
able purpose. 

(4.) Parak occurs in our dialect, a loan-word from 
Manx and Irish pairc ; though in Cleasby it appears only 
as a nickname, t 

(5.) Dub has in Icelandic nothing nearer % than djupj 
" deep sea " ; while dubbyr, dob (Manx) means " a small 
pool '* in our sense. 

(6.) The Manx Spooyt of a waterfall, seen in our Gill 
Spout, &c., has no analogue in Icelandic. The nearest 
form is the cognate Aryan root spyja, "to spew."^ 

(7.} The Scrow at Coniston is a turfy hill, an outlier 

• Mr. Magnusson sa^s:— " Einstapi looks quite Icelandic Bstanding rock, as 
rock-pillar=5f£r^i, by itself=ein ; and reminds of eint^i, lone-dweller, a name 
frequently ^ven to solitary rocks that have tumbled down to the flat ground of 
a valley from a mountain top. Einstapahli^ might therefore » slope of the 
solitary rock-pillar, if the locality favours it." 

t Mr. Magndsson remarks on this : — '* In the shepherds* languajre of Iceland 
the word paraka or parraka means to herd milking ewes, by closelv confining 
them to a narrow run of pasture. The word is a loan-word in Icelandic." 

J Mr. Magndsson says : — " There is the poetic word dd/a-=»wtLve, which 
formally comes nearer to " dub" than djup.** 

§ Mr. Magndsson remarks:— "Spooyt= Icelandic fpy to (i) To spit; (2) To 
spout or to gush ; e.g., ee^ spyiir bld^i, a wound sputters blood." But there is 
no Icelandic substantive corresponding with the Cumbrian " spout," a waterfall. 



of the Old Man. " Scrow " in our dialect means j" a 
crowd," (from Icelandic skreii, ** shoal " of fish, &c.) ; or 
else " scrimmao:e," to which it is doubtless akin. But 
neither of these explain the hill ; whereas the Manx for 
'* turf " or " sod " is scrah. * 

(8.) Now to recur to the road-names. For the Irish 
bothar the corresponding Manx is Bayr. In the Isle of 
Man is a place called Baregarrow, which Mr. Moore inter- 
prets "rough road." On the Roman way between old 
Carlisle and Maryport, we have Bagrow (*' Baggerah,'*) 
which may possibly indicate that the invaders found that 
bit of Roman paving more cobbly or more worn than 
usual. There is, however, a ** Bagrave " on Watling 
Street in Northumberland. Bayr may also account for 
Barbon (in Domesday, Berebrune,) " the road-well," on 
the Maiden Way. Bardsey is in Domesday, Berretseige, 
Bayr-head's-edge the edge or cliff at the head of the road 
called the Red Lane, through Furness. And close to the 
spot where the road from Lancaster cane upon the sands 
there was Bare {sic in Domesday). I think these names 
are hardly explained by the Icelandic Ber, in compounds 
berja, *' berry," or by berr " bare " ; so that we may, per- 
haps, consider Bayr as a loan-word ; and if so, not from 
Ireland, but from the Isle of Man. 

In a third and final sub-division, we must put two which 
are found neither in Norse nor in Manx, and yet may 
have been loan-words borrowed by the Norse from the 
island. That is to say, words must have been current 
in the gth century which are now obsolete there, and 
preserved only in place-names; and these words must 

• Mr. Magnihson says:—" I may mention that a very similar name exists in 
Iceland— 5A-rt«i5-«y, now Skrii^r, a hig^h rock island, outside the mouth of 
Fa'shrHis-Jjor^r. The etymology of skrci^J sems too far-fetched. Whether 
skrH^ in SA:rf2*8«y is to be connected with fATiJ-8=a ship's shrouds, from its being 
cone-formed, — in which case the ratio iiominis would be the same as in the case 
of f/ifA'/M/Ja//=« Mantle-fell, — I leave an open question." 

It was suggested when the paper was read that "Scrow" was merely a 
wiriant of the common word "Scroggs." 



have been brouf^ht by the Norsemen into Cumbria, 
though not into Iceland. 

(9.) Glaise is Irish for " stream," and Mr. Moore con- 
siders that its Manx equivalent was glas, in Douglas, 
" black stream." We may find the same word in Glasson 
and Glassonbv (both temp. Hy. I.) and in Gleaston, the 
Glasserton of Domesday. Ravenglass {temp. Ed. I.), was 
Ranglass, a curious form, because most names in early 
writing become longer and fuller; this is an exception, 
surely not without cause. The old Nicolson and Burn 
derivation was Renigh-glas, " green fern," — not very dis- 
tinctive. But if Celtic grammar will allow, the Manx 
glas for " river," and raun for " seal " appear to supply 
material for a plausible etymology ; for the harbour must 
have swarmed with seals in the loth century. 

(10.) The Irish boireann is not found in Manx, except 
in a place-name, and not in Icelandic at all ; but it seems 
to have been a loan-word, judging from its occurrence in 
our dialect. It means properly, •* rocky land," but, says 
Mr. Moore, "it is a name actually applied to an old 
earthern fortification " — Borrane Balcbly. Now, in our 
district, borran is also used for rocky land in general, but 
as a proper name it attaches especially to land covered 
with ruins, e,g.^ Borrans Ring, the Roman camp at Amble- 
side ; High Borrans, near Windermere, is close to the 
Hug^ll settlement ; Low Borrans is near to the spot 
where the Roman road crossed Troutbeck. Indeed, the 
name is frequent on the track of the Roman roads (see, 
for examples, Cornelius Nicholson's "Annals of Kendal"), 
while it is rare as a place-name in sites that are no more 
than naturally rocky. 

There is a Borrans Hill House on Burns Hillside, near 
Sebergham, which seems to show that Burns is Borrans. 
Barnscar can hardly be anything but Borran-scar, from 
the heaps of remains found there. Burnmoor, borran-moor, 
is a place where circles are found ; Wyebourne is near a 
British camp, east of Shap ; Garbourne is on the High- 


Street, south of 111 Bell. In these cases we have the 
loan-word compounded with a Norse element. Hence it 
may be suggested that " burn " in our district is fre- 
quently, if not always, equivalent to borran. 

It has often been noticed that our dialect does not use 
"burn" for "stream," as in Scotland and Northumber- 
land. " Burn," from bcerne, is an Anglo-Saxon word, not 
occurring in Norse, in which the nearest form is brunnr, 
" a well," as in the Icelandic proverb, " Late to bar the 
burn when the barn is fallen in," referring to a well with 
a gate, such as we see near old-fashioned cottages. The 
Scotch and Northumbrian "burns" were so named by 
Anglians, two or three centuries before the Northmen 
settled our district. The old Norse word was bekkr; but 
this was antiquated in Iceland by the time the sagas were 
written, and even in the loth century they used lakr for 
bekkr in local names. This shows, I think, that our dis- 
trict was settled and named, and that a local dialect of 
pre-Icelandic Norse was formed, by the early part of the 
loth century. We keep several words that the Icelanders 
lost. They had a proverb, " ol heitir me^ monnunty en me^ 
Asum bjor'' — "ale it hight with men, and with Gods 
beer"; meaning that "beer" was the ancient poetical 
word, ordinary folk asked for " ale." A parallel proverb 
said of barley " bygg it is called by men, and barr by 
Gods " ; barr being the older and less familiar name for 
the less productive sort, superseded by bygg. But as we 
have seen, both words remain with us, in Bigland and 
Barton. Tilberthwaite, however, is not from " tilling 
bear," as some one has suggested, but from Tjald-borgar- 
pveit, "tent-fort-field," seen in Tildesburgthwait {temp. 
Ric. r.), like Tjaldasta^ir (Icel.) 

The use of old forms is strikingly shown in the name 
Burneside, which used to be derived from burn, " a 
brook." It was written (temp. Ed. III.) Brunolesheved, 
Bronnolsheved ; and {temp. Ed. I.) Brunoleshefd, Bronol- 
vishelvd. The valley of Sleddal Bronnolf, and one Roger 



de Bronnolph are mentioned {temp. Ed. I.) and Sleddall 
Brunholf {temp. Hy. III.) showing that Burneside (Burn- 
ishead) was named from some early settler Brunolvi^ 
" the wolf-browed," a recognised Norse appellative.* To 
the same name, if not the same person, may be referred 
Brunnelscroft, Middleton. 

But in other " burns " the case is different. Greenburn 
is the valley that opens at the green borran which has been 
identified by Mr. H. S. Cowper as our lake district Tyn- 
wald. " Greenburn-beck," not " Green-burn," is the 
stream that flows past it. So Wythburn may be properly 
not the name of the stream, but of the ground by which 
Wythburn-beck runs. " Wyth " is vVSr, " wide," like 
viilendi ; " wide lands," &c. ; or vi^ir^ " withy," like 
ViSidalr in Iceland, ** willow-dale." And the land is not 
only unusually rocky, but it is also traversed by a great 
Roman road, marked by the names Stanwick {steinvegr^ 
" stone road " paved with boulders), and Stenkin Nook 
(Stanwick-ing, ** meadow ") ; and there are traces of 
ruins which, at the time of the settlement, must have 
been striking enough in their extent to be called the 
** wide-borran," or so overgrown as to suggest the name 
" withy-borran." In a word, the original Cumbrian Norse 
dialect called our streams bekkr^ or a, and perhaps some* 
times Icekr, but never burn, which is the Manx loan-word 
borran; except in those outlying parts of our district 
where pre-Norse — i.e.^ Anglian — names survived. 

These ten loan-words, if the derivations be accepted, 
and in any case the parallelism of so many Manx and 
Cumbrian place-names, illustrate the interest — it might 
almost be said the necessity — of going beyond the bounds 
of our own district to compare the antiquities of our 
neighbours ; and they rivet new links in the chain of 
evidence which binds us to the Isle of Man in the history 
of a thousand years ago. 

* So Cleasby & Vig^fusson, S.K 

Mr. MaenUsson says :— " These names seem closely to answer to Brundljr, 
the ol8*stlorm of the common name BrynjdlJ'r*** 


Art. XXXII. — Toast Dogs, Frying Pans, and Peats. By 
J. H. Martindale. 

Read at Douglas, September 25/A, 1894, 

DEADING over Mr, Swainson Cowper's paper on 
** Some Obsolete and Semi-Obsolete Appliances," * 
in the current part of our Transactions, has brought to 
my memory several contrivances not mentioned in that 
paper — the cause for their disappearance is, in my opinion, 
not so much owing directly to the railways, as to the 
substitution of grates and ranges for the old hearth fires, 
and the using of coal instead of peat and wood as fuel. 

One article almost universally found in the farm-houses 
of the dales of Westmorland twenty-five years ago was the 
** toast dog " for toasting bread. I think the spit mentioned 

• Ante, p. 8(5. 



and illustrated by Mr. Cowper, '^ must have been used for 
meat or for black puddings and not for bread, as it would 
be too high. The dogs I allude to were made of flat iron, 
about ^ of an inch thick, and varied in height and shape, 
but generally were grotesque figures something resem- 
bling a dog holding a fish in its mouth. They had, 
usually, three pairs of prongs or forks on the side of the 
fish, on which sometimes as many as three slices of bread 
were toasted at the hearth fire at once, so that while the 
good woman was buttering the three slices, three more 
were being done ready for her. Two illustrations of Toast 
Dogs from Westmorland farm-houses (now in Tullie 
House, Carlisle,)t are given with this paper, and by the 
kindness of the Council of the Society of Antiquaries, an 
illustration of a Toast Dog in their Museum is reproduced 
in the text. 

Another article, put to uses the modern cook would 
never dream of, was the frying pan. This answered for 
all the purposes of the modern oven, such as baking and 
roasting meat, &c. When used for baking bread (wheat 
bread) a hoop or ring of iron from two to three inches deep 
was placed inside the bow handle of the pan, to increase 
the depth ; on this a lid was placed, and the lid was then 
covered with burning peat to giv.e heat all round the pan, 
and the bread baked was fully as sweet and good as in a 
modern oven. 

The haver bread was, as a rule, baked on the " Back- 
stone," X which was placed in the back kitchen, cor- 
responding to the modern scullery, not in the front kit- 
chen or ** housepart." The haver bread baking day was 
a very important and busy day, the baking generally 
lasting from early morning until late at night, the fuel 

• Ante, p. 87. 

t NoTK BY THE EDITOR.— They were presented by Mr Martindale. 
X " Backstone, an iron plate or slate to bake cakes upon."— Dickinson's Cum" 
her land Glossary, 








.•- !- ! - * 


used was chaff from the grain, oats, &c., locally termed, 
I think, " howseedsy The backstone itself consisted of two 
large plates of iron about 2 feet 6 inches square, sufficient 
to take two cakes at once, which were generally changed 
from first to second in the baking, the fuel being put in 
underneath the plates and closed by a furnace door. 
Sufficient bread was baked to last for six or twelve months, 
and it was stored in the great oak chests — or arks. 

From the " Toast Dog " to the fire before which it was 
used is not a long step. To set a peat fire on the hearth 
and get it to burn is a feat, I am afraid, few present-day 
maids-of-all-work could accomplish. In the first place, a 
goodly supply of peats was brought in by the servant girl 
from the peat- house, in a ''swill.'' Several were then 
carefully broken in two over the knee of the girl, and 
propped up on end against one another, with a little paper 
in the centre. This was repeated round the first, and at 
last whole peats were used, all being placed on end, it 
being a fact that the peats will not burn if laid flat. The 
paper was then lighted, and a very little blowing made a 
cheerful fire. When the toasting had to be done, the 
outermost row of peats was carefully removed from the 
front and placed against the side of the fire, and the 
inner rows turned with the inner or burning face out; this 
gave a beautiful hot fire to crisp the toast, without smoke, 
and better or sweeter toast was never made. 

From the peat fire we may step to the peatgraving, * 
a most interesting agricultural work of the year, now fast 
passing away for ever, in the exhaustion of the mosses. 
The whole manner of cultivation of the mosses is very 
interesting, and well worthy of a paper, especially the 
old manner of draining. 

But toreturn to the peatgraving for a few moments. The 

• Grave, to dig with a spade.— Dickinson's Cumberland Glossary, 

" dyke," 


"dyke," as it was called, was the edge or line of distinction 
between the top whole moss, or uncultivated, and the 
portion, being: brought into cultivation. It was a sheer 
edge, or straight bank, of some eight or nine feet. Th e 
top was covered with the wild ling or heather, growing to 
a depth of two feet or more, and the bottom was standing 
with water to the depth of a few inches in the bottom of a 
previous year's peat dyke. The first operation was to 
remove the ling and bog on the top, for a width of about 
four feet, and throw it into the last year's dyke. This 
filled up the trench and absorbed the water, bringing up 
the ground to the general level. This work was done by 
the ordinary farm hands, and the dyke was now ready 
for peating. The " peatgravers " were special men, and 
engaged for the purpose, the peating haviijg a season as 
much as haytime or harvest. The graver with his tools, 
a spade, similar to one * of which Mr. Swainson Cowper 
gives an illustration (but which by the way is a left- 
handed one) and a small board to stand on in the bottom 
of the dyke, his assistants, (two boys or a boy and the 
maid servant), with a couple of special made barrows, 
with no sides, but open rail in front and a wheel with tire t 
about four inches wide, and a small board on which to 
place the newly graved peats, and a fine morning and we 
are ready for work. The graver then steps into the dyke, 
and the boy places his board on the top, the graver cuts 
one row down for a depth of say six peats, and the boy 
lifts up the board and places the row on the front of his 
barrow and replaces the board for another row, and so on 
until the barrow is full, when he wheels away and the 
next one takes his place. The boy wheels his barrow on 
to the solid and fairly dry ground and places the peats in 
rows called " winrows," to dry, and returns, and this 

• Ante, p. 96. 

t Tire, the iron rim of a wheel. HalliwelVs Dictionary of Archaic, etc, words. 



j goes on for the whole day. I may add the top peats, for 

a depth of say three feet, are called grey peats, and are 
h'ghter and more woolly than the lower ones, which are 
called black peats. The former kindle easiest, and the 
latter give more heat and last longer in burning. The 
peat dyke was generally cut across the whole width of the 
moss land for that particular farm, and one dyke generally 
did for a year's fuel. The peats were left to dry on the 
"winrows" for three weeks or a month, sometimes being 
turned over, and were then stacked or led away to the 
farm-house, special " shelvins " * being used on the cart 
for this purpose. 

* Skelvins, boards or frames to raise the cart sides with. — Dickinson's Cum" 
terland Glossary, 


Art. XXXIIL— TA^ HuHon Effigies, now in Great Salkeld 
Churchyard, formerly in Penrith Church* By George 
Watson, Penrith. 

QIXTEEN years before Penrith Old Church (described 
by Camden as a pretty, handsome church) was ruth- 
lessly demolished in 1720 to make way for the present 
commodious, but ugly, fabric, Bishop Nicolson recorded 
the existence in it of ten monuments and brasses, only 
four of which survived the venerable fabric in which the 
Bishop found them.t 

No record of the plan of the old church now exists, but 
from Bishop Nicolson's references to the situation of the 
various monuments, and Dr. Todd's remark that the 
church " opened into two eastward," it is plain that the 
church consisted of a nave in a line with the grand old 
tower (happily preserved) into which it opened through 
the massive arch spanning the east side of the tower, the 
nave terminating eastward, with a chancel known as ^* St. 
Mary's or the Bishop's quire," ritually the chancel of the 

There was a south aisle having at its eastern termina- 
tion a second quire dedicated to St. Andrew, side by side 
with the chancel proper : in this quire, claimed by the 
Huttons as their family chapel and burying place. Bishop 
Nicolson found three memorials of the Huttons and their 
family connections, which he thus describes : — 

(a) upon a brass Plate on the floor of the Quite : '* Here lyeth Mary, daughter 
of Thomas Wilson, Secretary of State to Queen Elizabeth, who was first 
marryed to Robert Burdett of Bramcourt in the Co. of Warwick, Esq., by 
whom she had Sir Thomas Burdett, Bart., and several sons and daughters : 

• See these Transactions, vol. xii, p. 65. 
t Bishop Nicolson*s Visitation of his Di< 

looese in 1703, p. 151. 


And afterwards was marryed to Sir Christopher Lowther of Lowther in the 
County of Westmorland, Kt. Her Daughter Elizabeth Burdett marryed to 
Anthony Hutton of Penrith, in the county of Cumberland, Esq., with whom 
she [Mary daur. of Thos. Wilson] lived, and dyed the last day of May, 
Anno Domini 1622." 

Entry in the Parish Registers : 

" 1622, June I. Lady Marie Lowther buried." 

(b) On the North side of this Quire stands the fair Monument forementioned, 
erected and enclosed with Iron Grates by consent of the Bishop; whereon, 
under the Pourtraictures of a Man and his wife in full proportion, are the 
following Inscriptions. On the South : " Here lyes interred Anthony Hutton, 
Esq., who was a grave, faithful and judicious Counsellor at I^w, and one of 
the Masters of the High Court of Chancery : Son and Heir of that renowned 
Kt. Sir William Hutton of Penrith ; and was matched into the Noble Family 
of Sir Thomas Burdett of Bramcourt, in the Co. of Warwick, Baronet, by the 
Marriage of his Vertuous Sister Elizabeth Burdett ; whose pious care and 
Religious Bounty hath erected this Marble Tomb to perpetuate the memory 
of such a worthy Commonwealths-man, and of so dear a Husband, who dyed 
the loth of July, 1637." On the North : Here lyes the Portraiture of 
Elizabeth Hutton, the wife of the late deceased Anthony Hutton ; who, 
though liveing, desired thus to be placed in token of her Union with him, 
here interr'd, and of her own expected Mortality. 

Maritus \ Multa dilecta Conjux, Vita et morte 

Uxori j individua Comes, non amisisti quem praemisisti. 

Uxor ) Unica mea Cura sic Vivere ut Tecum 

Marito j Christo fruar et tuo lateri in aeternum sim conjunctior." 

Bishop Nicolson does not record any inscription giving 
the date of Mrs. Elizabeth Hutton's death, but the 
following entry in the Parish Registers supplies the 
information : 

*• 1673, May 7. Elizabeth Hutton, gentlewoman, widow, buried." 
The Bishop also gives the following : 

(c) On a plain stone upon the floor about the middle of the Quire : " Here lyeth 
the Body of Mrs. Elizabeth Bowes, who dyed the 27th day of April in the 
68th year of her age. Anno Domini 1684." 

The entry in the Parish Registers of this burial is as 
follows : 

" 16S4, April 39. Mrs. Elizabeth Bowes, buried in linen and ^^5 paid to the 
informant and the poor." 

This was the penalty enforced for non-compliance with 
the " Burial in Woollen Act " then in operation. 



As the term " Mrs." in the 17th century was applied to 
ladies of the better class, whether married or single, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Bowes was, in all probability, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hutton's niece, daughter of her sister Anne, wife of Mr. 
John Bowes ; she was a settled resident in Penrith, as 
appears from the churchwardens' book, in which her name 
occasionally occurs as a liberal giver to ecclesiastical and 
charitable objects. The fact of her being buried in St. 
Andrew's quire amongst the Buttons makes her relation- 
ship almost certain. 

The first memorial described by the Bishop was to the 
mother of Mrs. Elizabeth Hutton, who as widow of Robert 
Burdett, was married to Sir Christopher Lowther, and 
brought with her to Lowther her three daughters, Eliza- 
beth, Lettice, and Bridget, all of whom found Cumbrian 
husbands. Elizabeth was married to Mr. Anthony Hutton, 
the marriage being thus recorded in the Penrith registers : 

1612-13, Feb. 9. Mr. Anthony Hutton and Mrs. Elizabeth Burdett, 
married at Lowther. 

Lettice was married at Penrith church, as recorded in the 
Penrith registers : 

1623, June 9. Mr. Richard Skelton and Mrs. Lettice Burdett, 

Of Bridget's marriage with Mr. William Whelpdale there 
is no mention in the Penrith Register, but it is attested by 
the Burdett pedigree, and the Penrith registers confirm 
the fact by giving the baptismal entries of William Whelp- 
dale's six children, and the ultimate burial of his wife 

Bishop Nicolson's description of the Hutton effigies is 
by no means the earliest mention of them, for in the Parish 
registers we find the story of their origin, following 
immediately upon the entry of the burial of Mr. Hutton 



on July loth, 1637, two blank pages in the registers having 
been left on which to inscribe, the year following, a long 
wordy declaration 

To all Christian people to whom these presents shall come, per John 
Hasty, M' of Arts, and Vicar of Penrith, in the County of Cumber- 
land, Thomas Berke, Thomas Railton, Lancelot Smith, and John 
Headman, churchwardens. 

The document, although ostensibly the work of the vicar 
and churchwardens (Mrs. Button appearing in it only in 
the second person,) is unmistakably the lady's own pro- 
duction, or written at her dictation. The declaration sets 
forth that : 

Whereas Sir William Hutton. Knight, and Anthony Hutton, Esq., 
sone and heire, male of the said Sir William Hutton, knight, both 
deceased and theire ancestors hath without memory of man used, 
occupied, and enjoyed several ancient seates and pewes for them- 
selves, theire wives, gentlemen, and servants, to sitt and kneele in at 
theire devotions in time of Divine service and sermon in theire said 
parish church in a place called St. Andrew's quire, as appurtenant 
and belonging to theire capital messuage in Penrith, and heve like- 
wise by the like tyme (whereof the memory of man is not to the 
contrary) used to bury the dead corpes of the ancestors, wives, and 
children, of the Huttons in Penrith in the privie place in the said 
quire peculiarly by themselves where the said Sir William Hutton 
and Anthony Hutton, Esq., lye also buryed in which quire also there 
is yet remaining in the window an ancestor of the said house pictured 
in his armor and his wife by him, and the armes of the Huttons 
beside them have bene without memory in the said window, all which 
doth appear unto us by auncient Wills and evidences showed unto 
us whereunto we refer ourselves, and forasmuch as Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hutton, widow, late wife of the said Anthony Hutton, Esq. (whose 
mother the Lady Marie Lowther lived and died with the said 
Anthony Hutton, Esq., and Elizabeth his wife, also lyeth buryed in 
the said quire) hath freely and voluntarily forth of her godly dis- 
position and zeal to the church given and bestowed the some of Ten 

[the interest of which was to be employed in the reparation 
of St. Andrew's quire], and then goes on to say : 



the substructure of the monument may have been the 
effigies are neither of marble nor plaster, but of a soft white 
stone known by geologists as " Tufa," a rock formed by 
springs depositing magnesian limestone ; it is found in the 
East of England, as about Conisborough. In order to 
follow the vicissitudes of the monuments, we must trace 
those of the Button family in its decline and final extinc- 
tion. Anthony Hutton (son and heir of Sir William) whose 
wife was Elizabeth Burdett (the subjects of the effigies) 
left no issue, and was succeeded by his younger brother 
Bernard, whose great grandson Richard, the son of An- 
thony Hutton and his wife Anne Wharton, was in his 
day the sole male representative of his lineage, and, in his 
domestic relations, one of the most unfortunate. At the 
age of 19 Richard married, as shown by the following 
entry in the Penrith registers : 

1695, Apr. 23. Mr. Richard Hutton, of Gale, and Mrs. Susanna 
Pattenson, of Penrith, were married at Salkeld by Mr. Archdeacon 

The bridegroom was 19 years old and the bride 18 ; she 
was the daughter of Mr. John Pattenson, attorney-at-law, 
Penrith. The result of this union was two sons, both 
dying in infancy, and three daughters, only oneof whom 
survived, Mrs. Susanna, the young mother dying June, 
1702. In 1706, a new wife appears in the registers, thus : 

1706, May 9. Addison, son of Richard Hutton, Esq., and Bridget 
his wife, Baptised, 

and, same date : 

Bridget, wife of Richard Hutton, Esq'., buried. 

In 1715 a third wife is in evidence when John, son of 

Richard Hutton, Esq., and Barbara, his wife, was baptised, 

and in 1716, a daughter, Barbara, then on 


Iboton, Ibooton, li)utton < 

Adam de Hoton ia 
verdercxs for the Kiaf*! 

AlEXANDCX, his 90B 

Thomas Hoton \\m 
window in St. Andrew*! 

John HcjTTOK.soa 

1st Wife, J A NF. VaUX' 

of Caterlen 

living 4tii h 

John Hen 

had in marriag'e by covenant feaH 
value of land 4 Henry V^II. 

Anthony Hutton=»Eui.\m 
of Gale, in Parish of Melmerbv I daor. ^ 
burd. 15S0, Penrith P. Registers. [ 

Sir William HurroN =2nd Wife, Doi 

of Penrith, bur. at Penrith, Oct. 9, 
1623, Penrith P. Registers. 

Thomas died without 
issue male. 

William d. unmard. 

Anthony Huttox- 
bom 15S2, Counsellor at Law and a 
Master in Chancery, buried in St. 
Andrew's Choir, Penrith Church, 
1637, no issue, succeeded by his 
brother Bernard. 

■ Elizabeti 
d.of Robt.; 
Penritk C| 
mental m 
hashand ■ 

of 1 resswell 
died 1692. 

William^ Elizabeth 

bap. at Penrith 
1625-6, Jan. Qth 

d. of Chris. Lancaster 
Sockbridee, _ 


a^ed 17, at Herald's Visitatn. 
March 24, 1664. Bapt. Feb. 17, 
164 {•2, Penrith P. Registers. 

Anthonv^Axne WhaI 

daur. of H«fl^ 
wood, YoriM 

Mar ch 19, tj 

1st Wife, Susanna* Richard 
d. of Mr. John Pattinson, Attorney-at- 
Law, Penrith, bap. June, 1677, mar. at 
Gt. Salkeld, April 25, 1^5, bur. July, 
1702, Penrith P. Registers. 

Susanna, bap. July 16, 1696. 
Anthony, bap. Feb. 3, 1698, bur. Nov. 14, 1698. 
Annk, bap. June 8, 1699, bur. Feb. 12, 1700. 
William, bap. June 13, 1700, bur. June i, 1701. 
Mary, bap. June 25, 1702. 

bap. at Penrith, Nov. 11, 
1675, bur. in St. Andrew's 
Choir, Penrith Church, 

May 10, 1717^ 


»2nd Wif^ 
bur. at Bti 

ly, 1707. 

Addison Hutton, Hap. May % 
1706, sold Hutton Hall estate 
and died without issur, 1746. 


Dutton *aU, pendtb. 

lof Ed«d. I. died Nov. 1308. Order to Sheriff of Cumberland to elect two 
\cl lofgdirode in the place of Adam de Hoton and John de Pennereth deceased. 
II. Close Rolls 2nd Edwd. 11. Membrane 18 

year of Hen. IV. and beginning of Hen. V., a monument and stained g\zss 
(of Penrith Church to him and Helena his wife— Norry King at Arms 15 15. 

Nicolson & B. 
oasaod Helen » Isabel d. of Hug^h Sallceld of Rossgill— N. & B. 




daur. and co-heir of Thos. Beauchamp of Croglin 
whose Arms were Argent on a bend Gules three plates. 

Iwpave of Curocatch— N. & B. 

fe'soN .Sir RicHD. HuTTON» Agnes 

Knt. of Goldsborough, Justice of daur. and co-heir of Mr. Thos. 
Comn. Pleas, Bapt. at Penrith Briggs, Caumire, Westmorland. 
Oct. 22, 1597, bur. at Ix>ndon, 
16.18-Q, Feb. 26, Penrith P. Re g. 


f Bramcote, 
I'^a. bar. at 
cled monu- 
lerself and 

I0HN Bbrnard«=Annb 
t).D. d. of Hugh 

died Stamper of 

unmard. Snittlegarth. 

Susan, wife of Simon 
Musgrave of Penrith. 
Ann, wife of Sir 
Chris. Dalston. 


> Barnard Thomas Dorothy Ann Grace Cathrrinb 


of Gilling- 

Bkrnard John Henry Dorothy Anne 

fc,May ^ 

Wife, Barbara 

Elisabeth, bap. Oct. 10, 1672, at Melmerby. 
Catherine, bap. Feb. 25, 1674, at Penrith. 
Dorothy, bap. Feb. 15, 1677, at Penrith. 
Anne, bap. July 25, 1678, at Melmerby. 
Jane, bap. ^ept. 26, 1679, at Melmerby. 

John, bap. June 24, 17 15, Penrith 

P. Registers. 

Barbara, bap. Nov. 2, 1716, bur. 

June 16, 17 1 7, 37 daysjafter her 


ttlft HUtTON tet^FIGIfiS. 427 

May loth, 1717, Richard Hutton, Esq., was buried. 

and a month later baby Barbara was laid in the same 
grave in St. Andrew's quire, only three years before the 
church was demolished ; Richard Hutton died at the early 
age of 42. He was High Sheriff for Cumberland in 1710, 
and his name appears as churchwarden of Penrith church 
in 1701 and 1702. Of his son John nothing more appears, 
he probably died young, his half-brother, Addison, being 
spoken of as sole survivor in the male line. Addison 
Hutton lived to manhood, and was a doctor of medicine. 
He sold the Hutton Estates to Mr. John Gasgarth, whose 
son sold them to the Lowthers, and Addison Hutton 
dying in 1746 at the age of 40 without issue, the long line 
of Buttons of Hutton Hall, Penrith, became extinct. 

Mr. Richard Hutton had five sisters, two baptised at 
Penrith, and three at Melmerby, but their destiny in life 
cannot be traced in the Penrith registers, which, although 
containing numerous Hutton entries, are deficient in 
Hutton information in consequence of the family owning 
the small manor of Gale, in the parish of Melmerby, where 
many of them were baptised and buried, and doubtless 
married : it unfortunately happens that prior to the year 
1700 the Melmerby registers are not extant, while the 
transcripts of them in the Bishop's registry are few and at 
irregular intervals, and therefore useless for the purpose 
of systematic research. 

At Nunwick Hall, besides the Hutton effigies lately 
there, there is also a slab of plaster of Paris containing 
the Hutton arms quartered with those of the Beaucbamps, 
these being the bearings of the descendants of John Hut- 
ton, who married one of the co-heiresses of Beauchamp 
of Croglin; the Hutton crest, three broad arrows and a 
coronet, is also to be seen upon the waterspout heads. 

Nunwick Hall was well known to have been the pro- 
perty and residence of a family of Richardsons, but how 



the Huttons could have been connected with the house or 
its owners was a mystery upon which neither the Penrith 
registers nor local history threw any light. The mat^r 
has, however, now been pretty conclusively cleared up by 
a collection of extracts from legal documents and notes 
made by the late Mr. Thomas Grierson, formerly of Pen- 
rith, and given by him, shortly before his death, to the 
author of this paper. They are as follows : 

About Alston Moor you will find a Manor or Lordship called Randle 
Holme. One William Richardson, senior, of Randle Holme Hall 
(i^t son of one John Richardson of Alandale) was baptised April 7, 

The above-mentioned died 1680, April 7, and was Buried in Aldston 
Chancell, and on ye north side thereof. Had a large family of sons 
and 2 or 3 daughters. 

Christopher R, his 5^ son, was baptised at Alandale Church, 1650, 
March or Michaelmas. 

1730, Sep. 10. (The above) Died, and was interred in Mr. Hutton's 
Burying place by Mr. Morland, on Saturday afternoon following."^' 

1728-9. Mary, wife of ye said Christopher, was baptised at Knares- 
dale Church 1658, Oct. 30, and dy'd Friday ye 14th of March, 1728-9, 
and was interr'd in Mr. Hutton's burying place by Mr. Wilkinson, oi 
Lowther, the Sunday afternoon following, f 

1695. Mary, the 2*^ daughter of Christopher & Mary Richardson, 
borne on Saturday, July 20th & baptised Aug. 8 at Salkeld Church 
by William Nicolson, Arch-Deacon of Carlisle, afterwards Bishopp 
thereof, after y' Bishop of Londonderry, and lastly Arch-Bishop of 
Cashel in Ireland. 

William Richardson of Penreth Towne Head, Doctor of Physic. 
1714. In the Chamber above ye parlour at Wards End in Penreth, 
My son, Christopher, was borne on Tuesday morning (about half an 
hour after two) Feb. 15*, 1714 (the morning being foggy). 

Had private Baptizme per M'. Thomas Fothergill, Curate of Penreth, 
afors^ on Saturday, the 19^ of ye same month : — And publick Bap- 

• 1730, Sep. 12. Mr. Christopher Richardson, Buried. (Penrith P Registers.) 
t 1728-9, Mar. 16. Mary, wife of Mr. Christopher Richardson, Buried. (Pen- 
rith Registers.) 



tizme at St. Andrew's Church in Penreth, aTors<^ per the Vicar, 
thereof, the Rev^. Hugh Todd, D,D. and Prebend of Carlisle, on 
Thursday yc 17"* of March, 1714, S*. Patrick's Day, and the day on 
which K. Geo. First Parliament mett on. 

Had for surety's his Grand-father and Grand -mother, and his Great 
Uncle, Richard Hutton, Esq., represented by Andrew Whelpdale, Esq. 
by reason ye night before about Eleven a clock, dy'd Grandmother 
Hutton, who was bury'd in Melmerby Church Quire ye Saturday 
next after. * 

1718. In ye abovesaid Chamber my son Thomas was borne on 
Thursday morning about half an hour after ten. May 2a'*<*, 17 18 ; 
being Assentidn day that part of ye morn being pretty clear — had 
private Baptizm per M^ Jos. Stubbs, Curate of Penreth, about 
Saturday next following, — and Publicke Haptizme at the Church 
aforesaid per said D*", Todd, the nineteenth of July next after, had 
for suretys, Mr. Peter Brougham, of Scales Hall, M*". John Patten- 
son, of Penreth, and Madam Barbara Hutton his abovesaid Great 
Uncles Widdow, represented by M''^. Agnes Webster of Penreth, 
aforesaid, f 

1755. He dy'd at Brands- Burton, October 28*, 1755. My brother 
Charles dy'd at Brands-Burton, September ye 12^^, 1755. 

1736. Ann Richardson (eldest daughter oi Thomas and wife of W"*. 
Richardson) departed this Life in the White Roome at Hutton Hall 
in Penrith about a quarter after nine a clock in the morning, Sep- 
tember 8^, 1736, aged 44 ; Lady day next following, and was in- 
terred by M^ Morland, Vicar of Penrith, on Friday the io^*> following. J 

1713. William Richardson "of Penrith towne head," was a great 
money lender. 

1711-12. William Richardson, of Low House, within the parish and 
county afors^. (Great Salkeld, Cumberland.) 

1719. William Richardson, Lord of the Manor of Great Salkeld. 
These extracts show plainly that a daughter of one of 

• 1^14-15, Mar. 17. Christopher, son of Mr. William Richardson and Anne, 
his wife. Baptised Publicly — Privately, Feb. 19. ^ 

1714-15, Mar. 19. Mrs. Hutton at Mellorby — Buried. (Penrith Rejristers.) 
t 1 718, June 19. Thomas, the son of Mr. William Richardson, Doctor of 
Phisick, and Anne his wife. Baptised. (Penrith P. Rejristers.) 

* 1736, Sep. 10. Anne, wife or Doctor Richardson, buried. (Penrith Reg^isters.) 



Richard Hutton's sisters became wife of Mr. William 
Richardson, doctor of physic, of Town Head, Penrith, 
and afterwards of Nunwick Hall, Great Salkeld, and he 
it undoubtedly was, who on the strength of his wife 
being, on her mother's side, the daughter of a Hutton, 
assumed for himself the Hutton arms, and carried off the 
Hutton effigies, belonging to Penrith Church, to grace his 
stable yard, placed the Hutton arms upon his house cor- 
nice, and cast the Hutton crest upon the leaden heads of 
his water spouts. 

( 431 ) 

Art. XXXIV.— No^^ on the Inscribed Door Head at Crake- 
place Hall, in the County of Cumberland. By J. Holme 
Nicholson, M.A. 

Read at Lake Side, June 13, 1894. 

A MONGST the many valuable contributions to the 
Transactions of this Society made by the late Dr. 
M. W. Taylor, F.S.A., is an interesting paper on the 
*' Legends and' Inscriptions over Doorways of Old Houses 
in Cumberland and Westmorland." * The purport of these 
inscriptions is chiefly to commemorate the name of the 
builder, but very frequently some pious ejaculation or 
sententious maxim is added, whilst one or two com- 
municate some fact of personal history. The rather 
quaint legend over the doorway of Crakeplace Hall, in 
the parish of Dean, belongs to the latter class. It runs 
thus : — 








The first thought which strikes one on reading the in- 
scription is — *• Who was this Baron Altham, in whose 

* Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archsoloffical and 
Antiquarian Society, vol. vi., pp. 280, ?qo, and " The Old Manorial Halls of 
Westmorland and Cumberland,*' pp. 326 fa photograph), 327, 362. 



service the builder of the Hall was, and in which he took 
so much pride as to regard the fact worthy of being 
recorded in this permanent form ? " 

The title sounds strangely unfamiliar, and a search 
through the British Peerage, past and present, yielded 
me no information. In the end I discovered that it was 
an Irish title, and had been conferred on the 14th 
February, 1680-1, on Altham Annesley, the second son 
of Arthur Annesley, the first Earl of Anglesey of the 
second creation. But this discovery raised another 
problem. The date over the doorway is 1612, and if 
this is the date of the building, of which I think there is 
no doubt, how could the builder describe himself as being 
at that time " servant to Baron Altham," no such title 
being in existence until sixty-nine years later? 

A little further investigation, I think, has solved the 
mystery. The father of the first Baron Altham married 
Elizabeth, one of the two daughters and coheirs of Sir 
James Altham, of Oxey, in the County of Hertford, 
Knight, who was one of the Barons of the Exchequer in 
the reign of James I. This, no doubt, was the master in 
whose service Christopher Crakeplace was. He was no 
peer, of course, but, in ordinary parlance, the puisne 
judges of the Exchequer were, until the passing of the 
New Judicature Act, styled Barons. 


Art. XXXV.—CoUon Church. By the Rev. A. A. Wil- 
LiAMS, the Vicar. 

Read at that Place, June 14, 1894. 

'PHE first thing that you will have noticed on strolling 
, up the little hill on which our church is situated will 
be an ancient well, of red Furness sandstone, or freestone, 
about half way up the accent. 

It appears to be made of the same kind of stone as our 
ancient font, and some other work which I have noticed 
in the east wall of the church, and my theory is that it 
was made at the Abbey and carried here, so that water 
might be forthcoming for the services of the sanctuary in 
pre- Reformation days. The spring is a good one, and 
rarely, if ever, fails. 

On reaching the churchyard you will have noticed an 
old sundial in the south-west corner of the old yard. 
When the wall round the old churchyard was taken down 
in 1886, for the purpose of adding an acre of new ground 
to it, I discovered the upper portion of the pedestal 
(bearing a date 1674) built in, as an ordinary stone, at 
the foundation of the wall, and took care of it. A friend, 
when looking about, found the other and lower half 
amongst the coal refuse at the bottom of the tower ; and 
on putting a short notice of this in the Westmorland Gazette, 
I received very shortly afterwards a letter from a gentle- 
man at Wray, saying that he remembered the old dial 
standing on the top of the churchyard wall (in the south- 
west corner) and that if I looked in a certain ditch in the 
valley below (near the present Vicarage) I should find the 
circular base on which it used to stand. The pedestal 
being broken, he says that the lads of his day set off the 
round base from the top of the hill and rolled it to the 



bottom. This also I secured, and the three are now re- 
united and serving their ancient use. 

The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, consists of 
an embattled tower, a nave, north transept, and a chancel. 
The first mention of any church in the parish is in 1531, 
when there was an " unconsecrated chapel " existing, 
probably built in the Tudor period, though there appears 
to have been an ancient building, on the same site, of 
smaller dimensions. My reason for mentioning this is, 
that when the church was dismantled in 1890, at its 
restoration, I noticed what appeared to be the foundation 
of a substantial wall running parallel to the present east 
wall, but a little west of the pulpit, and as this is the 
oldest part of the church, I take it that there was an older 
and smaller building here prior to the existing edifice. 

From a document in the Parish Chest, we gather that 

Parochial! Chappell of Colton was consecrated by Edwin Sands, 
Archbishop of Yeorke, ye last day of August, A.D. 1578, and in the 
2™* year of the said Abp's consecration. 

It is stated in the pedigree of the Rawlinsons, of Green- 
head, that William Rawlinson, Esq., 

Rebuilt the Parochiall Chappell of Coulton upon the common be- 
longing to his family before the year 1603, 

the tower being added at this date. The latter contains 
an ancient pre-Reformation bell, bearing the inscription : 


The church was restored in 1710-11-12, at a cost of 
£45 los. gd., by assessment, and an interesting balance- 
sheet (containing some highly amusing entries) is kept in 

the Parish Chest. 



In 1721 the north transept was added after much dis- 
pute, certain parties pulh'ng it down by moonlight as soon 
as it was ready for the roof; they were finally caught, 
excommunicated, and sent to Lancaster Gaol. 

In the year 1840 the church was reseated at a cost of 
£216 17s. 6Jd., and having again, in lapse of time, fallen 
into bad repair, it was restored in 1890 at a cost of ^fgoo. 
The old walls were left exactly as they were before ; but 
the floor was levelled. Many lead coffins, and hundreds 
of others were noticed in the body of the church. The 
old windows were left in their irregular positions, except 
that stone was substituted for wood in some cases, and 
new tracery windows were placed in the east wall and 
north transept, and filled with stained glass. 

On the first day of the dismantling of the church, in 
1889, we discovered an ancient font turned upside down, 
and used as a base for a more modern font, which had 
been in use since 1718, bearing the initials : 

J. P. J.R. C. T. F. C. 

referring to the four wardens who were in office in 1717- 
18. This stood in a pew near the pulpit, but the ancient 
font has been restored to its original use, and placed near 
the door. 

There is an Elizabethan chalice with cover paten 
(bearing date 1571) supposed to have been presented by 
Archbishop Sandys, whose relatives lived at Old Hall, in 
this parish. The Old Hall pew was of oak, and is now 
placed round the vestry walls as wainscotting ; the two 
old dates, " 1688 " and '* 1712,'* having been cut out and 
placed in the woodwork of a pew as nearly as possible in 
the identical spot in which we found them. It is about 
the fourth pew west of the pulpit. The old black oak 
altar rails were taken care of at the restoration, and 
replaced in the position they now occupy. 

The Registers commence in 1623 5 but are in a bad 



State. They were transcribed and published in iSqi, two 
or three copies only being left. There are some interest- 
ing documents in the Parish Chest ; amongst them three 
letters from Bishop Pearson, the author of an '' Exposition 
on the Creed." 

On the north-east there used to stand an old chamel 
house, which has now been levelled with the ground, and 
its contents interred in the new ground. It was erected 
in 1764, at a cost of £2 6s. 4d. 

The present vestry was built in 1762, at a cost of 
£2^ IS. 3|d. ; whilst just outside the churchyard railings 
is an old horsing stone, built in 1767, at a cost of 12s., 
and recently repaired. This was doubtless useful in olden 
days, when people rode to church, and turned their horses 
into the peat-house underneath the school opposite, whilst 
they repaired to worship in the church, and to an 
" ordinary," held at Greenhead, between the services. 

I must not omit to mention that the old gallery, which 
extended right across the west end of the church, was 
removed in 1890, being in a very shaky condition. The 
old clock, which used to be on the wall close alongside 
the pulpit [as a check, one supposes, against long-winded 
preachers,] was removed to the west wall, as was an 
escutcheon of George Ill's time. Some quaint old texts 
used to be seen on the walls, with older texts still under* 
neath the whitewash, and some old inscriptions. These 
latter have been carefully transcribed on to a board over 
the font. It is curious to add that one of these inscriptions 
was an error. It ran formerly : — " Government grant in 
1816 — 3^200." On writing to the Bounty Office I found (as 
expected) that it was a grant from Queen's Anne's Bounty, 
and the mistake was corrected on the new board. 


Art. XXXVI. — On a Milestone of Carausius and other recent 
Roman Finds. By The President and F. Haver- 
field, F.S.A. 


IN the month of October, 1894, a large stone of cylindrical 
shape, and of great girth, with lettering at each end, 
was noticed in the bed of the river Petterill, below 
Gallows Hill, Carlisle, by Mr. Joseph Graham, the master 
of the old workhouse. Information of the find was con- 
veyed to me, and by the kindness of Mr. Horace Lonsdale, 
clerk to the guardians, the stone was conveyed to Tullie 
House. It is 6 feet in length, cylindrical, with a rough 
face worked down one side. On it Mr. Haverfield, F.S.A.,' 
has written the following letter, which appeared in the 
Academy of January 12th, 1895. 

Ch. Ch., Oxford: Jan. 5, 1895. 

A Roman milestone has lately been found about a mile south of 
Carlisle, in the bed of the river Petterill, close to the Roman road 
which led from Luguvallium southwards. It has been acquired for 
the Tullie House Museum by Chancellor Ferguson, to whom* I am 
indebted for information and squeezes. 

The stone, which is six feet long, has two inscriptions, one at each 
end : that is to say, it was first erected under one emperor, then, 
according to a common practice, it was turned topsy-turvy, and in- 
scribed with the name of a late ruler. The emperors are Carausius 
and either Constantius Chlorus or Constantino I. 

The two inscriptions are : — 



Imp, C{aes) M. Aur(elio) mays Carausio p{io) /(elici) invicto Aug. 
The only puzzle is mays, which seems to be the lettering at the end 



of the second line : I think it may be a blandering anticipation of 
ARAVs in the third line, as the way in which the letters are formed 
is not so dissimilar as in modern print. Carausius is generally 
credited with the names M. Aurelius Valerius. The praenomen is 
testified to by several coins, the other names only by one of Stukely*s 
coins (Carausius i., p. 112) accepted by Eckhel (viii. 47), but omitted 
by Cohen. It is said to read imp m avr v caravsius p av; but 
Stukely^s notorious inaccuracy and the oddity of the legend make 
the statement rather doubtful. 

This milestone is, so far as I know, the only certain lapidary relic 
of Carausius. The inscription appears on the squeeze to be com- 
plete ; but Chancellor Ferguson, who has seen the stone, thinks 
something may have been lost below line 4. 

2. FL VA, 

1110 NOB 

Fl{avio) Val{crio) Constant \in\o nob, Caes. It is possible that a 
line may have been lost at the beginning. In line 4 I think to see 
NO on the squeezes, and hence I have supplied Constantino; but 
Constantio is not wholly impossible. The road from Carlisle south- 
wards has yielded two inscriptions of Constantine the Great ^C. vii. 
1 176, 1 177), both later than the one here described and giving him 
the title of Augustus, not Caesar. 

F. Haverfield. 

This stone marked the first mile out of Carlisle, on the 
road to York and London, and has probably rolled into 
the Petterill from the top of the Gallows Hill. 

2. A Roman inscribed stone has also been found, or 
rather refound, near Carlisle. It was first found in the 
West Walls, Carlisle, in 1828, and is recorded by the 
Rev. John Hodgson in his History of Northumberland, as 
in the possession of his brother Christopher : the account 
was copied by the late Dr. Bruce into the Lapidarium^ 
see No. 495 ; but the stone itself has long been lost. It 
has been refound among a heap of stones lying in a 









shrubbery in the garden at Newby Grange, some five 
miles east of Carlisle, and must have been there twenty 
or thirty years. It reads 

[D] M 

ayr senecita 
v an xx (?) ivl 


The rest is broken off, and was missing in 1828, and what 
is left is now broken into two. A son of Christopher 
Hodgson was the architect of Newby Grange, and he 
probably gave this stone to his employer, the late W. N. 
Hodgson, M.P. By the kindness of Mr. T. H. Hodgson, 
these fragments are now in TuUie House. 

3. A fine carved head in red sand stone of Roman 
date has just (December 1894) been added to the collection 
in Tullie House : it appears to have been found there 
during the excavations for the foundations, and to have 
been carried off by one of the navvies, who kept it until 
stress of circumstances, or thirst for beer, forced him to 
realize. It represents a face with bold profile ; the hair, 
which is done in small coils, is confined by a narrow 
fillet round the head, and carried down the sides of the 
face to meet the whiskers and beard, which are dressed 
in the same manner. 


Art. XXXVII.— ^ Pedigree of the descendants of John 
Waugh^ D.D.f Bishop of Carlisle^ showing their connection 
with the family of Tullie of Carlisle. By Henry 
Wagner, F.S.A., with an Introduction by the Presi- 

Communicated at Lake Side, June 13/A, 1894. 


I^HE prominence into which the old Mansion House at 
Carlisle, known as Tullie House, has recently sprung 
owing to its conversion into a Museum, School of Art, 
Picture Gallery, Lending and Reference Library, &c., has 
excited in the minds of many people a desire to know 
something about the families that in succession have 
owned and inhabited so interesting a house. 

Tullie House was built at the end of the seventeenth 
century, as the date, 1699, on the fine lead spouts tells 
us, and by some member of the Tullie family. Of this 
distinguished family, an account with pedigree will be 
found in these Transactions, vol, XL, p. 113, as an ap- 
pendix to a paper by the present writer on " The Siege of 
Carlisle, 1644-5." "^^^ ^^^^ ^^ *^^ name that we hear of 
in Carlisle is George, who is styled " gent " in deeds of 
1619 in the possession of the Corporation of Carlisle. He 
was probably son, or more likely grandson of Thomas 
Tullie of Blindcrake in the parish of Isell, about ten miles 
from Keswick, whose will, dated the 4th of September 
1567, and proved on the 2nd of October 1569, is printed 
in these Transactions.* He married at Crosthwaite, 
April 22, 1614, " Mrs. Thomazine Heckstetter of Kes- 
wick," and their son Timothy was baptised there on 
March 20th, 1614-5. They had other sons, of whom the 

•Vol. XI., p. 113. 


pcbiQxcc of the bescenJ 

Arms. Arg". on a chevron gu. three bezants or. 

of Scatterg-atc, West 
Will dated lo June, 
proved 30 July, i6qo. 

B. (?) 2 Feb,, 1655, d. 29 Oct., 1734, & bur. 
(3 Nov.). in S. Peter's, Cornhill. 

Rector of S. Peter's, G^rnhill, 1704; (?) Canon 
of Lincoln, 1718; Dean of Gloucester, 1720; 
Bishop of Carlisle, 1723. Will da. 10 Oct., 
1733; Pr. 18 Nov. 1734. (P.C.C. 236, 
Ockh am). 

John Waugh, D.D. = Elizabeth [? Simpson 

Her brother is stated t 
Sebergham Hall, Curnb 
May, 1 7 16, under the G 
in St. Peter's, Cornhill. 

John Waugh, D-D.^Isabella 

B. c. 1703, Chancellor & Preby. of Carlisle, 
1727: Dean of Worcester, 1751. Will da. 
17 April, 1765, & pr. 25 May following*. 
(P.C.C. 103, Rushworth): d. at Worcester, 
and buried in Carlisle Cathedral, 25 April, 

John Waugh 
B. 27 Apr., 1730. 
Vicar of Bromsgrove. 
D. y.p. 1777 & buried 
in Carlisle Cathedral. 

2nd dau. of Dr. Thomas TuUie, 
Dean of Carlisle. B. . . m. at 
St. Mary's, Carlisle, 20 Aug., 
1728. Living 1765. 

B. >6. & hap. 
Cornhill, 27 
There bur. 
the Commun 
Sept., 1710. 

B. 3 May, 173 1. 
D. ait. 68, 29 July, 1799. 

3 Ma] 

B. I Jan.. 1735- 
D. aet. 73, . . 1809. 

B. 12 Apr. 
D. aet. 77, 

tU ot John Mauob, B.S). 


Elizabeth = . . . Elliotson Thomas 

f b«n of B. 1654, bur. at Dal&ton, 31 I 
I Bar 9 Aug., 1/48, at. 94. | 

R table 

Elizabkth Dorothy 

L Margaret Humfrida— Thomas Machen Fiddes 

Iw's, Bur. in S. Peter's, living 1734. Vicar of Barking, Essex. Bur. at Car- 
^J704. Cornhili, in the lisle, 11 Sept., 1734. Will (witnessed by 

JKof Chancel, 14 Jany,, John Waugh, Thos. TuUie, and Thos. 

'*»25 1713. Jackson) da. 6 Sept., 1734, and pr. 2 

Nov. following. (P.C.C. 241, Ockham.) 

Mary Ann Margaret 

B. 23 Feb., 1739. B. Sept., 1741. B. 12 Nov., 1743. 

<■ D. act. 75, .. 1815. D. & bur. at Caldbeck. . . D. act. 60, 31 Dec., 1803. 

: t' 


youngest, Isaac, is the best known, as having been the 
author of "The Narrative of the Siege of Carlisle 1644-5," 
the eldest son, Timothy, took Orders, had a church in 
Carlisle, 1655 to 1660, and became rector of Middleton-in- 
Teasdale. His second son, Thomas, was prebendary, 
chancellor, and dean of Carlisle and died in 1726. Dean 
TuUie had three sons, Jerome* of Tullie House, in 1745, 
and of Wetheral Abbey ; William, of the Six Clerks 
Office in Chancery ; and Thomas, Prebendary of Carlisle; 
none of whom left issue : Dean Tullie had also two 
daughters, Anne, who married William Cornthwaite, and 
Isabella, who married John Waugh, Prebendary and 
Chancellor of Carlisle and Dean of Worcester, thus intro- 
ducing the Waughs, whose pedigree is given herewith. 
The first of the family of Waughs that we at present 
know of is John Waugh, described in his will,t which 
is printed at the end of this account, as of '^ Scattergate 
[Appleby] in the county of Westmorland yeoman," where 
he had property. From the will we gather that he had 
two sons, John the eldest, and Thomas the second, and a 
married daughter Elizabeth, whose surname is given in the 
body of the will as *' Ellison," but in the note of probate 
as ** Elliotson," the form under which it appears on the 
lady's tombstone in Dalston Churchyard, and in the register 
of her death at that place.} John Waugh, yeoman, was an 

• Will dated 3rd January, 1737, pr. 1756, Somerset House. 
fWill dated 16 June, 1690. 

X " Bishop Waugh.— On the outside of the south wall of the chancel there is 
an inscription almost defaced, to the memory of Mrs. Elliotson, the sister of 
Bishop Waugh who was Bishop of Carlisle from 1723 to 1734. It is near the 
tomb of Bishop Rainbow who was Bishop of Carlisle trom 1664 to i^4 and as 
far as can be deciphered it bears the following* inscription — 
Near this stone lies Mrs 
Elliotson, only sister of the 
Rt Revd John Waugh Ld 
Bp of this Diocese, who died 

AtH 9 

17 year of her 


Blessed with all her Soul 



illiterate, and made his mark at the foot of his will, instead 
of signing his name, but he was far from undervaluing the 
advantage of a good education, and had, as his will shows, 
made great sacrifices out of his scanty means to provide 
for his eldest son John in that respect. The second John 
received his education at Appleby Grammar School, 
and Queen's College, Oxford, and climbed up the ladder 
of preferment slowly but steadily: at the age of 49, 
in 1704, he became rector of S. Peter's, Cornhill: at 
the age of 63 he became Canon of Lincoln, and two years 
later Dean of Gloucester f at the age of 68, in 1723, he 
became Bishop of Carlisle, which he retained until his 
death in 1734. As the revenues of the see of Carlisle 
were only small, the new Bishop received permission to 
hold his benefice of St. Peter's, in commendam, so long as 
he held the bishopric of Carlisle.* His will, dated in 
1733, however shows that in spite of this indulgence, the 
Bishop did not accumulate a fortune, and out of the little 
he had saved he provided for his sister, Mrs. Elliotson, 
and her two daughters, who probably lived with him at 
Rose Castle, and who settled at Hawksdale after his death. 
The Bishop's only son, John Waugh the third, was 
appointed by his father in 1727, vicar of Stanwix, rector 
of Caldbeck, prebendary of Carlisle, and chancellor of the 
diocese, t In the following year Chancellor Waugh mar- 
ried, by license, Isabella, second daughter of Dr. Thomas 

In the notes (p. 146) to Mr. Beck's book we had made these observation in 1890 

on this tombstone— 

Partially deciphered with much difficulty— the weather havin}^ almost com- 
pleted its worlc. Register.—^* Aiigt 31, 174S, Mrs Elliotson, of Hawksdale 
(agred 94) Burd." Bishop Wau^h's name occcurin^ here may have given 
rise to the popular notion that there are three or four Bishops buried in 
Dalston.*' Dalston Parish Magazine, 
* When a parson is made bishop, there is a cession or voidance of his benefice 

by the promotion; but if the King by special dispensation gives him power to 

retain his benefice notwithstanding his promotion, he shall continue parson, and 

is said to hold in commendam, Jacobs' Law Dictionary, sub voce Commendam, 
f In 1749 Chancellor Waugh valued Caldbeck to a good manager at ^150 

per annum, and Stan\vix at ^100 : both had much improved. See his MS. 

Notes to Bishop Nicolson*s Visitation. 



TuUie, Dean of Carlisle. By virtue of his official appoint- 
ments, his relationship with the Diocesan Prelate, and 
his matrimonial connections, Chancellor Waugh was in a 
position of the first consideration and influence in the city 
and neighbourhood of Carlisle. '^ During the episcopates of 
Waugh, Fleming (i734-i747)» and Osbaldiston (1747- 
1764), he was the chief moving spirit in the diocese. He 
was a staunch Whig, and he laboured assiduously to pro- 
mote the Whig interests in Carlisle and Cumberland. 
During the outbreak of 1745 he arranged and managed an 
intelligence department for the English Government, and 
organised a corps of guides for the Duke of Cumberland. 
He was rewarded with the deanery of Worcester, but con- 
tinued to reside at Carlisle, living in considerable style in 
Tullie House and keeping a coach and four horses, t His 
will shows that he had saved little or nothing ; he pro- 
vided for his only son, the fourth John Waugh in a direct 
line, by putting him into a living in the patronage of the 
Dean and Chapter of Worcester, the vicarage of Broms- 
grove in Worcestershire. The fourth John was made a 
Prebendary of Carlisle in 1768, and died without issue in 
1777, and was buried on September 6th in the south 
aisle of Carlisle Cathedral. Five daughters survived 
Chancellor Waugh : they were handsomely provided for 
by their uncle, William Tullie, and continued to live in 
Tullie House, the leaders of local society, keeping a 
coach and four, and (what was then unique in Carlisle) 
a footman in livery. They entertained, gave musical 
parties, built the Folly at Wetheral as a summer-house 
for themselves and their friends : no one of them ever 
married, and they are known as '* The five famous Miss 
Waughs of Carlisle." 

* Carlisle in 1745, by G. G. Mounsey, p. vii. 

t Sec Diocesan Histories, S.P.C.K. Series, Carlisle, p. 172 ; Jefferson's 
History qf Carlisle, p. S6 ; and the preface to Mounsey *s Carlisle in 1745. 




IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN. The Tenth day of June In the 
year of our Lord god one thousand six hundred & nynety, John 
Waugh, of Scattergate in the County of Westm^land, Yeoman, being 
sick in body, but of sound and perfect memory praysed be god for 
the same, and knowing the uncertainty of this life on Earth, and 
being desirous to settle things in order and Revoakeing all former 
Wills doe make and ordaine this my last Wilt and Testament in 
manner & forme following, first I comend my Soul to Almighty god 
my Creato' Assurdly believeing that I shall receive full pardon & free 
Remission of my Sinns and be saved by the p'cious Death & Merits 
of my blessed Saviour and Redeemer Christ Jesus, and my body to 
the Earth from whence it was taken to be buried in such decent and 
Christian manner as to my Executors hereafter named shall be 
thought meet and convenient in the parish Churchyard of St. 
Lawrence in Appleby and as touching such worldly Estate as the 
Lord in mercy hath lent me : my will and meaning is the same shall 
be employed 8c bestow*' as hereafter by this my Will is expressed : 
Item I give and bequeath to my daughter Elizabeth Ellison All that 
my house & Barns Garths Backsides with all other the appur- 
tenancies thereunto belonging situate lying and being in Scattergate, 
aforesaid, of the yearly free rent of one shilling & sixpence to the Ld 
of Thanet & sixpence to the Corporation of Appleby : To have & to 
hold to her & her heires for ever after the decease of me & my wife 
or the Longer Liver of us ; and for want of Issue of her owne body 
lawfully begotten then to descend to the Right heires of me the said 
John Waugh for ever, Item in Regard & (for the p'ferment of my 
Eldest Son John Waugh) haveing sold the best part of my Real! 
estate my will & meaning is That Thomas Waugh my second Son 
shall (after the decease of me and my wife or the Longer Liver of us) 
have and enjoy to him and his heires for ever. All that my closes 
or inclosure of ground being called and kuowne by name of my foot- 
lands in ye fields of Scatteragte aforesaid of ye yearly Rent of Three 
shillings (& 4d ob Millfarme) conditionally that he pay unto my 
Eldest Soun John Waugh the sume of Tenn pounds of lawfull money 
of England within a year after my decease, and bear the half part of 
my funerall Expences. And lastly All the rest of my goods & chat- 
tells Movable 8c Imoveable (my Debts, Legacies, and funerall 
Expences discharged) I give and beqeath unto my dear Wife 
Margarett, and my said daughter Elizabeth, whome I make Jo3mt 
Exeeuto" of this my last Will and Testament. Id wittness whereof 




I have hereunto sett my hand & seale the day and year first above 

Sealed Signed and declared —JOHN WAUGH— 

in the presence of us — his mrk & Seale 

— William Johnson mrk I 
— George Dent — jurat — 
— Rich. Rotherame— jurat — 

(Folio 6 J 

Will proved at Appleby, July 30, 1690, and administration granted 
to Margaret Waugh widow and NVilliam Blliotson in right of his wife 


IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN. I, John Waugh, Bishop of 
Carlisle and Rector Commendatory of St. Peter's, Comhill, London, 
being (I thank God) in perfect health and of a sound and disposing 
mind tho* of a very great age do upon a due consideration had to the 
frailty of my Life think fit to make this my last Will and Testament 
in manner and form following revoking all other wills whatsoever 
heretofore by me made. First and chiefly I resign and commend my 
soul into the hands of Almighty God my Creator who gave it Trusting 
and relying upon the merits and mediation of my Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ for the pardon and forgiveness of all my sins of Omis-. 
sion and Commission and for my body I desire it may be buried (if I 
dye in Westminster or near London) in the Chancell of St. Peter's, 
Comhill, by my late dearest wife or (if in my Diocese of Carlisle) in 
Dalston Churchyard as near as may be to the late Bishop Rainbow 
my former kind Benefactor decently but privately with no other 
Inscription on a plain stone but that such a day and year dyed John 
Lord Bishop of Carlisle. As to my Goods and Estate which it hath 
pleased God to bless me with I dispose thereof after my debts and 
ffuneral expenses are paid as foiloweth. Imprimis to the poor of the 
parish of Appleby in Westmoreland where I was born I give five 
pounds. Item to the poor of Dalston in Cumberland I give five 
pounds to be distributed by my son Chancellor of Carlisle and Mr. 
Joseph Nicholson my Secretary. Item I give to Jane Jon of Appleby 
if alive at my death twenty shillings besides her share of the five 



pounds given to that parish. Item I give and bequeath to Mr. 
Thomas Macken fiBddes my son-in-Law five pounds and remit to 
him all the money I have Lent and paid for him to the date of this 
my will as it appears in one of my Backs of Account. And whereas 
I am possessed of at this time seven hundred pounds in Bonds of 
the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East 
Indies I give devise and bequeath them with all the Interest re- 
maining thereon as followeth. To my dear Sister Elizabeth EUiotson 
I give and bequeath two of the said Bonds of one hundred pound 
each and Ten pound to buy her mourning provided that if I survive 
my said sister and she be not living at my death, I will and bequeath 
these two Bonds to her two daughters, the one to her daughter 
Elizabeth, and the other to her daughter Dorothy hereafter mentioned 
over and above what I have there given them. Item I give and 
bequeath to her elder daughter Elizabeth EUiotson my God-daughter 
who hath been very serviceable to me, in reading to me, writing my 
Letters and taking care of my affairs Two of my said Bonds of one 
hundred pounds each and two other of fifty pound each in all three 
hundred pound. Also my topez-ring the whole Duty of Man's 
Works (as commonly called) in 8vo one of Dr. Hammond's Para- 
phrase and the best of my Bibles in 4to and six of the best silver 
Spoons which do not belong to the case of the silver knives and 
fforks and Ten pounds to buy her mourning. Item I give and 
bequeath to my niece Dorothy EUiotson my sister's younger 
Daughter Two of the said East India Bonds of one hundred pound 
each and three silver spoons my 8vo Bible printed 1680 with what 
other Books and things my Executor shall think fitt to bestow upon 
her and Ten pound for mourning provided that if it should so happen 
that there should not be in my possession at my death the full 
number of East India Bonds for seven hundred pounds I will and 
oblige my Executor to buy so many as are wanting at the price they 
are then sold for and to give them according to my bequest and 
Intention which was that these my poor Relations when I am gone 
might have something to live upon beside the principal. I could 
heartily wish that what I bequeath to them had been more consider- 
able and more proportionable to the affection and good will I bear 
to them. However as inconsiderable as it is I intreat them kindly 
to accept it, and I earnestly request my son to continue a sincere 
affection to them to be ready to assist them upon occasion and lett 
them have some parcell of the Linnen and goods towards fifurnishing 
a little House where they may live together with their mother if she 
outlive me till the two sisters can otherwise dispose of themselves. 
Item I give to all my servants that are at my death living with me a 



month's wages besides the wages of the Quarter in which I die and 
to Amy Parker an old faithful! servant two guineas more. Item I 
give to the Right Reverend Edmund Lord Bishop of London and to 
the worshipfull John Bettesworth Dean of the Arches to each of 
them a Ring of Twenty Shillings and after my Executor hath dis- 
charged my just debts and cleared my servants' wages I desire he 
will bestow on my nearest Relations and ifriends (as he shall chose) 
some mourning Rings of what value he thinks fitt. All the rest of 
my Goods and chattels, Debts Rents arrears of Rents and other 
profits whatsoever I give and bequeath entirely to my only son John 
Waugh Chancellor and prebendary of Carlisle for whom I have 
always had a most tender affection and whom I here appoint and 
constitute sole Executor of this my last Will and Testament all 
written with my own hand. As to my papers I give them to my said 
son, with this express order that none of them be printed but that he 
keep them for his own use or destroy them as he thinks fit. Ffinally 
I once more declare this to be my last Will and Testament and that 
I revoke all other Wills and Codicils whatsoever heretofore by me 
made. In witness whereof I have hereto put my hand and seal 
this (sic) loth day of October anno Domini 1733. John Carlisle 
Signed sealed and published in the presence of us whose names are 
here under written. Cornelius Hinton John Porker. 


IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN. I John Waugh Dean of the 
Cathedra] Church of Worcester being of sound mind memory and 
understanding but in great weakness of Body do make and declare 
this my last Will and Testament in manner and fform following 
ffirst I recommend my soul to Almighty God hoping from his infinite 
Merciey through the Merits of Jesus Christ my Saviour and 
Redeemer for the Remission of my many great and crying sins. 
As for my worldly Estate real and personal of what nature or kind 
soever I give will devise and bequeath the same as is herein after 
directed that is to say Whereas the Provision for the support of my 
dear wife and our dear children depends greatly on the good will and 
affectionate tender Love and regard our dear Brother William Tullie 
Esquire has ever bore to them And in confidence of the assurances 
I received from him the last summer as well in concurrence with 
the manner he shewed me he had settled his affairs in which my 
dying before him may make some alteration therefore for these 



reasons mentioned I give and devise as above all my said real and 
personal estates to my dear and beloved wife Isabella Waugh making 
her sole and whole Executrix of this my last Will and Testament 
that all my affairs may be put in such posture for the Benefit of oar 
Children as she and her Brother if he will undertake it may direct 
and appoint hereby revoking all former Wills by me made. In 
witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this seven- 
teenth day of April one thousand seven hundred and sixty-five. 
John Waugh. 

Signed sealed published and declared by the above Testator the 
Reverend Doctor Waugh as and for his last Will and Testament in 
the presence of us who at his Request and in his sight and in 
presence of each other have subscribed our names as Witnesses (the 
word said being first interlined). T. Wall. Will"" Oliver. John 


Art. XXXVIIL— TA^j Roman Fort on Hardknoti known as 
Hardknott Castle. 

By the Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A. 

THE work done at Hardknott in 1893-1894 revealed 
some features of considerable interest, but ultimately 
we were driven from the camp by storms of so pro- 
longed a character that I, who remained in the district 
a few days longer for the purpose of taking levels and 
measurements with a view to making aqcurate draw- 
ings, was obliged to return home, wishing for " better 
luck next time.*' Not being able to choose one's time 
agreeably with the arrangements of the elements the 
" better luck " has been deferred, for on three occasions 
we have expended much labour in clearing interesting 
features for exposure to the photographic lens and each 
time have been unable to secure photographs. Mr. 
Fletcher and myself have several times stayed behind 
after the men have been sent home, to try another day's 
luck with the camera, but to no purpose. A fortnight 
ago I made for Hardknott, staying the night at Seascale 
to be in readiness for a good day's work on the morrow. 
An unexpected snowstorm made it quite useless to pro- 

It is desirable that certain exposed portions of the 
excavations should be protected by being covered over 
again, and this can be done by the same labour which 
will assist in discovering the details of the adjoining 
structures. This is especially the case outside the camp 
on the south side where the round building, the bath, and 
the stoke-hole are in danger of being entirely destroyed. 
These buildings owe their preservation greatly to the fact 
of their having been built in a hollow place on the moun- 


tain side, which made it necessary to cut a channel some 
three feet deep through the solid rock to let away the 
water — the channel was cemented on the bottom and at 
the sides, a leaden pipe laid along the bottom and towards 
the west side carried away the water — but when ruin came 
upon the place the channel got choked up, and water and 
the rubbish of the ruins filled the hollow and buried the 
lower parts of the structure which remain even now, 
though successive generations of mountain dwellers have 
pilfered the ruins, taking away the window glass of 
different colours, the sheet lead and lead piping (all save 
a battered piece, less than a foot long, which we found in 
the deepest part of the rock-cutting,) the bricks and the 
tiles, and the freestone jambs and coigns, even to the 
sandstone blocks of the pilse of the hypocaust. Had these 
buildings been erected on an open space (and so near the 
road) as were more extensive buildings further eastward 
— remains of the foundations of whose flues we found upon 
the flat ground formed by the tippings from the deep fosse 
on the east side of the camp — no doubt every stone and 
every brick would have been removed ages ago. A dales- 
man, Robert Dixon, aged 64 years, employed with our 
gang, had, many years ago, helped to take down one of 
the ancient homesteads with its out-buildings at Spot- 
how, no great distance down the dale, and finding many 
red bricks in the walling it had been a matter of specula- 
tion with him and his companions as to whence they 
came. When Dixon unexpectedly saw the like bricks 
upon Hardknott whilst working for us, his riddle was 
satisfactorily solved much to his surprise, as he explained 
to us, who were equally surprised to receive this unlooked 
for evidence of the use made of the ruins by the old 

The camp was originally laid out in such a manner 
as to take advantage of certain knotts and rocky knolls 
which have been made to flank the gateways and other- 


wise to aid in the defences. One such piece of rock 
appears to the south of the western gate, within the camp, 
and between it and the tower at the south-west corner, 
and at some distance from the outer wall a foundation of 
great cobbles has been built up leaving a gangway between 
it and the wall at a much lower level than that of the 
camp area within. We cleared a space between the wall 
and the cobble bank, or foundation, and found earthen- 
ware and iron fragments on the old floor level, but whether 
there has been a platform for ballistae or other purposes 
above or not we could not prove. Foundations apparently 
continued at some little distance from the inner corner of 
the south*western tower in a parallel line with the outer 
wall to within a few feet of the south gate, at which place 
the rock again appeared. We cleared away debris and 
found that the roadway from the central camp buildings 
had been lowered sufficiently to pass under the archway 
of the south gate and so that the men could pass round 
the battlements and above the gateway upon the same 
level as that of the adjacent parapet. The same seemed 
to apply to the western gateway. A doorway was opened 
out in the central buildings. The great double building 
near the east gate was with great labour nearly half 
cleared, a vast mass of hammered stone having to be 
lifted out and wheeled away. The western half when 
empty shewed a good specimen of walling. A doorway 
had led into it at the south end. The walls had been 
plastered with light-coloured plaster. One or two pieces 
of red sandstone had been built into the walls. There 
were no traces of timbers having rested on the dwarf wall 
which appeared to have run down the centre. The eastern 
half of the building had a doorway — most distinctly seen — 
at the north end and a paved causeway appeared outside. 
To the north of this, building foundations, terribly ruined, 
of some sort of heating apparatus were discovered, and we 
were in hopes that we had come upon that which would 



reveal the whole secret to us. There were flues running 
parallel to one another, with a larger cross flue like the 
bars of a gridiron, and at a higher level something like a 
ruined hearth. On the lower ground the ashes and refuse 
of the fires filled the hollow for a great space. We did 
not find any connection between these flues and the space 
between the inner walls of the double building, though 
such connection may yet be found. On the north side of 
all these buildings, and right through the camp we cut a 
trench to carry away the water, for the natural course for 
the water of this part lay here before the camp was 
planned. When the builders dug the fosse and built the 
wall they dammed up the shallow watercourse and turned 
it into the fosse — the site of their little bridge over it for 
the road to the parade ground may yet be seen. Somebody 
has pottered about the foundations of the wall until the 
water has found out its old way, and we were obliged to 
dig a trench to carry it off. In digging this trench we cut 
through several foundations, some patches of concrete, 
the red ashes of a furnace and the lower parts of its 
foundations. The flues were built of small stones, levelled 
as though to receive some cover or weight ; they were full 
x)f charcoal and ashes, and crossed each other at right 
angles. The great amount of ash debris lying in the hollow 
close by could never have been produced by these flues 
alone. There seems to be little doubt that we have found 
the site of the camp kitchen, but is is in such a ruined 
condition that it presents only a puzzle at the present 
.moment. Amongst the ash refuse we found a part of a 
hone with a hole drilled through the end of it, and a rib 
bone which had been cut (by the knife sharpened on the 
hone> a bead, a piece of fine glass, and a few pieces of 
iron and pottery, but we were not searching for these 
things so much as for structural details. I hope to make 
another attack as soon as fine weather comes, and if 
we cannot procure photographs, we must have reliable 


Art. XXXIX. — Report of the Cumberland Excavation 
Committee 1894. By F. Haverfield, F.S.A. 


THE Roman frontier-lines which join the Solway and 
the Tyne consist, as is well-known, of two parts, (i) 
a stone wall with large and small forts and connecting 
road, and (2) an earthen Vallum (as it is commonly styled) 
which runs south of the Wall at a distance varying 
between thirty and a thousand yards. The relation 
between these two works has been differently explained. 
The Rev. John Hodgson and Dr. Bruce held them to be 
contemporary, the one providing defence northwards, the 
other to the south. Prof. Mommsen has more recently 
suggested that the Vallum marks the southern or inside 
edge of the limes or " frontier strip " of the empire : the 
two works (as he thinks) are contemporary but the 
Vallum is a legal, not a military object. Other writers 
consider the Vallum older than the Wall: it was, in 
their judgment, a great frontier mark which was subse- 
quently superseded by the military defences of the Wall. 
The most hopeful plan for solving the problem and 
deciding between the various theories is an enquiry 
whether Wall or Vallum possess any features indicating 
that they were or were not contemporaneous. If we 
could point, for instance, to places where the Wall, or its 
forts, or its road impinge and override the Vallum, we 
should have proof that the Vallum was the older work. 
If we could find north of the Vallum any such frontier- 
ditch as has been found on the German limes^ we should 
again have proof that the Vallum was once an independent 
frontier line. The excavations commenced last summer 
under the auspices of the Cumberland and Westmorland 



Antiquarian and Archaeological Society aim at elucidating 
these and similar questions and simultaneously at col- 
lecting evidence about all the features of both Wall and 
Vallum. For these purposes sections were dug through 
the Vallum and from the Vallum to the Wall, search was 
made for a couple of milecastles, and the road was carefully 

It may be convenient here to summarize the chief 
results, with the premise that they represent a tentative 
campaign of barely five weeks, (i) The Vallum was cut at 
several points. At Brunstock it shewed the normal 
profile which it exhibits throughout most of its length, 
a mound and berm on the north, two mounds on the 

south, with a broad flat ditch between (fig. i). In the boggy 
land at White Moss, the remains suggested a narrower 
ditch with two mounds on each side. At Gilsland the 
northern mound contained a curious stone "core.*' (2) 
The space between Wall and Vallum was found to contain 
nothing beyond the road. Apart from some probably 
accidental indications at Brunstock, nothing in anyway 
suggested any ditch resembling the German frontier-ditch. 
The results of the search in Cumberland and of four 
trenches near Aesica seem to shew that we are, so far, 
without any traces of such a ditch immediately north 
of the Vallum. 

(3) The road was noted everywhere except perhaps at 
Gilsland; it nowhere impinged on the Vallum. The 
roadway consisted not of the * flag ' pavements so common 
in many places but of gravel laid on larger stones, raised 
in the centre, and kept firm by large stones in the centre 
and along the kerbs. The agger of the road was about 

22 feet 


22 feet wide and flanked by two small ditches. This is, no 
doubt, its normal character throughout its length (Bruce*s 
Handbook p. 29) but it is probably more perfect at White- 
moss than at any other place where it has been examined. 

(4) On the south face of the Wall a projecting course 
was noted at Brunstock, at Cragglehill and Harehill near 
Lanercost and at Gilsland Station : it is either a footpath 
or an extra foundation course. (5) At Bleatarn an im- 
portant discovery was made of quarry rubbish and tool 
marks on the sandstone rock more than five feet below 
the surface. The rock may have been cut away, as at 
Limestone Bank, to accommodate the Vallum, or there 
may have been a quarry here. Further investigations 
will probably throw considerable light on this question 
and on the whole relation of the Wall and Vallum. 

The excavations were very greatly aided by the kindness 
of landowners and farmers who gave all qecessary leaves 
with great readiness. The Society is especially indebted 
to the Earl of Carlisle for permission to dig near Lanercost, 
to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and their steward 
Mr. A. N. Bowman, to Mr. S. G. Saul of Brunstock 
House for leave to dig at Brunstock Park and at Bleatarn, 
and to Miss Bell of Irthington. The committee which 
controlled the excavations consisted of Chancellor Fergu- 
son, Mr. T. H. Hodgson of Newby Grange, and the 
Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A. The latter made a careful 
preliminary survey of the course of the Wall in Cum- 
berland in order to select places suitable for the work 
of excavation. All the work was done under full 
supervision : the names of those who supervised each 
set of sections is given below. The sections were 
surveyed by Mr. T. H. Hodgson and Mr. Calverley, 
and by surveyors from the office of the City Surveyor, 
Carlisle, and were also carefully sketched and described 
by Mrs. Hodgson. The following accounts are based 
on those surveys ahd drawings and on the notes of the 



various supervisors. It is right to acknowledge special 
obligation to Mrs. Hodgson, without whose skilful and 
ungrudging aid both descriptions and illustrations would 
have lacked whatever completeness they possess. A 
statement of expenditure will be found at the end of the 


The first excavation was undertaken at Brunstock, 
three miles east of Carlisle, on the property and near the 
residence of Mr. S. G. Saul. The exact spot selected was 
in Brunstock Park adjoining the high road from Carlisle 
to Newcastle (Wade's Road) : here the lines of Wall and 
Vallum are distinct, the two works are barely a hundred 
yards apart, and the subsoil, a stiff dry clay with 
occasional patches (apparently) of blue, is such that the 
strata in sections are easily detected. The Park was 
at no distant date traversed by a modern road, the con- 
tinuation of the lane which runs close to the Wall from 
Bleatarn and Wallhead, and part of the area was once 
occupied by cottages which were removed when the Park 
was laid down to grass some forty or fifty years ago : our 
trenches revealed the road but did not, as it seemed, cross 
the site of the cottages. The work was supervised by 
Mr. Hodgson, the late Mr. J. Mowat, M.A., F.S.A., Mr. 
A. H. Smith, M.A., F.S.A., and the present writer. A 
plan is given with this paper, Plate I. 

The main part of the work was the excavation of a 
trench 2 — 3 feet wide, and reaching in depth to the 
subsoil, from the south of the Vallum to the north of the 
Wall : parallel trenches were dug in various parts of the 
Park as seemed desirable. It will be convenient to 
describe the results continuously from south to north. A 
section is given in Plate II. 

I. The Vallum. The section through the southern 
mound of the Vallum shewed, above the undisturbed 



Off J 
AND oj 





to contain some blue clay lying above the ordinary 
clay. Another trench cut 250 yards westwards, she^ 



subsoil, a layer of dark blue matter/ and above that was 
disturbed earth. This dark blue line was about two inches 
thick, 28 inches below the present surface in the centre 
of the mound, and 65 feet long. It reappeared in a 
similar position in the northern mound of the Vallum and 
elsewhere, and we took it to represent the original surface 
line. A piece of it was analysed and microscopically 
examined, but the results were not quite conclusive. 
The earth above it was undoubtedly disturbed earth, 
representing the remains of the southern part of the 
Vallum. For the most part it consisted of debris of 
red clay from the subsoil, but two ridges of blue clay 
were distinct, each based on the dark blue line. The 
southern and larger of these ridges was about 7 feet wide 
at its base and 14 inches high ; a little red clay lay 
between it and the dark blue line on its southern side. 
The other ridge was 4 feet wide and 14 inches high. 
At the end of the dark blue line the dtlch of the Vallum 
began ; we followed the sloping line of undisturbed red 
subsoil both on its downward slope and on its rise to the 
northern side of the Vallum. The ditch was filled with a 
yellowish grey clay ; a piece of stick and a bit of brick 
shewed that it was a comparatively recent deposit. Water 
hindered a thorough excavation of the ditch ; it appeared 
to be fiat-bottomed with sloping sides (angle of 30°), 

15 feet wide at the bottom., 30 feet wide at the top and 8 
feet deep. Its north bank was marked by the rise of the 
red clay subsoil : eight feet north of this the dark blue 
line reappeared and continued underneath the whole 
northern mound for 40 feet, coming (as before) between the 
disturbed and undisturbed earth. Above it, in the centre 
of the mound was another blue clay ridge 8 feet wide by 

16 inches high ; on the north side a wedge of red clay came 
between it and the dark line. The subsoil here seemed 
to contain some blue clay lying above the ordinary red 
clay. Another trench cut 250 yards westwards, shewed 



that the Vallum there presented the same characteristics 
as those described. 

The features of the Vallum, as shewn by these sections, 
seem to be normal. The ditch agrees in shape with the 
ditch excavated in Northumberland at Heddon-on-the- 
Wall and Down Hill (Arch. Ad. xvi. p. xxvi.), though it is 
somewhat broader and deeper. We may now regard it as 
certain that the ditch of the Vallum was flat bottomed 
and not V shaped. The materials for the mounds of the 
Vallum appear, as at Heddon, to have come out of the 
ditch ; they are not, like the agger of the Antonine Wall 
in Scotland, composed of regularly laid sods. The origin 
of the blue clay ridges may be doubtful, but the similarity 
between the up cast on the north and south sides of the 
ditch shews, again in agreement with the Northumbrian 
results, that the whole of the earth works were constructed 
at once. Probably the blue clay came from a patch in the 
ditch ; we may then recognize in our three ridges the 
three mounds of the normal Vallum. The wedges of red 
clay between the old surface line and parts of the blue clay 
ridges find a parallel in the strata of the upcast at Heddon, 
where the fire clay from the bottom of the ditch was found 
partly below, partly above, the rest of the upcast. 

2. The space between Vallum and Wall. Immediately 
north of the Vallum a puzzling ditch was found. It was 
of rounded profile, two-and-a-half feet deep, and was filled 
with a yellowish grey clay like that in the Vallum ditch ; 
it was undoubtedly of later deposit than the red clay 
subsoil into which the ditch was sunk. At the bottom 
were two stones, one on each side of the ditch, and a 
piece of stick : a longitudinal trench and three parallel 
sections shewed similar features. The ditch does not 
appear to have been quite straight, but it was found in 
about the same position relative to the Vallum 250 yards 
west of the main section. It has a vague resemblance to 
the Grenxgrabchen found on the German Limes at Heftrich, 



(Limesblati 1894. 106^, but the stones are few and possibly 
local ; the ditch may have been made in the period before 
the Park was laid down to grass. For 50 feet north from 
this ditch the section shewed only an undisturbed subsoil 
of first blue, then red clay, 13 inches below the present 
surface. Then we found a road, 21 feet wide, of well 
rounded profile, constructed of large pebbles laid on the 
clay ; this road was traced at 250 yards to the west and 
is the modern road mentioned in the first paragraph. For 
85 feet the section again shewed only undisturbed subsoil, 
with a dark clay line on the top, the origin of which is 
not clear ; at the end of this was found the Roman road 
which ran behind the Wall. The road was very much 
ruined ; it was recognised in some parallel sections, but 
250 yards to the west no traces were found. It consisted 
of sandstone and clay, with large stones in the centre and 
at the kerbs, the centre being highest; the width was 
about 21 feet. Indications of small ditches were noticed 
on both sides. 

3. The Wall. The space between the road and the 
Wall, about 20 feet, shewed no trace of disturbance ; it 
was partly filled with a deposit of black decayed matter, 
perhaps from the ditch of the road. The Wall itself, 
though much ruined, shewed one interesting feature. 
Nine feet south from its front we found, 30 inches 
down, a rough platform nearly three feet wide. This 
reappeared in a section 250 yards to the west and in the 
sections near Lanercost and at Gilsland. The bedding of 
the Wall was seemingly composed of cobbles ; it was 
itself built of red sandstone with a little cement. In front 
the berm of the Wall was covered with debris, under 
which was a dark line above the undisturbed subsoil. 
The ditch w^s not excavated, owing to the water : the dip 
and rise of the red clay subsoil suggested that it was 
about 32 feet wide at the top. North of it the section was 
carried 47 feet to the fence, and shewed, 23 inches below 



the present surface, a dark blue line, 2 inches thick, resting 
on undisturbed red clay, with disturbed red and a little 
blue clay above. This resembled the line under the 
vallum, and suggests that, as on the Antonine Wall, the 
earth from the ditch was thrown up on the north side. 
A section north of the wall at Bleatam gave the same 


For about 2^ miles east of Brunstock, Wall and Vallum 
have almost wholly vanished before the plough. At 
White Moss near Wallhead Farm there is, however, a 
tract of moor which has hardly been touched except by 
peat and gravel diggers. The ground is peaty, with a 
subsoil of white sand, and, as at Brunstock, the strata of 
the sections are clear. The work was supervised by those 
who had helped at Brunstock, with the addition of the 
Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A. See Plate III. 

The surface shews four mounds for the Vallum, but 
one, if not both, of the two outer mounds may be accidental. 
The southernmost mound contained no traces of an old 
surface line or of disturbed earth ; the interval of 14 feet 
between it and the next mound revealed only surface peat 
lying on undisturbed sand. The second and third mounds 
were composed of mixed sand and peat lying on an 
original surface-line, 2 inch thick, of black peat, with the 
original sand below. In the second mound the disturbed 
soil contained a ridge of white sand, with peat heaped on 
its north side and the whole capped with sandy peat : in 
the third, the ridge was wedged up on both sides with 
peat. Between these mounds the old surface line stopped 
and the sandy subsoil gave place to greyish and black peat, 
the filling of a ditch. Water prevented us from finding 
the depth of this ditch : it went below the general surface 
level. Its width, hardly 15 feet, does not suit the normal 
>vidth of the Vallum ditch. North of the third mound 



<* r 


Of^yciiir r^'" "'^ 


IMtflMB •! TrMWh ... 

„ , ^ ^ ^ 1 Z 3 4- 5 10 


for 15 feet, was undisturbed ground and then the fourth 
mound, shewing a black h'ne, with mixed sand and peat 
above; and beneath it, in order, a thin layer of dark sand, 
a second black line and the whitish sand of the subsoil. 
The interval between the north side of the fourth mound 
and the Wall, 247 feet, was left partly untouched, owing 
to water: in the middle of it, no feet from each side, is 
the road, singularly well preserved. On either side is a 
V shaped ditch, on the south 15 inches deep by 18 inches 
wide at the top, on the north 2 feet deep by three feet 
wide. The road itself rests on a 4-inch layer of black 
peat, the original surface line, and consists of (i) a bedding 
of sandy clay, 6 or 7 inches thick and 27 feet wide, pro- 
bably a slight extension of the original width ; (2) a layer, 
10 inches thick and 22 feet wide, of flat stones and gravel, 
the latter being above the stones and forming the actual 
roadway, which is raised in the centre; (3) a double row 
of large stones in the centre, some 2 feet long, and a 
single row on each kerb, serving to keep the road together. 
See Plate IV. Parallel sections shewed the same features 
which seem to be characteristic of the road throughout its 
whole course, so far as one can judge from recorded 
observations. From the north ditch of the road an in- 
terval of no feet brought us to the Wall, which lies 
under the modern road from Wallhead to Bleatarn : the 
Wall, like the road, is constructed with the local red 

Beside these sections, trenches were dug in two fields, 
one to the west, the other forming an enclosure on the 
east of White Moss: both fields had been much ploughed 
and little could be ascertained. In the eastern field Mr. 
Calverley observed that the indications agreed with the 
Brunstock results. 

The sections of the road are the most satisfactory part 
of the White Moss excavations. The Vallum is puzzling : 
in the number and grouping of its mounds and the width 



of its ditch, it differs from the normal scheme of the 
Vallum. The same difference recurs at Bleatam (III. i.) 
and suggests that this normal scheme was not rigidly 
followed on difficult ground, such as a boggy moss. No 
certain trace was noted of any mile castle, though, if we 
may judge by the distance there was one somewhere 
between Bleatam and Wallhead (Bruce's Handbook p. 222). 
Near Wallhead, however, the Roman Road slopes away 
from the Wall, and this divergence would be quite intel- 
ligible if a mile castle stood near the present farmhouse. 
Mr. Calverley noted what he took to be faint traces of 
foundations a little eastwards, just where a modern road 
diverges north to Highiield moor. 


Bleatarn field lies immediately east of Whitemoss, from 
which it is divided by the Bishop's or Baron's Dyke* 
The field is pasture, in the lower western part boggy like 
Whitemoss, but rising eastwards as the red sandstone 
rock comes near the surface. The chief excavations here 
consisted of (i.) a trench near the Baron's Dyke from the 
south side of the Vallum to the Wall (see Plate V.) and 
(ii.) a deep cutting 285 feet from the Dyke on the rising 
ground. The supervision was the same as at Whitemoss; 
the eastern section, which produced some remarkable 
results, was mainly under the direction of Mr. Calverley. 

(i.) The first trench was 41 feet east of the Baron's 
Dyke and commenced south of the Vallum. As at White- 
moss, the present surface of the ground suggested four 
ridges in the Vallum, extending in all over 106 feet. The 
southermost ridge seemed plainly to contain made earth ; 
the section shewed the black line of the old surface; 
under it was undisturbed subsoil of grey sand and gravel, 

* Boundary between the Bishoo of Carlisle's Manor or Barony of Linstock and 
the Earl of Carlisle's Barony of uilsland. 



above the upcast of sand with a gravel capping from the 
subsoil in a ditch, the whole being 14 feet wide. North of 
this is a small depression filled with a layer, 12 inches 
deep and 9 feet long, of yellowish clay ; whether this was 
a ditch is doubtful. The depression is succeeded by the 
second ridge, resting on red sandstone bed rock about 3 
feet 6 inches below the present surface. This rock was 
traced for 16 feet ; on it lay mixed sand, clay and peat, 14 
inches deep, and above that was a black line resembling 
an original surface line ; the above ridge was made of 
mixed grey sand and grey clay. The ditch north of this 
ridge was more distinct than the other ditches, being filled 
With at least 3 feet of peat ; it was, however, hardly 7 feet 
across. The third mound was based on a black line 
shewing the original surface, which rested on peat on the 
south and yellow sand and gravel on the north ; above 
was light yellow sand from the subsoil, with a little gravel, 
flanked with clay. The third " ditch," 16 feet wide, con- 
sisted of modern peat lying on the subsoil of sand and 
gravel; it is simply a depression and not an ancient 
ditch. Beyond it came the fourth mound which closely 
resembled the first, being built of clayey sand with a 
gravel cap, on top of an old surface line ; this mound was 
not cut through. This practically completed the section ; 
we continued the excavation 250 feet to the Wall, here 
covered by the modern road, but without finding traces of 
the Roman road. The ridges of the Vallum in this section 
consist apparently of subsoil cast up out of ditches, but 
they differ from the normal scheme in number and in 
nearness ; in these points, as in other features, the ridges 
on Whitemoss and in the lower (western) part of Bleatarn 
field are very similar. 

(ii.) East of this trench the ground rises towards 
Bleatarn farm-house and hillock, and the Vallum alters 
with the rise. The four ridges coalesce into two larger 
mounds with a marked depression between ; at the top of 



the rise, where the ground has been ploughed, mounds 
and depression alike disappear. A section was cut by Mr. 
Calverley just below the top of the rise with remarkable 
but puzzling results. The trench, 100 feet long, reached 
from the edge of the southern mound to beyond the north 
side of the northern mound. In the southern mounil was 
discovered, 5 feet below the surface, the corner of a bed of 
red sandstone, the top being overlaid with mixed clays 
and sandstone i^iW^, and the whole coated with blue clay. 
This sandstone ended abruptly at the south edge of the 
depression but reappeared 13 feet further north. The de- 
pression itself contained a modern stone drain, 3 feet 6 
inches below the present surface, and below that 4 feet of 
black peat with large stones ; the peat seemed to be 
natural accumulation, the stones to be a rough foundation 
made for the drain. Below the peat was greyish clay and 
finally, 10 feet below the surface, a bed of light sand-water 
stopped further search. The north mound, which we 
could not fully examine, seems to consist of sandstone 
rubble mixed with blue clay, the whole resting on a bed of 
sandstone 45 feet broad ; on the two sides both rock and 
rubble are coated with blue clay. The rock has been cut 
in steps and bears marks of quarrying tools. North of the 
mound is a small depression, in which peat overlies light 
sand (as before) ; beyond is a low heap of rubble. It 
seems probable either that the sandstone rock has been 
cut away to suit the Vallum or that there has been a 
quarry on the spot. Mr. Calverley suggests that this 
quarry supplied the red sandstone of which the Wall was 
built in this district, and that, when stone enough had 
been extracted, the Vallum was carried across it. It is, 
however, not quite certain that the mounds above the 
quarried sandstone are those of the original Vallum, nor 
is it certain that the quarry (if quarry it be) is older than 
the supposed mounds of the Vallum, It is, therefore, 
better to withhold judgment till the spot has been fully 
examined, . The 





















• A small section, north of the Wall, shewed that the 
upcast from the ditch had beerf thrown out northwards. 


From Bleatarn to Chapel Field, the line of the Wall can 
be traced along lanes and hedgerows but there are no 
actual relics of it or of the Vallum. Traces of building 
have been noticed between Old Wall and Chapel Field 
and in Chapel Field, the former supposed to be traces of 
a mile castle, the latter of a turret. Both sites were 
examined, unfortunately with little result. 

(i). In December Mr. Hodgson trenched a field half- 
way from Old Wall to Chapel Field. Fragmentary 
foundations of rough concrete (large and small stones 
embedded in lime mortar, loose pieces of good stone and 
bits of pottery testified to occupation. But the foundations 
were undatable — except that one curved piece was differ- 
ently made from the rest. The pottery was certainly 
Romano-British. For plan see Plate VI. 

(ii). At Chapel Field the Wall makes a turn and a turret 
has been suspected. In July Mr. Calverley found large 
flag stones laid on clay, as it seemed, on the north side of 
the Wall. The character of these remains is uncertain ; 
Mr. Calverley thinks they belong to the Wall. 


Highfield is the next field eastwards from Chapel Field. 
Mr. Calverley trenched its eastern end, where Wall 
and Vallum seem to approach very closely and the sub- 
soil is such as to shew disturbance very clearly. The 
results, however, were disappointing. The foundations 
of the Wall and, 60]| feet south of its inner face, the south 
edge of the Roman Road (a) were traced : the traces of 
the Vallum were less clear. A ditch, 8 feet wide and 
at least 4 feet deep (b), was found to have been dug 44 



feet from the south edge of the Roman Road, and the 
upcast on each side corresponded to the strata of the 
subsoil, lying in inverse order on a thick bed of peat 
which might be an old surface line. South of this, the 
ground rises in a bank (c) lo feet higher than the average 
level of the ground, and the south mounds of the Vallum 
seem to have been placed on this bsCnk ; (fig. 2). 


Cragglehill and Harehill are the western and eastern 
ends of the high ground, about a mile in length, im- 
mediately north of Lanercost. The Wall crosses the top 
of this high ground : the Vallum runs lower down along 
the slope about 400 feet from the Wall, and shews at 
some points an admirably preserved profile of the normal 
type. The subsoil is, for the most part, red clay. The 
trenches were supervised by the present writer. 

The chief trench, 55 feet from the western hedge of the 
middle field on the hill side, ran from the north mound of 
the Vallum to the south face of the Wall. The mound 
shewed the usual section, upcast corresponding to the sub- 
soil below with the black line of original surface between. 
About 290 feet from the Vallum and 100 feet from the 
Wall were indications of the Roman Road about 21 feet 
wide, constructed as at Whitemoss. Close to the Wall 
was a flagstone pavement, as it seemed, 28 inches wide, 
like that suspected at Brunstock. Sections were also dug 
through the Vallum near Harehill, and north of it at 
several points : the results resembled those obtained 
elsewhere. vii. 

Plate VII. 



Wall and Vallum pass through the grounds of Gilsland 
Vicarage scarcely 100 feet apart. The Wall is admirably 
preserved ; of the Vallum the north mound, with traces 
of a berm, and the ditch run straight down the steep slope 
of a little hillock and are plain : the south mounds are 
fainter. The hillock, like others in the valley near 
Gilsland, is mainly rough sand and gravel and may have 
arisen from glacial action. The trenches cut here were 
supervised by the Rev. A. Wright, Vicar of Gilsland, Mr. 
F. G. Hilton Price, Director of the Society of Antiquaries, 
and the present writer. 

(i). One section was devoted to exposing the inner face 
of the Wall (fig. 3). Four courses of walling stone (in alb 
29 inches high), rest on four^" projecting layers, each about 

FIG. 3, 

9 inch thick : of the latter, the lowest but one, 23 inch 
wide, recalls the pavement noticed at Brunstock and 
Lanercost. See Plate VI L The thickness of the Wall, 
above the projecting layers, is 7 feet. 

(ii). Six sections of various lengths exposed the Vallum 

* The appermost of these layers may be a course of ordinary walling «tone 
slightly bulged out. 



and the ground between it and the Wall. The Roman 
road was not found ; some stones, large and small, noted 
in several sections were at first thought to indicate it, but 
they may be accidental, as stony debris from the Wall and 
subsoil was found here on the berm of the Vallum and 
elsewhere. Mr. Price thinks he saw indications of a road- 
way 32 feet from the Vallum ; it was 15 feet wide, edged 
with large stones and filled in with gravel and cobble, but 
this differs from the road found elsewhere. On the other 
hand a stone core or foundation was discovered in the 
mound of the Vallum, (i.) In the first section, at the top 
of the slope which the earth work here descends, the 
mound, 20 feet broad at its base, consists of mixed gravel 
and large stones on a bed of reddish clay ; one foot from 
its northern edge, Mr. Price found a sort of floor or plat- 
form, 6 feet by 5 feet, of flag stones about 3 inches thick, 
and lying on it, some well-dressed stones which might 
have come from the Wall. Plates VIII. and IX. (2) 
Twenty-three feet eastwards (i.e. down the slope) a more 
definite accumulation of large stones was found in the 
heart of the mound ; there was no platform, but a layer 
5 feet long of black matter — sand and sandstone frag- 
ments stained by peat vegetable decomposition, the sort of 
mixture (as Prof. A. H. Green tells me) which constitutes 
much moorland soil. Beyond this black matter was a 
second, smaller heap of stones. Plate X. (3) Trenches 
22 and 50 feet further east shewed heaps of large stones 
in the centre of the mound, corresponding to that in the 
second section. (4) A fifth section on marshy soil at the 
bottom of the slope, 137 feet east of the first trench, 
shewed seven large stones laid -so as to overlap, with clay 
bedding below. A final trench, 250 feet eastwards across 
swampy ground, shewed no trace of any stones. These 
stones are obviously not isolated heaps, nor do they seem 
to be (as has been suggested) moraine stones. It is 
possible that a core was used to strengthen the Vallum 








on the slope. There were no traces here, any more than 
elsewhere, of anything like the German "boundary-ditch." 


£ s. d. 
Labour, include board and tra- 
velling expenses of workmen. 36 16 3 
Compensation ... ... 800 

Surveyors ... ... ... 10 o o 

Miscellaneous, Printing, &c. ... 2 5 g 


This expenditure was defrayed partly by a grant frOm 
the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, 
and partly by subscriptions collected in Oxford. 




Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and 
archieological society. 


Greenwell, Rev. William, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., 

(Lon. and Scot.) Durham. 
Stephens, Professor George, F.S.A., Copenhagen. 
Evans, Sir J., K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., 

Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead. 
Maxwell, Sir Herbert E., Bart., M.P., Monreith, Wigton- 



I Addison, John, Castle Hill, Maryport 
Amison, Major, Beaumont, Penrith 
Bain, Sir James, 3, Park Terrace, Glasgow 
Balme, E. B. W., Loughrigg, Ambleside 
5 Barrow-in-Furness, the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of. 
The Abbey, Carlisle 
Braithwaite, Charles Lloyd, Kendal 
Burn, Richard, Orton Hall, Tebay 
Crosthwaite, J. F., F.S.A., The Bank, Keswick 
Cooper, Ven. Archdeacon, The Vicarage, Kendal 
10 Cropper, James, EUergreen, Kendal 

Ferguson, The Worshipful Chancellor, F.S.A. (Lon. and 

Scot.), Lowther Street, Carlisle 
Ferguson, Robert, F.S.A., (Lon. and Scot.), Morton, 

Ferguson, Charles J., F.S.A., Cardew Lodge, Carlisle. 
Gandy, J. G., Heaves, Kendal 



15 Hornby, E. G. S., Dalton Hall, Burton 
Johnson, G. J., Castlesteads, Brampton 
Pearson, F. Fen wick, Kirkby Lonsdale 
Sherwen, Rev. Canon, Dean, Cockermouth 
Wheatley, J. A., Portland Square, Carlisle 


20 I'Anson, T. F., M.D., 20, Irish Street, Whitehaven 
Knowles, Rev. Canon, The Priory, Saint Bees 


Brunskill, Rev. J., Ormside, Appleby 
Harvey, Rev. Prebendary, F.S.A., Navenby Rectory, 


Allison, R. A., M.P., Scaleby Hall, Carlisle 
25 Bower, Rev. R., St. Cuthbert's Vicarage, Carlisle 

Chapelhow, Rev. Joseph, Kirkbampton, Carlisle 

Crowder, W. L R., Stanwix, Carlisle 

Dobinson, Henry, Stanwix, Carlisle 

Lowther, Hon. W., Lowther Lodge, Kensington Gore, 
30 MacLaren, R., M.D., Portland Square, Carlisle 

Muncaster, Lord, Muncaster Castle, Ravenglass 

Nanson, William, Singapore 

Nicholson, J. Holme, M.A., Whitefield, Wilmslow, 

Steel, James, Eden Bank, Wetheral, Carlisle 
35 Steel, William, Chatsworth Square, Carlisle 

Whitehead, Rev. Henry, Lanercost, Carlisle 

Atkinson, Rev. G. W., Culgaith Vicarage, Penrith 
J Barnes, H., M.D., Portland Square, Carlisle 

Bellasis, Edward, Lancaster Herald, Coll. of Arms, 



40 Cartmell, Rev. J. W., Christ's College, Cambridge 
Cartmell, Studholme, 27, Lowther Street, Carlisle 
Cartmell, Joseph, C.E., Springfield, Brigham, Cocker- 
Clark, G. T., F,S.A., Tal y Gam, Pontyclown, Glamor- 
ganshire, R.S.O. 
Fell, John, Flan How, Ulverston 

45 The Earl of Carlisle, i. Palace Green, Kensington 
Loftie, Rev. A. G., Great Salkeld, Penrith 
Lonsdale, the Earl of, Lowther Castle, Penrith 
Prescott, Ven. Archdeacon, The Abbey, Carlisle 
Strickland, Rev. W. E., St. Paul's Vicarage, Carlisle 

50 Senhouse, Humphrey, Netherhall, Maryport 
Watson, Rev. S. W., Bootle, Carnforth 
Webster, John, Barony House, St. Bees 


Dickson, Arthur Benson, Abbots Reading, Ulverston 
Hetherington, J. Crosby, 32, Upper Park Road, Haver- 
stock Hill, London 

55 Maclnnes, Miles, M.P., Rickerby, Carlisle 
Simpson, Joseph, Romanway, Penrith 
Smith, Charles, F.G.S., c/o Dr. Gilbert, Harpenden, 

St. Albans 
Vaughan, Cedric, C.E., Leyfield House,